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States with the Copyright Clearance Center 222 Rosewood Drive Danvers MA 01923 Fax 1 978 750. 4470 email info copyright com or in other countries with associated Reproduction Rights Organizations may. make photocopies in accordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Sylvia Chant Carolyn Pedwell, Women gender and the informal economy An assessment of ILO research and suggested ways forward Sylvia. Chant Carolyn Pedwell International Labour Office Geneva ILO 2008. ISBN 9789221206088 9789221206095 web pdf,International Labour Office. Informal economy women workers gender roles informal employment research programme research needs. role of ILO, Also available in French Femmes galit entre les sexes et conomie informelle evaluation des recherches. men es par l OIT et propositions concernant la marche suivre Geneva 2008 and in Spanish Las mujeres el. g nero y la econom a informal evaluaci n de los estudios de la OIT y orientaciones sobre el trabajo futuro. 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This discussion paper provides an overview of ILO research on women gender and. the informal economy which was undertaken during the last two decades It examines. methodological and analytical frameworks used in various studies identifies research gaps. and proposes directions for future work It ultimately aims to enhance ILO s work in. developing consistent coherent and coordinated policy advice to constituents across the. four pillars of the ILO Decent Work Agenda standards and fundamental principles and. rights at work employment social protection and social dialogue. This discussion paper is an outcome of two converging initiatives Firstly in order to. assess the work accomplished by the ILO on Decent Work and women specific and gender. equality topics an initial mapping exercise on existing research conducted by. Headquarters and field offices was undertaken in 2007 The first findings from this. mapping exercise were presented at the Workshop Gender Equality and Decent Work. Towards a Comprehensive Research Strategy in May 2007 1 A direct outcome of the. Workshop was the conclusion that a substantive review and analysis of ILO researches on. women gender and the informal economy was necessary. Secondly this discussion paper is one of the outputs of the In Focus Initiative on the. informal economy which was launched by the Director General to give further effect to the. 2002 International Labour Conference s Resolution and conclusions concerning decent. work and the Informal Economy 2 In this context the In Focus Initiative had recently held. the Interregional Symposium on the Informal economy Enabling the Transition to. Formality in Geneva 27 29 November 2007 3 This Symposium provided a tripartite. forum for in depth discussion and exchange of experience on recent trends policy. responses and practical strategies that are being developed in key areas across the Decent. Work Agenda that enable transition to formalization In preparation for this Interregional. Symposium it was decided to provide specific focus on the gender dimension for the. informal economy both in the background document as well in the symposium. deliberations, This discussion paper is a follow up to the conclusions of both the abovementioned. gender research Workshop in May and the Symposium in November of 2007 Both. initiatives had identified the challenge of developing and implementing research policy. and practical initiatives which combine employment creation social protection rights at. work and representation in ways that ensure gender equality and enable empowerment of. workers in the informal economy Therefore this discussion paper comes as a step towards. assessing the particular gaps in ILO research on women gender and the informal economy. and identifying key areas in need of future prioritization. The initial mapping exercise and the subsequent Workshop were both conducted by the Bureau. for Gender Equality together with the Programme for the Promotion of the Declaration and the. Policy Integration Department, ILO Report of the Committee on the Informal Economy resolution and conclusions concerning. decent work and the informal economy adopted on 19 June 2002 ILC 90th Session Geneva 2002. http www ilo org public english standards relm ilc ilc90 pdf pr 25 pdf. See http www ilo org public english employment policy events informal index htm. DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc iii, The discussion paper has been commissioned by the Bureau for Gender Equality the. Employment Policy Department and the Policy Coherence Group of the Policy Integration. Department We purposely chose an external review for this non exhaustive body of ILO. work to be conducted by respected gender academics and researchers We wish to express. our appreciation to the authors Drs Silvia Chant and Carolyn Pedwell of the London. School of Economics for their extensive literature review and the preparation of this. critical stock taking They analysed