Wastewater Reuse Standards For Agriculture Irrigation In-Books Pdf

WASTEWATER REUSE STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION IN
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Twenty first International Water Technology Conference IWTC21 Ismailia 28 30 June 2018. Countries such as France Cyprus Hanseok et al 2016 and Paranychianakis et al 2015 Greece. Agrafioti 2012 Italy Italian Decree 2003 and Angelakis et al 2008 and Spain Spanish Royal. Decree 2007 and Ortega et al 2009 have all recently modified wastewater quality standards for safe. ruse Egypt laid out water quality criteria and specifications for freshwater watercourses Nile River. and its branches where treated industrial and sewage wastewater is disposed off In addition. wastewater quality standards for discharging treated industrial wastewater into the Nile River and its. branches in 1982 by the low 48 1982 and its Executive Regulations and then it amended in 2013 by. the Decree of Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation no 92 Egypt also classified treated. wastewater TWW into three groups primary secondary and advanced TWW for direct agricultural. reuse in Decree No 44 of 2000 In Egypt reuse of treated wastewater domestic and industrial. is considered an effective saving measure in areas where this water would otherwise flow to. sinks Primary use of treated wastewater in Egypt is for irrigation of green areas landscape. development and irrigation of non food agriculture MWRI 2005 The feasibility of treated. wastewater for irrigation well largely depend on the type of treatment and type of industrial. pollutants availability of suitable area for irrigation cropping pattern irrigation method and. soil type matching of supply and demand environmental impact and cost. Degradation of fresh water quality is becoming increasingly important especially with regard to. salinity trace elements and toxic organic compounds which needs a big cost for treatment Pumping. treated wastewater into fresh watercourses or lakes for processes of treated wastewater dilution is an. important issue causing water deterioration Therefore the need for strictly standards control the. indirect wastewater reuses as agriculture water is necessary. This paper considers the current wastewater reuse and the future national water plan for. wastewater reuse in Egypt examining the standards of wastewater reuse for agriculture irrigation in. Egypt organizations and countries that applied modified wastewater reuse standards in agriculture. practices A proposed draft for wastewater reuses standards for agriculture irrigation cooked. vegetables and cooked crops for human consumption in Egypt were presented considering salinity. nutrients turbidity total suspended solids TSS pathogens trace elements BOD and COD. 2 WATER RESOURCESAND USES IN EGYPT, Egypt share of Nile water 55 5 BCM Y does not satisfy Egypt s water demands The current. available water resources in Egypt are limited and there is a big gap between the total water supply. and the total current water demands due to urbanization and population growth The water resources. in Egypt are surface water from Nile 55 5 BCM Y Effective rains 1 6 BCM Y on the northern region. lies on the Mediterranean Sea About 2 4 BCM Y from non renewable deep ground water in the. western desert to Sinai and from shallow groundwater 6 5 BCM Y in western desert The total water. supply is 66 BCM Y and the total water demands in several activities is 79 5 BCM Y in 2017 Mohie. and Ahmed 2016, The current population in Egypt is 94 million capita CAPMAS 2017 To satisfy the Egyptian. water demands the shortage of 13 5 BCM Y of water should be accomplished through non. confidential water resources such as indirect wastewater reuse and agriculture wastewater reuse of. good quality The agriculture sector is the biggest consumer of freshwater 80 of the total demands. the agriculture wastewater reuse is increasing from 5 4 BCM in 2005 2006 to 11 7 BCM in 2014. 