Wendy Martin Marion Goldstein Center For Children Edc-Books Pdf

Wendy Martin Marion Goldstein Center For Children EDC
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Possible Worlds Year 2 Formative Research, Wendy Martin Marion Goldstein. Center For Children Technology Education Development Center Inc. January 2010, Introduction, This report summarizes the goals procedures and outcomes of research activities conducted in. fall 2009 by EDC s Center for Children and Technology EDC CCT Funded through the U S. Department of Education s Institute of Education Sciences PR Award R305C080022 this. five year program of research and development focuses primarily on the development of. educational games that make use of portable game systems Nintendo DS and DSi to support. science and literacy learning among middle school age students. The program now referred to as Possible Worlds began in July of 2008 when EDC CCT was. named one of two National Research and Development Centers on Instructional Technology. The goals of the first year were to create a common base of shared knowledge about relevant. games curricula and research and to develop the first module of Possible Worlds game. prototypes, We currently are in the middle of Year 2 the goal of which is to conduct formative research with. middle school students and teachers in afterschool settings in order to evaluate and revise these. Module 1 prototypes We completed the first round of formative research in fall 2009 Our. primary concerns this fall were to evaluate the playability and comprehensibility of the DSi. games as well as to get a sense of teachers needs if they are to integrate them into classroom. instruction A secondary goal was to begin to assess the extent to which the games engage. students with the content and concepts the games are intended to address Systematically. studying learning outcomes will become a central concern in future stages of the project. The information gathered through formative research in fall 2009 is being used to inform the. revision of the Module 1 DSi games We will return to the afterschool settings in spring 2010 to. assess the appeal and potential instructional value of the revised games The information. gathered during those sessions will inform the revision of other elements of Module 1 including. the professional development materials for teachers who will field test Module 1 in their. classrooms Module 1 wil then be field tested in 7th grade science classrooms in fall 2010. Year 4 will involve a more rigorous impact study to assess the impact of the games on students. understanding of science concepts Over the next three years we will also continue to conduct. formative research to test the appeal and comprehensibility of newly produced games and. associated materials for Modules 2 4 in afterschool programs similar to the one described in this. report as well as field testing those Modules in science classrooms. Developmental Considerations, Early adolescents are working through developmental transitions that are likely to shape their. engagement with electronic games An ongoing focus of our work is to understand the influence. of these factors on students gameplay and their readiness to master difficult scientific concepts. and to design games that support students development as thinkers and problem solvers Below. we briefly outline some relevant developmental factors that we believe impact how 7th grade. Possible Worlds Year Two Formative Research 1, students interact with and learn from games In the What We Learned section of this report we.
cautiously point to ways in which the prototypes for the Module 1 games were more or less. effective at accommodating these factors, From a socioemotional perspective 7th graders are in a transitional period moving toward the. challenges and opportunities of adolescence but not fully prepared to act as independently as. older teenagers They are likely to move back and forth between the preoccupations and. perspectives of late childhood and more aspirational activities that model the social practices of. older adolescents Consequently they are likely to be engaged by multiple forms of play but. may be very sensitive to the cues of their peers in the public choices they make about game play. The complex but still fundamentally imaginary play of late childhood is still meaningful to them. but they are more prepared to step back from fictional narratives name them as not real and to. assert the greater importance of real life The notion that fiction or imaginary experience is. just for fun and consciously identifying these experiences as opportunities for social. interaction as opposed to a primary form of experience of the world is a major shift youth are. working through at this age, From a cognitive perspective twelve year olds are likely moving through a similarly gradual and. complex shift from late childhood to early adolescence The core cognitive task involved in this. process is perspective taking the ability not only to consider the point of view or experiences of. someone else but to incorporate that other point of view or multiple points of view into a. sustained analysis or reflection on a situation While research suggests that younger children are. able to do this kind of perspective taking in short bursts or under well defined conditions Sobel. Yoachim Gopnik Meltzoff Blumenthal 2007 mastering these skills and integrating them. into the day to day work of engaging with family schoolwork and social networks is now. becoming possible and in the school context expected Furthermore their ability to manage and. manipulate abstract ideas to organize evidence logically to follow chains of reasoning to attend. to detail for sustained periods of time all of these are abilities that change over time and can be. accommodated and stimulated in learning environments that give them opportunities to practice. those skills, Implications for game design, To accommodate these socioemotional and cognitive developmental factors Module 1 games. seek to engage adolescents in multiple forms of play that provide opportunities for independent. and collaborative exploration Furthermore the games aim to absorb students in a narrative that. has both fictitious and scientific elements The narrative premise of the final game module will. be that a group of teens are exploring a fantastic cavernous region that harbors vampire like. creatures and other mysteries While the characters search for vampires requires players to. engage with a fictional narrative success in the games is requires students to engage with and. manipulate processes that directly parallel concepts and processes they are encountering in. science class, The activities in the Module 1 game prototype were also designed to inspire questioning. probing and reflection among students as they develop and revise theories about the scientific. processes under investigation In this way Possible Worlds games are designed to engage. students in direct exploration of scientific concepts and process rather than to deliver. information about scientific topics Our work responds to a host of recent findings and policy. voices that point to the need for academic interventions for adolescents that emphasize inquiry. Possible Worlds Year Two Formative Research 2, based instruction reading in and across the subject domains the integration of higher order.