material covering years of research obtained through. the initial mapping exercise and the ILO resource database on the informal economy The. paper was prepared under the guidance of Susan Maybud GENDER Mary Kawar. EMP POLICY and Amelita King Dejardin INTEGRATION to whom we also extend. our thanks, It is important to note that a separate review has already been commissioned on. research concerning domestic workers therefore the topic has not been covered at length. in this paper Recently emerging research on the linkages between gender unpaid work. and paid work will need to be considered in future reviews. We hope that this working paper will contribute to an understanding of the selected. ILO work on women gender and the informal economy and draw out the knowledge base. that has been collectively generated,Evy Messell Azita BerarAwad Rolph van der Hoeven. GENDER EMPLOYMENT POLICY PCG INTEGRATION,iv DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc. Preface iii,Introduction 1, Overview of ILO s work on gender and the informal economy 3. Analytical approaches and issues 7,Methodological approaches and issues 9. Review and assessment of literature by theme 12, Growth strategies productivity and quality employment generation 12. Overview and key findings 12, Research gaps implications and future directions 14. Regulatory environment including promotion of international labour. standards and core rights 14,Overview and key findings 14. Research gaps implications and future directions 15. Entrepreneurship skills microfinance and market access 16. Entrepreneurship 16,Skills development and training 18. Microfinance 20,Market access 21,Extension of social security and protection 22. Organization representation and social dialogue 24. Area based local development rural and urban 27,Overview and key findings 27. Research gaps implications and future directions 27. Institutional and practical issues 28,Synthesis 28. Recommendations 29,Reproductive productive paid or unpaid work 30. Globalization and the informal economy 30,Rights and regulatory frameworks 30. Improving access to social security 31, Productivity enhancement through better capabilities and access to resources 31. Entrepreneurship development 31, Organization representation and social dialogue 32. Bibliography 35,ILO documents 35,External documents 50. DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc v,Introduction. Informal work has not only persisted on an international scale since the 1970s but has. also expanded and appeared in new guises in the context of globalization neo liberalism. and cross border and rural urban migration all of which are highly gendered processes. Bach 2003 Carr and Chen 2002 Chant and McIlwaine 1995 Chen et al 2004 ILO. 2002b 2007a Valenzuela 2005 While more women now participate in paid employment. than at any other time in history labour markets across all geographical regions are sex. segregated with women concentrated in lower quality irregular and informal. employment Heintz 2006 1 see also Abramo 2003 El Solh 2003 Fern ndez. Pacheco 2003a b Silveira and Matosas 2003 Valenzuela 2005 Xaba et al 2002 As. increasing global integration and competition has fuelled a race to the bottom in which. multinational corporations may relocate numerous times in search of increasingly cheaper. labour see for example Chan 2003 Jauch 2002 women in the informal economy find. that they are the weakest links in global value chains Poor women workers of the Global. South as well as female migrant workers in a range of international contexts generally. fare worst of all Carr and Chen 2002 11 see also Chakravarty et al 2006 Kaplinsky. 2000 Mehrotra and Biggeri 2002 Perrons 2004 2005 Rossignotti 2006. Women remain concentrated in invisible areas of informal work such as domestic. labour piece rate homework and assistance in small family enterprises which offer. precarious employment status low irregular or no remuneration little or no access to. social security or protection and limited ability to organize to ensure the enforcement of. international labour standards and human rights Abramo and Valenzuela 2006 Carr and. Chen 2002 Fern ndez Pacheco 2003a b Reinecke et al 2006 Vega Gramunt 2004. Poor women employed in the informal economy also face a number of serious health and. safety risks including dangerous working conditions gendered violence and increased. susceptibility to HIV AIDS Ambert et al 2007 Chant and McIlwaine 1995 Nelson. 1997 They must also often contend with deficient infrastructure and a range of time and. space constraints on their productivity Lund and Srinivas 2000 see also Chant 1996. 2007c Kantor 2002 Lessinger 1990 Lopez Estrada 2002 Miraftab 1996 Vera Sanso. 1995 2006b Gendered earning differentials in the informal economy mirror and in many. cases surpass those in the formal sector Abramo and Valenzuela 2006 Fern ndez. Pacheco 2003b Silveira and Matosas 2003 due to both vertical and horizontal. segregation in employment and continuing gendered inequalities associated with women s. unpaid reproductive work Lund and Srinivas 2000 see also Boulde 2006 Chant 2006. 