2015 Total production of refined water fresh piped water by Egyptian producers in 2014 2015 was. 8 9 BCM Y Tamer et al 2017 The expected total water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM Y. comprises 18 3 BCM Y in the agricultural land 5 0 BCM Y in the agricultural land consuming deep. groundwater and 2 7 BCM Y in the new reclamation lands projects 750 000 feddan respectively. Mohie and Ahmed 2016, Egypt facing many challenges to satisfy its water demands where the available water resources. limitation and the deterioration of water quality by the demand side Non confidential water resources. Twenty first International Water Technology Conference IWTC21 Ismailia 28 30 June 2018. such as indirect wastewater reuse and agriculture wastewater reuse of good quality are the future key. solutions to fulfil the shortage in water supplies. Two laws and three decrees address the Egyptian water quality separately Law 48 regulates treated. wastewater discharges to the Nile and its branches canals drains and ground waters by the Ministry. of Water Resources and Irrigation MWRI Licenses are issued to factories sanitary sewage. treatment plants and river boats upon application as long as the effluents meet certain standards and. other conditions Fine jail sentence or both prohibit unofficial Discharging or discharging in amounts. or concentrations that exceed license limits Other provisions of the law state that licenses may be. withdrawn under several conditions including failure to immediately reduce a discharge presenting an. immediate danger of pollution or failure to install treatment yielding appropriate effluent quality. within three months Tamer et al 2017 The law gives MWRI administrative and police authority. over implementation the Ministry of Interior s Water Police also have police powers and the. Ministry of Health has a standard setting and discharge monitoring role. Water quality standards are specified in the implementing decree for Law 48 Decree 8 1983. During 2013 the Executive Regulation of this Law was amended by the Minister of Water Resources. and Irrigation via Decree No 92 of 2013 for the following classifications. Criteria and specifications for waterways where sewage is disposed off. Criteria and specifications for effluents treated industrial discharges to the Nile and canals. Criteria and specifications for waterways before going into the fresh water waterways treated. industrial and sanitary waste discharges to drains lakes and ponds. Criteria and specifications for non fresh water bodies. Law 93 1962 concerns the construction of sewers and sewage treatment facilities and the allowed. discharges of residential commercial and manufacturing facilities to sewers Ministerial Decree. 9 1989 revised the standards laid out in this law Although originally intended to control discharges to. surface waters Law 48 1982 removed this function from Law 93 1962 The revised standards cover. discharges of industrial waste to sewers and the land application of treated sewage on clay and sandy. soils The Ministry of Housing Utilities and Urban Communities MHUUC implement the Law. 93 1962 The significance of this decree is that it specifies less stringent standards for industrial. facilities that discharge to sewers due to the additional treatment that would occur before discharge. In 2000 the MHUUC amended the Executive Regulation of this law through Decree No 44 of 2000. 2 1 Present wastewater in Egypt,2 1 1 Domestic Wastewater. Urbanization in Egypt population places increased stresses on the domestic central wastewater. treatment systems The total collected wastewater in 2014 2015 is 5 048 BCM and the total TWW. represented 74 4 of the collected wastewater the current reuse of the recycled TWW 1 3 BCM In. Egypt TWW can contribute up to 5 BCM to water resources Current TWW use of 1 3 BCM can be. expanded to include around 3 BCM that is secondarily treated by Egyptian wastewater plants Also an. opportunity to improve the infrastructure of the treatment plants that are now treating less than 75 of. the collected wastewater Tamer et al 2017 CAPMAS 2016 Now the primary use of treated. wastewater is for irrigation of green areas landscape development and irrigation of non food. agriculture MWRI 2005,2 1 2 Agricultural Drainage Water.
