Wigig And Ieee 802 11ad For Multi Gigabyte Per Second Wpan-Books Pdf

WiGig and IEEE 802 11ad For Multi Gigabyte Per Second WPAN
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Figure 1 Spectrum allocation for WiGig , 60 GHz millimeter wave technologies create significant problems in designing the radio. frequency RF front end processing gigabit per second data and migrating to 40 nm and 28. nm low power technologies in designing the silicon considerable progress have been made in. making it practical and feasible 4 6 60 GHz millimeter wave systems are needed to cater for. newer applications such as streaming video in the home or office that have flourished as a. result of last mile access provided by internet service providers ISPs Such systems will also. eliminate the need for cables around docking stations and this will reduce clutter and allow. easier connection between devices There are multiple industry organizations involved in 60. GHz standardization the notable ones being Wireless HD 7 IEEE 802 15 3c 8 WiGig 9 and. IEEE 802 11ad 10 The last two of these organizations involve a large number of silicon OEM . and telecom companies that are motivated to have a single worldwide 60 GHz standard . WiGig began standardization in 2008 and has recently released the WiGig 1 0 standard IEEE. 802 11ad also began standardization in 2008 and has recently released IEEE 802 11ad Draft 9 0. standard These standards are similar and in this paper we will refer to 802 11ad as the. representative of both standards pointing out when there is a feature that is unique to the. WiGig standard Similar standardization efforts have been made by ECMA 387 and CMMW. Study Group 2 3 60 GHz millimeter wave is the next wireless networking technology and. will appear in the market around 2014 11 It is poised to repeat the successes of Bluetooth. and Wi Fi 12 This explosive growth of the wireless industry in such a short time can also be. attributed to the opening of unlicensed bands in 60 GHz by the Federal Communications. Commission FCC , 802 11ad aims to develop the protocol adaptation layers PALs to support a plethora of. applications that will arise from the elimination of cables and from fast wireless sync and. transfer The PALs being considered by WiGig include wireless serial extension WSE which. eliminates USB 3 0 cables wireless bus extension WBE which eliminates PCIe 3 0 cables . wireless display extension WDE which eliminates high definition multimedia interface HDMI . and display port cables and wireless secure digital WSD which makes secure digital. input output card SDIO disks wireless The first important 60 GHz millimeter wave application. to enter the market as wireless docking based on PCIe 3 0 with one second generation lane. also called x2 or USB 3 0 All devices with 802 11ad MAC PHY Radio use the corresponding. PALs between the application and MAC layers to seamlessly transfer information between. devices as if the devices were connected by wires Another 60 GHz application is wireless HDMI. based on WDE which allows transfer of uncompressed bits from devices such as set top boxes. and blue ray disc players to television screens and from laptops desktops or ultrabooks to. monitors via a display port cable replacement The WDE also supports H264 compressed rates. for handling variations in the wireless channel and to ensure seamless content delivery to the. end users Performance of the PHY and MAC protocols is analyzed in 13 and 14 . In this paper we describe the novel features of the MAC and PHY sublayers of the protocol. stack defined in 802 11ad In section 2 we describe the TDMA protocol and the need for. directionality in 60 GHz In section 3 we outline the 802 11ad PHY layer and in section 4 we. outline the MAC layer In section 5 we outline the beamforming protocol and in section 6 we. outline the power saving protocol In section 7 we describe the fast session transfer and in. section 8 we show achievable rates using different MAC and PHY layer packet transmission. options Section 9 concludes the paper , 2 TDMA Protocol and the Need for Directionality. Interest in the 30 300 MHz millimeter wave spectrum has increased significantly because of. low cost high performance CMOS technology and because of low loss low cost organic. packaging A millimeter wave radio can be empowered for the same cost as a radio operating in. the 5 GHz band or lower This advantage combined with wide available bandwidth makes the. millimeter wave spectrum more attractive than ever before for supporting new systems and. applications A millimeter wave signal can propagate over a few kilometers at lower frequencies . penetrating through different construction materials and deriving advantages from reflection. and refraction however they are highly directional and can be sustained only over short. distances The reason for this directionality is explained by the Friis free space equation . 2 2, PR PT GTGR 4 R 1 , where PR PT GT GR and R is the receive power transmit power transmit antenna gain . receive antenna gain wavelength and distance between the transmitter and receiver . respectively There is a 22 dB loss when we move from 5 GHz to 60 GHz This loss is due to. lower wavelength and can be offset by using directional antennas with higher gains If 2 GHz. bandwidth was used in 60 GHz and PT 10 dBm the noise figure Nf 10 dB and the shadow. fading margin 6 dB 1 Gbit s throughput could not be achieved Fig 2 Therefore the gains. of directional antennas must be exploited to achieve higher rates . Figure 2 Shannon capacity versus transmit power at 60 Hz 1 . Directional communication requires complex discovery and beamforming protocols to establish. links between different devices Scheduled protocols such as TDMA are needed at the MAC. layer to guarantee QoS at multi gigabit per second rates Randomized access protocols such as. CSMA come with a random overhead that can depend on the number of users contending for. the channel Although CSMA CA is still used to handle bursty traffic allocation of. contention based access periods CBAPs is based on TDMA . 3 Physical Layer, 802 11ad defines four different PHY layers Control PHY SC PHY OFDM PHY and low power.