2007a c Gates 2002 Perrons 2005 In this context the complex relationships between. informality gendered relations of power and poverty require careful analysis. This discussion paper provides a review and analysis of the International Labour. Office s ILO research on women gender and the informal economy In particular it. compares and contrasts analytical and methodological frameworks used in various studies. identifies research gaps and directions for future research and pulls out key findings that. may assist concerned ILO units in taking action and formulating policy directions The. report has been commissioned by the ILO s GENDER DECLARATION and. INTEGRATION departments as a follow up document for the ILO Tripartite Symposium. on the Informal Economy held in Geneva in November 2007 Both the paper and the. symposium are linked to ILO s Decent Work Agenda and the promotion of International. Labour Standards including the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at. Work 1998 and the United Nations Economic and Social Council ECOSOC Ministerial. Declaration on Decent Work 2006, While drawing on wider academic and policy sources to theoretically and empirically. ground and exemplify key analytical and methodological issues pertinent to women. DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc 1, gender and the informal economy the bulk of paper has been prepared on the basis of a. review of ILO research and policy documents in both English and Spanish as well as a. select number of informal interviews with key officials conducted at ILO headquarters in. Geneva in September 2007 1 An indicative assessment of ILO research on gender and. informal economy is provided here However it is hoped this report will serve as the basis. for more comprehensive and in depth analysis of and action on gendered dimensions of. informality in the future, The focus is on the relationships between gender and informal work in the Global. South making links to industrialized and transition countries where possible and. pertinent In line with current ILO orthodoxy the term informal economy rather than. informal sector is used to indicate the need to include both own account workers and. wage workers in discussion and analysis of informal work This term also signals how. informal work cross cuts a range of sectors and areas of work and frequently overlaps. with work within the formal economy Indeed informal and formal work should not be. understood as dichotomous but rather as intimately linked Furthermore it should be. acknowledged that given that formal wage labour has never been relevant to more than 50. per cent of the population in many parts of the Global South the categories of formal. and informal may not always be the most relevant or useful categories of analysis. Vaillancourt Laflamme 2005 26, Gender is within this paper understood as a relational concept which is. constituted differently across various social cultural and geo political contexts in and. through its interaction with other axes of social differentiation including race ethnicity. sexuality class religion age and ability among other variables While the analysis focuses. mainly on how informality affects poor women in a range of international contexts a. critical gender analysis necessitates paying attention to gendered relations of power which. position and affect different groups of women and men in different ways Strategies for. achieving gender justice with respect to informality must thus address the pervasive. gendered constructs roles and power relations which structure the wider social context in. which different forms of work arise ibid, The paper begins with an overview of the ILO s work on gender and the informal. economy linking it to its wider Decent Work Agenda It then considers certain analytical. and methodological approaches employed in ILO studies assessing their overarching. strengths and limitations The remainder of the report is dedicated to a more detailed. review and assessment of ILO studies across a range of themes linked to the ILO s key. areas of research and technical cooperation With respect to each theme a brief overview. of the existing literature is provided point up key findings and offer analysis of main. research gaps and potential avenues for future research policy and action Afterwards. some institutional and practical issues relating to the ways in which research is. commissioned produced and shared within the ILO were considered The report concludes. by providing a synthesis of the review and key recommendations for future analysis. knowledge generation and information sharing, Informal interviews were conducted with Susan Maybud Senior Coordinator Gender Bureau. Amy King Dejardin Gender Coordinator Policy Integration Mary Kawar Gender Coordinator. Employment Simel Esim Gender and Women s Workers Specialist Regional Office for Arab. States Evy Messell Director Gender Bureau Wouter van Ginneken retired ILO social