In Egypt agricultural drains are collecting huge amounts of mixed pollutants These drains. discharge their effluent to the River Nile branches costal lakes and Mediterranean Sea The. pollutants may incorporate domestic and or industrial wastewater raw treated or partially treated. effluent MWRI 2005 Reuse practices of agriculture wastewater in Egypt are official reuse planned. and managed by MWRI by collecting agriculture wastewater in the main drains and mixing them with. Twenty first International Water Technology Conference IWTC21 Ismailia 28 30 June 2018. fresh water in main canal through mixing pump stations Lubna and El Gammal 2014 Agriculture. wastewater in branch drains before it discharged to a more polluted main drain can be utilized for. direct irrigation when the water have an appropriate quality and under a pre permission from. MWRI Unofficial reuse is defined as farmer s direct reuse the agriculture drainage water without. pre permission from MWRI 2005 It exists wherever canal water unavailable mainly at canals ends. Ayman and Abdelazim 2013 Bahr E Bagar drain Edko drain Mouheet drain and El Gharbia drain. are agriculture drains collect treated and untreated wastewater located in the Eastern western and. middle of Egyptian Delta respectively with Greater Cairo and Alexandria Many studies were carried. out to investigate the suitability of the water carried by this drains in irrigation and its environmental. assessment on lake EL Manzala and lake Edko the conclusion was that a prior water treatment is. needed Tamer A et al 2017 Alaa F 2015 Ahmed et al 2013 Abd El Motaleb et al 2013 Saad et. al 2013 Mohamed et al 2017 A future horizontal expansion of 230000 faddan that is based on. treated wastewater from that drains MWRI 2005,Bahr E Bagar Drain. Bahr El Bagar drain has two main branches Qalubia drain and Belbaise drain Fig 1 The total. catchment area of Bahr El Bagar Drain system is 760 x 103 feddan 307 6 x 106 hectare with total. discharge to Lake Manzala is 1 4 BCM Y The state of the Qalubia main drain is more severe. compared with the Belbaise Drain Qalubia s main 14 branches intermediates collect treated and. untreated wastewater legally and illegally from the heavily populated area of Shobra El Khemma and. its large industrial area together with the urban communities of Qalubia and Sharkia Governorates. Figure 1 Bahr El Bagar Drain Figure 2 El Gharbia Drain. El Gharbia Drain, Gharbia Drain has a catchment area estimated at 283 3 x 103 hectare and covering a heavily. populated area in Gharbia and Kafr El Sheikh Governorates Fig 2 Gharbia drain has two mixing. pump stations downstream from El Segaeia The first is El Hamoul which has a discharge of 0 55. BCM Y reaching 0 66 BCM Y in summer to supply Bahr Terra Canal The second is Botteta mixing. pump station El Gharbia drain in high priority for immediate protection against pollution MWRI. Twenty first International Water Technology Conference IWTC21 Ismailia 28 30 June 2018. Figure 3 Edko Drain Figure 4 Mouheet Drain,Edko Drain. Edko Drain in Behera Governorate as shown in Fig 3 supplies El Mahmoudia Canal with. Agricultural Drain water in order to cover the need for irrigation along the canal and for drinking. water for Alexandria Metropolitan area Edko drain catchment area covers a highly populated. governorate in which the quality of water in the drain system is deteriorating due to legal and illegal. discharging of wastewater MWRI 2005,Mouheet Drain, El Mouheet Drain in Giza Fig 4 is considered one of the most polluted main drains in Egypt it. discharges its water into the River Nile Rossetta Branch via Rahawy Drain Two main treatment. plants are located within the catchment area of El Mouheet drain Abu Rawash and Zenein plants and. both are discharging their treated wastewater effluent and raw wastewater overloads to this drain. 2 2 Future wastewater reuse in Egypt, The Egyptian Laws No 12 1984 and No 213 1994 are regulating irrigation and drainage systems.
including main canals feeders and drains usage and management by public and private sector The. laws also provide legal directions for the operation and maintenance of public and private waterways. and specify arrangements for cost recovery in irrigation and drainage networks This will stay viable. until the year 2017 when the current wastewater recycling program will be completed According to. Water for Future National Water Plan for Egypt 2017 a total volume of treated wastewater of 1 4. billion m3 year could irrigate about 300000 feddan Even when high irrigation efficiencies are. assumed the overall water use efficiency of the available wastewater flow will not higher than about. 65 to 70 By that time 2017 Egypt must start implementing new strategies to meet the post. 2025 irrigation and domestic water requirements MWRI 2005. Actions carrying out feasibility studies including environmental impact for reuse of treated. wastewater in the new industrial cities should be taken to implement policies for reusing the treated. wastewater These policies must aim to convincing the publics that such practice when properly. carried out impose no risk to the public health The Egyptian rules and regulations right now does. not allow for treated domestic wastewater effluent for use in irrigating edible crops This may. continue for the next decade as the current feasibility for irrigating forests for wood production. WASTEWATER REUSE STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION IN EGYPT Mohamed ELSayed Gabr Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department High Institute for Engineering and Technology New Damietta Ministry of High Education Egypt E mail m egabr yahoo com ABSTRACT Water quality is a vast and very complex topic A complete definition of the wastewater reuse standards for agriculture

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