SC PHY LPSC PHY Control PHY is MCS 0 SC starts at MCS 1 and ends at MCS 12 OFDM PHY. starts at MCS 13 and ends at MCS 24 and LPSC starts at MCS 25 and ends at MCS 31 MCS 0. to MCS 4 are mandatory PHY MCSs Here we brie y describe the different PHYs and their. packet structures The system clock rate is 2640 MHz and this rate is used for OFDM also . Control SC and LPSC PHYs have a clock rate of 2 3 2640 1760 MHz . 3 1 General Packet Structure, As is common with all 802 11 packet formats the packet consists of a short training sequence a. channel estimation sequence the physical layer convergence procedure PLCP header MAC. packet and cyclic redundancy check CRC Although there are different PHYs they all have this. unique structure which ensures implementers do not need to change packet formats when. using different PHYs The only difference is that each PHY is a different size and uses a different. Golay code , Figure 3 IEEE 802 11ad packet structure . The short training field STF and channel estimation field CEF help signal acquisition . automatic gain control training predicting the characteristics of the channel for the decoder . frequency offset estimation and synchronization Both STF and CEF sequences use Golay codes . The PLCP header indicates the size of the packet as well as the modulation structure MCS of. the packet The MAC packet comprises MAC header and data and contains information about. the destination CRC ensures that the packet is not corrupted while being transmitted through. the air 802 11ad has a TRN field comprising Golay codes This field is used in beam tracking and. refinement and is described in section 5 Fig 3 shows a typical packet in 802 11ad . 3 2 Control PHY, The control PHY MCS 0 is the minimum rate that all devices use to communicate with before. establishing a high rate beamformed link To help discovery and detection the control PHY has. an STF comprising 50 Golay sequences each of which is 128 samples long The CEF that follows. the STF has nine Golay sequences The STF comprises 48 Gb128 n each 128 samples long . followed by a single repetition of Gb128 n The CEF comprises Gu512 n and Gv512 n . followed by Gv128 n These sequences are represented as function of Ga128 n and Gb128 n . in section 21 11 of the IEEE 802 11ad draft specification 10 Gu512 n and Gv512 n are given. by , Gu512 n Gb128 Ga128Gb128Ga128 2 , Gv512 n Gb128Ga128 Gb128 Ga128 3 . The control PHY uses BPSK with a code rate of 1 2 and is spread using a 32 code to create a PHY. rate of 27 5 Mbit s The Control PHY is used for transmitting and receiving frames such as. beacons information request and response probe request and response sector sweep sector. sweep feedback and other management and control frames It provides reliability and exploits. gain of the transmit antenna Additionally the first frame transmitted during the beam. refinement protocol BRP phase is also a control PHY frame . 3 3 Single Carrier PHY OFDM PHY and LPSC PHY, MCSs 1 to 4 are mandatory and ensure that all devices irrespective of their PHY are.
interoperable All the MCSs with the exception of LPSC PHY use LDPC code and the LPSC uses. Reed Solomon RS codes The following two subsections describe the MAC header and data. packet encoding process for SC PHY Other PHYs use a similar encoding process All packets are. modulated using BPSK QPSK 16 QAM and 64 QAM Table 1 . Table 1 PHY modulation and coding scheme table, MCS Code NDBPS DataRate. Modulation NCBPS Repetitions NBPCS, Index Rate Coding Mbit s . 0 2 BPSK 1 32 1 2 1 168 27 5, 1 2 BPSK 1 2 1 2 1 168 385 0. 2 2 BPSK 1 1 1 2 1 168 770 0, 3 2 BPSK 1 1 5 8 1 168 962 5. 4 2 BPSK 1 1 3 4 1 168 1155 0, 5 2 BPSK 1 1 13 16 1 168 1251 25.