security. specialist Caroline O Reilly Senior Specialist Special Action Programme to Combat Forced. Labour Manuela Tomei Chief Conditions of Work and Employment Programme Social. Protection Sector and Josiane Capt Senior Specialist on the Informal Economy Skills and. Employability Department,2 DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc. Overview of ILO s work on gender,and the informal economy. The ILO s research and technical cooperation with respect to the informal economy is. guided by its holistic agenda to promote decent work in all geographic and economic. areas and sectors With this framework decent work is understood to be constituted by. four key pillars employment opportunities rights protection and voice ILO 2002a b. ILO 2007a The ILO InFocus Initiative on the informal economy seeks to develop an. integrated policy approach to promoting these inter linked aspects of decent work. To promote decent work there needs to be a comprehensive and integrated strategy. cutting across a range of policy areas that eliminates the negative aspects of informality while. preserving the significant job creation and income generation potential of the informal. economy and that promotes the protection and incorporation of workers and economic units. in the informal economy into the mainstream economy ILO 2007a 1. Work within the economy as a whole is conceived as being dispersed along an. informal formal continuum in which greater degrees of formality tend to indicate more. effective regulation and greater access to rights social protection and collective bargaining. power The ILO s overarching objective is thus to shift greater numbers of workers. towards the formal end of the continuum ILO 2002b Lund and Srinivas 2000 11. develop this conceptual framework portraying the informal formal continuum as a cable. containing different stands which each strand being a sector such as textiles services. construction see also Centeno and Portes 2006 Chen et al 2004 Grown and Sebstad. 1989 Moser 1978 1984 This conceptualization allows commodity chains and the. chains of ownership and supply and distribution as well as the links between them to. come clearly in view Lund and Srinivas 2000 11 From a gender perspective the. current challenge is to develop and implement research policy and practical initiatives. which combine employment creation and social protection with rights at work and. representation in ways that ensure gender equality and enable empowerment for workers. situated as far down and in as many sectors of the continuum as possible ILO 2007 17. In 2007 the ILO s Bureau for Gender Equality together with the Programme for the. Promotion of the Declaration and the Policy Integration Department conducted a joint. research mapping exercise which identified 31 ILO texts focussing specifically on gender. issues in the informal economy The relationships between informality and gender are also. addressed in a range of other ILO publications focusing on gender concerns many of. which have been reviewed in preparation for this report On the whole the research. conducted by the ILO with relevance to women gender and informal work is relatively. comprehensive and thorough Studies are adding analytical flesh to the bare bones of. official statistics and are helping to illuminate trends in the labour market for example the. balance and interrelationships between formal and informal work conditions in respect of. social protection the challenges of creating decent work across economic areas and. sectors women s and men s employment and the intersections of these phenomena with. demographic and social change and with processes of national development regional. integration and globalization There is a reasonable amount of discussion in the ILO. literature which draws attention to the diversity of the informal economy highlighting. women s often disadvantaged position within it These analyses relate to the type of. informal occupations women do such as domestic service self employed own account. work and unpaid work within small enterprises or the home In the context of Latin. America it is possible to discern a number of trends which are not merely confined to this. region see box 1,DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc 3. Key findings from ILO studies on trends in gender,work and the informal economy in Latin America. 