thinking skills with content area knowledge and added motivation for struggling students. Adolescent development and scientific misconceptions. While adolescents are ripe for the types of developmental and cognitive changes outlined above. their preexisting beliefs about how the world works can act as obstacles to learning Students. enter science classrooms with a variety of ideas about the world some are correct but others are. incomplete or faulty Students hold onto their pre or misconceptions tenaciously as do adults. which often clouds their thinking about science concepts they encounter in school Possible. Worlds games focus on the aspects of scientific topics that are often the subject of. misconceptions which are difficult to displace because of their apparent explanatory power and. parsimony The goal of the instructional design of the DSi games is to encourage and prepare. young people to look critically at the theories they hold to immerse them in direct if virtual. experiences that engage them directly with alternative explanations of the phenomenon under. study and to motivate them to evaluate and reconsider how they make sense of that. phenomenon, These guiding principles will drive the development of four modules each addressing a different. scientific concept that is the subject of misconceptions The remainder of this paper describes. formative research conducted to inform the development of our first module which will address. the photosynthetic process, Possible Worlds Game Prototypes. The game prototypes described in this report were the result of a development process. that unfolded between fall 2008 and summer 2009 The primary focus of this process was to find. a balance of scientific accuracy developmentally appropriate content and compelling game play. that could work together to produce games that were compelling while also achieving our. instructional goals Our emphasis on promoting exploration of concepts rather than delivery of. information required striking this balance but led to thorny design challenges For instance the. development team struggled to determine how to give players a role in manipulating or. participating in a self regulating system photosynthesis in plants or the ability to view invisible. particles in order to play with them The prototype development team spent pursued multiple. iterations of game mechanics that could exploit the unique features of the Nintendo DS present. appropriate visualizations reinforce science concepts and not inadvertently introduce. misconceptions, Below is a brief description of the Module 1 game prototypes that were tested in fall 2009 in the. order in which they were piloted These games currently are undergoing significant revisions as a. result of our observations of game play and feedback we received from adolescents and teachers. which are also presented below, Possible Worlds Year Two Formative Research 3. Photosynthesis Game, This game employs a shooter mechanic in which the player makes photosynthesis and.
respiration happen During daylight the player shoots energy at molecules and if the energy. hits a molecule it breaks apart and atoms bond with others to form glucose molecules During. respiration at night or during the day oxygen molecules are shot into glucose molecules and. when the sixth oxygen molecule hits the glucose breaks up energy is released and the plant. grows The educational goal of the game is to provide students with the experience of enacting. the processes of photosynthesis and respiration by interacting with the particles associated with. the process, Possible Worlds Year Two Formative Research 4. Methanol Game, This game allows players to explore another energy transformation phenomenon. artificial photosynthesis It employs the same shooter mechanic as the Photosynthesis Game but. the player s goal in this context is to make a robot come to life and move by producing and. burning methanol molecules via artificial photosynthesis and combustion The learning goal is to. have students understand that like natural photosynthesis an artificial photosynthesis process. uses light energy to transform matter and ultimately create a new form of energy. Possible Worlds Year Two Formative Research 5, Systems Game. The learning goal of this game is to help students play with the notion that in a closed. system things have to stay in balance in order to work having more of one component of the. system means having less of something else and different balances of major variables create. different conditions During game play the player receives orders that dictate the energy. requirements light motion and sound to make a functional robot The player must then adjust. the levels of energy in order to balance the system according to the specified criteria Their goal. is to fulfill as many orders in the time allowed in order to make robots and earn money. Possible Worlds Year Two Formative Research 6, Literacy Game. The learning goal of this game is to have students consider the use of words in different. contexts The game mechanic aids comprehension by presenting written sentences with words. that have synonyms and variations in usage Players manipulate the meaning of the words and. the sentences by selecting definitions from a word bank Although the player is rewarded for. selecting the correct usage there is an alternate reward for exploring all the different meanings. When players choose the incorrect answer they get to see the humorous animations illustrating. the sentences This gives struggling readers the opportunity to be playful with words The game. is intended primarily as a literacy support for struggling readers but because vocabulary is a. central concern of science teachers of this age group it also aims to support more general. vocabulary learning, Possible Worlds Year Two Formative Research 7.
The Classroom Game, The fourth game in Module 1 involves two activities designed to be played in the. classroom rather than on the Nintendo DS In the first activity players evaluate the. conditions of a fictitious cave to determine if vampires are present This open ended. visit http cct edc org or http possibleworlds edc org Center for Children amp Technology Education Development Center Inc Retrieved from

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