6 2 QPSK 2 1 1 2 1 168 1540 0, 7 2 QPSK 2 1 5 8 1 168 1925 0. 8 2 QPSK 2 1 3 4 1 168 2310 0, 9 2 QPSK 2 1 13 16 1 168 2502 5. 10 2 16 QAM 4 1 1 2 1 168 3080 0, 11 2 16 QAM 4 1 5 8 1 168 3850 0. 12 2 16 QAM 4 1 3 4 1 168 4620 0, 13 SQPSK 336 1 1 2 1 168 693 0. 14 SQPSK 336 1 5 8 1 210 866 25, 15 QPSK 672 1 1 2 2 336 1386 0.
16 QPSK 672 1 5 8 2 420 1732 5, 17 QPSK 672 1 3 4 2 504 2079 0. 18 16 QAM 1344 1 1 2 4 672 2772 0, 19 16 QAM 1344 1 5 8 4 840 3465 0. 20 16 QAM 1344 1 3 4 4 1008 4158 0, 21 16 QAM 1344 1 13 16 4 1092 4504 0. 22 64 QAM 2016 1 5 8 6 1260 5179 0, 23 64 QAM 2016 1 3 4 6 1512 6237 0. 24 64 QAM 2016 1 13 16 6 1638 6756 75, RS 224 208 626 0.
25 2 BPSK 392 1 13 16 6, BS 16 8 , RS 224 208 834 0. 26 2 BPSK 392 1 13 16 6, BS 12 8 , RS 224 208 1112 0. 27 2 BPSK 392 1 13 16 6, SPC 9 8 , RS 224 208 1251 0. 28 2 QPSK 392 1 13 16 6, BS 16 8 , RS 224 208 1668 0. 29 2 QPSK 392 1 13 16 6, BS 12 8 , RS 224 208 2224 0.
30 2 QPSK 392 1 13 16 6, SPC 9 8 , RS 224 208 2503 0. 31 2 QPSK 392 1 13 16 6, BC 8 8 , 3 4 Header Encoding. The header is encoded using a single SC block of NCBPB symbols with NGI guard symbols The bits. are scrambled and encoded in the following steps , 1 The input header bits b1 b2 bLH LH 64 are scrambled starting from the eighth bit in. order to create d1s q1 q2 qLH , 2 The LDPC code word c q1 q2 qLH 01 02 0504 LH p1 p2 p168 is created by. concatenating 504 LH zeros to the LH bits of d1s and then generating the parity bits p1 . p2 p168 so that HcT 0 where H is the parity check matrix for the 3 4 LDPC code. specification in IEEE 802 11ad , 3 Bits LH 1 through 504 and bits 665 through 672 of the code word c are removed to create.
the sequence cs1 q1 q2 qLH p1 p2 p160 , 4 Bits LH 1 through 504 and bits 657 through 664 of the code word c are removed to create. the sequence cs2 q1 q2 qLH p1 p2 p152 p161 p162 p168 and then to create XOR with a. PN sequence The PN sequence is generated from the LFSR used for data scrambling and the. LFSR is initialized to the all ones vector , 5 cs1 and cs2 are concatenated to form the sequence cs1 cs2 The resulting 448 bits are then. mapped as 2 BPSK and the NGI guard symbols are prepended to the resulting NCBPB. symbols , 3 3 Data Encoding, The data packet is encoded using LDPC which includes deciding the number of. shortening repetition bits in every code word shortening coding each word and repetition of. bits Data packet encoding occurs in the following steps . 1 The number of LDPC code words is given by NCW length 8 LCW R This is used to. calculate the number of datapad bits given by NDATA pad NCW LCW R length 8 . where LCW 672 is the LDPC code word length length is the length of the PSDU defined in the. header field in octets is the repetition factor 1 or 2 and R is the code rate The scrambled. PSDU is concatenated with NDATAP AD zeros which are scrambled using the continuation of. the sequence that scrambled the PSDU input bits , 2 The output stream of the scrambler is broken into blocks of LCWD LCW R bits so that the. mth data word is b1m b2m bLCWD, m, m NCW, 3 To each data word n k LCW R LCW parity bits p1m p2m pn k.
m, are added to create the, T, code word c m b1m b2m bLCWD. m, p1m p2m pn k, m, so that Hc m 0, 4 The code words are concatenated one after the other to create the coded bitstream c1 c2 . cLCWD NCW The number of symbol blocks is given by NBLK NCW LCW NCBPB and the number. of symbol block padding bits is given by NBLKPAD NBLK NCBPB NCW LCW where NCBPB is the. number of coded bits per symbol block , 5 The code. WiGig and IEEE 802 11ad For Multi Gigabyte Per Second WPAN and WLAN SaiShankar N Debashis Dash Hassan El Madi and Guru Gopalakrishnan Tensorcom Inc 5900 Pasteur Court Carlsbad CA 92008

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