1 Rates of labour force participation among Latin American women have increased post 1990 at a greater. rate than men s although women still token represent less than half the labour force overall have higher. levels of unemployment have experienced little change in their occupational structure and are. disproportionately represented in the informal economy see Abramo 2003 19 Ch vez O Brien 2003. Cort s 2003 Escobar de Pab n 2003 Farah 2003 Fern ndez Pacheco 2003a b e and d 2003. Gonz lez et al 2006 Silveira and Matosas 2003 Todaro et al 2000 Valenzuela 2000a 2005. Valenzuela and Reinecke 2000 This is significant in light of the exceptional rate of growth in informal. work between 1990 and 2001 69 per cent of new jobs in Latin America 2 in every 3 were informal. Silveira and Matosas 2003 234, 2 Both demand and supply factors are critical in increasing women s labour force participation Demand. links to the tertiarisation of many Latin American economies e g Ch vez O Brien 2003 on Peru Cort s. 2003 on Argentina Escobar de Pab n 2003 and Farah 2003 on Bolivia Todaro et al 2000 on Chile. Silveira and Matosas 2003 236 on Latin America in general Supply links to increasing pressures on. households to increase occupational density multiple earning strategies e g Ch vez O Brien on Peru. This in turn relates to the adverse effects on lower income households of neo liberal economic. restructuring and to demographic and social changes in the continent such as rising rates of non. marriage separation and divorce and female household headship Batthy ny 2004 Ch vez O Brien. 2003 Mauro 2005 Abramo 2003 20 for example notes that 30 per cent of households in Latin. America are now headed by women who are usually the principal breadwinners and in 25 per cent of. two parent households women contribute 50 per cent or more of household income. 3 Notwithstanding the limitations and reliability of data in 2003 an estimated 50 1 per cent of women non. agricultural workers in Latin America were in the informal sector compared with only 44 1 per cent of their. male counterparts Abramo and Valenzuela 2006 44 5 Women informal workers also tend to be. clustered towards the lower end of the informal occupational spectrum as own account workers piece. rate subcontracted labour domestic servants and unpaid family workers ibid see also Fern ndez. Pacheco 2003a b Reinecke et al 2006 Vega Gramunt 2004 This helps to explain inter alia why in. Central America with exception of El Salvador gender pay gaps are larger in informal than in formal. sector Fern ndez Pacheco 2006 155 6 In Latin America as a whole women earn on average 64 per. cent of men s wages in the formal sector and only 52 per cent in informal sector Silveira and Matosas. 4 Despite general increase in informality in Latin American region the gap in women s and men s. representation in informal work is diminishing partly due to the greater informalization of men s work. Abramo and Valenzuela 2005 2006 There is also evidence of diminishing gender gaps in pay e g. Escobar de Pab n 2003 on Bolivia Gallart 2006 Valenzuela 2005 on Latin America generally This. said female informal workers earn only 44 per cent of their counterparts in the formal sector whereas. male informal workers earn 65 per cent of their male counterparts revealing women s low position in the. informal economic hierarchy and fewer hours in work Abramo and Valenzuela 2006 54 see also. Fern ndez Pacheco 2003b 230 Silveira and Matosas 2003. 5 Women s labour market disadvantage extends beyond pay to all aspects of employment for example. under and un employment isolation and labour instability and precariousness see Fern ndez Pacheco. 2003a b Silveira and Matosas 2003 Vega Gramunt 2004 This also includes social protection for. example only 23 per cent of domestic servants in region make social security payments Abramo and. Valenzuela 2006 57 and overall only 28 per cent of informal workers male and female are. contributing to social security schemes Silveira and Matosas 2003 238 Women are also less protected. by pensions in old age than men largely due to their shorter and more interrupted working lives lower. pay and disproportionate involvement in the informal economy Bertranou 2006 see also Chant with. Craske 2003 Chapter 8 By same token gender gaps in social benefits began narrowing in the 1990s. Abramo and Valenzuela 2006 56 Despite these trends women s persistent disadvantage in the labour. market coupled with their dual burden of reproductive work plays a major role in accounting for. disproportionate levels of income poverty and or vulnerability among female headed households. Abramo 2003 20 also Selam 2004 Valenzuela 2003a b Silveira and Matosas 2003 238 point up. that households headed by one adult 80 per cent of which correspond with women are more vulnerable. than two parent households, 6 More women are likely to work from home than men which can reinforce the invisibilization and. marginalization of female work Bruschini with Lombarda 2000 189 Reinecke et al 2006 38 This also. means fewer prospects for women of shedding their traditional responsibilities of unpaid domestic labour. and care work and limits the scope of collective organising around remunerated activities. 4 DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc, A substantial range of relevant themes and concerns associated with gender and. informality are addressed within ILO studies These include. globalization and macroeconomic policy Bareiro 2004 Berger 2003 Carr and. Chen 2002 2004 Chen et al 2004 Heintz 2006, poverty and employment and working conditions El Solh 2003 Fern ndez Pacheco. 2003a b ILO 2004b c Marinakis 2003 Musiolek 2002 Rinehart 2004 Silveira. and Matosas 2003 Vega Gramunt 2004 Xaba et al 2002. regulatory environment labour standards and rights Destremau with Abi Yaghi. 2007 ILO 2002b 2007 Schlyter 2002, social security and protection Destremau with Abi Yaghi 2007 Abramo and. Valenzuela 2006 ILO 2003a d Lund and Srinivas 2000 Silveira and Matosas. entrepreneurship and access to finance and markets Aliber 2002 Carr and Chen. skills and training Chaturvedi 2005 FORMUJER Programme 2006 Haan 2007. Kusakabe et al 2004 Liimatainen 2002 Mitra 2002 Murray 2006 Silveira 2005. Silveira and Matosas 2003 Singh 2005 Suriyasarn and Resurreccion 2003. work and family Hein 2005 see also Conditions of Employment and Work series on. reconciling work and family and, migration and trafficking ILO 2005c see also GENPROM series on Women and. Within these thematic areas the ILO has produced some important and leading edge. research on under studied topics Among the most significant and timely are. the possibilities for promoting social protection in the informal economy using a. rights based approach Destremau 2007 Destremau with Abi Yaghi 2007 ILO. the gendered dimensions of global commodity chains Carr and Chen 2002. gender differences in labour costs Abramo et al eds 2005 Abramo and Todaro. eds 2002 Espino and Salvador 2002 Todaro 2002b,gender and employment legislation Madden 2004. gender informality and employment adjustment Galli and Kucera 2007. the quality of women s work Aguirre and Espino 2000 Bruschini with Lombarda. 2000 Cort s 2000 Heikel 2000 Lund and Srinivas 2000. gendered aspects of pensions Bertranou 2006, gender unpaid work and access to paid work Cassirer and Addati 2007. rural workers Heikel 2000 2004, girl children as unpaid and paid domestic workers Carcedo 2004 Sagot 2004. Sandoval and Pernudi 2004 Soto 2004,DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc 5. gender dimensions of the supply and demand aspects of sex work Lin 98 IPEC. 2005 Salas and Campos and, strategies to develop the extension of trade union activities to informal economy. workers ILO Ghana Trades Union Congress 2008, Through this research and analysis the ILO is also making notable inroads in. assessing gender work and the informal economy in relation to major national and. international policy initiatives such as poverty reduction strategies and the Millennium. Development Goals MDGs Bareiro 2004 Berger ed 2003 Carr and Chen 2002. 2004 Chen et al 2002 Feres 2005 Heintz 2006 Henr quez and Reca 2005. It should be noted however that while a significant proportion of ILO studies address. gender and informality with respect to macroeconomic policy employment. entrepreneurship skills and market access there is much less work dealing specifically. with the gendered dimensions of social protection and voice in the informal economy. Furthermore analysis of these various thematic areas is not distributed evenly across key. geographical regions For example although there are studies which address issues of. gender employment and poverty in Africa ILO 2004b c Xaba et al 2002 little. research examines issues associated with skills and training in this region Yet when. looking at South Asia we see the reverse scenario some studies address issues of training. and skill formation Chaturvedi 2005 Mitra 2002 but few focus directly on employment. and poverty issues, Only in Latin America is there coverage of all issues to a greater or lesser degree. notably studies examining skills and training see for example FORMUJER 2006. Silveira and Matosas 2003 studies addressing the links between gender poverty and. employment particularly those produced under the auspices of the Gender Poverty and. Employment series supported by the Dutch government see for example Berger ed. 2003 Fern ndez Pacheco ed 2003 Riquelme and Valenzuela eds 2005 Selam 2004. Valenzuela ed 2004 Valenzuela and Rangel eds 2004 and studies which address. issues of organization representation and voice Abramo and Rangel 2005 Chiappe. 2005 Chiappe ed 2005 Rodr guez 2006 Vaillancourt Laflamme 2005 It should be. noted however that within the Arab region a joint initiative of the ILO region for Arab. States ROAS and the Center for Arab Women in Training and Research CAWTAR. Gender Equality and Workers Rights in the Informal Economy States is developing and. implementing a productive approach to addressing rights employment social protection. and training as cross cutting and mutually reinforcing areas within the informal economy. ILO 2007c d see also Charmes 2007 Destremau 2007 Destremau with Abi Yaghi. 2007 Yet on the whole reducing regional and thematic disparities in future research will. be indispensable to ILO s quest to promote decent work and gender equality via a. comprehensive and integrated strategy cutting across a range of policy areas ILO. As will be discussed in the following sections future ILO research on gender and. informality might seek to address some key analytical concerns namely the need to. consistently apply a critical perspective which examines gendered relations of power to. develop and apply a more intersectional approach to gender oriented research which. analyses the ways in which gender is re produced through its interaction with a range of. other axes of social differentiation such as race ethnicity class sexuality age religion. and ability and the need to deal more consistently with women s reproductive. responsibilities and unpaid care work within the socio economic analysis of informality. From a methodological perspective ILO studies should also be looking to address root. causes with respect to gender inequalities and cleavages in the informal economy With. respect to research gaps and avenues for future analysis the following topics are identified. as critical but to date have received relatively little coverage in existing ILO studies. 6 DEPTS External 2008 02 0341 1 En doc, information and communication technology ICT age and life course including women s. employment trajectories gender land and property as integral to home based work. including the problematization of home as the locus of many women s income. generating ventures gendered dimensions of organization representation and voice. gendered violence in employment gendered norms and cultural representations and. gender agency and choice in informal work including the impacts of increased labour. force participation on women s well being self esteem power and autonomy. Furthermore the relevance and accessibility of ILO studies to those working on. issues of informality on the ground should be addressed With a few notable exceptions. including the training materials produced by FORMUJER see FORMUJER 2006 nd and. IPEC 2005 many ILO studies are not particularly accessible to non specialists or user. friendly even to labour experts Furthermore while providing an incisive analysis of the. characteristics and achievements of FORMUJER a nominally comprehensive study by. Silveira and Matosas 2003 does not go into any detail on how low income women the. ultimate beneficiaries of this project in its different national guises actually benefited for. example the numbers of women trained and whether through constructing an. occupational project proyecto ocupacional they were actually able to improve their. incomes diversify their income generating ventures become more pro active in. entrepreneurship and so on Moreover despite consistent reference in this document to the. desirability of participation and feedback there appears to have been no consultation of. women at the grassroots and there are no concrete examples of outcomes for individual. women including members of cooperative enterprises Although it is important to know. why the FORMUJER initiative has come about in the context of growing informality in. Latin American economies and persistently high unemployment especially among. women much more of the report could have been dedicated to identifying project. outcomes with detailed national examples including the voices of women Many of the. issues identified above are now discussed in further depth in the sections which follow. Analytical approaches and issues, The analytical frameworks used in the majority of the works reviewed are not actually. specified although it is clear that a holistic gender perspective is deployed which covers. the interrelations between gender in equality in the family and the workplace and which. takes into account the influences of prevailing economic and demographic trends poverty. and state and international interventions In some cases authors make reference to the. wider academic and historical literature and debates on a given topic that adds analytical. weight and sophistication For example Abramo and Todaro 2002 discuss the theoretical. background to debates around labour costs and childcare with reference to the work of. Keynes and Folbre Anderson 2004 frames her discussion of gender poverty and race. in Latin America within the broader literature on race and gendered identities Batthy ny. 2004 sets her discussion on childcare and women s work in Uruguay in the context of. literature on social welfare regimes by Hochschild and Pfau Effinger and Berger 2003. analyses gender and poverty linkages with reference to work of Kabeer 2003 on. mainstreaming gender and poverty in the MDGs, This aside two key analytical issues emerged from our review of the literature The. first relates to the need to consistently apply a critical perspective which focuses on the. operation and effects of gendered relations of power with respect to informality in. particular contexts Such a perspective is often used in texts which take gendered. dimensions of informality as an exclusive concern e g Carr and Chen 2002 Carr and. Chen 2004 Chen et al 2002 El Solh 2003 Heintz 2006 Valenzuela 2005 However. in broader ILO texts which address gender issues as one of a number of concerns. differences and inequalities between men and women are often simply noted rather than. examined and interrogated within the particular configurations of power in which they.
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