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vSphere Networking ESXi 5 VMware
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vSphere Networking, You can find the most up to date technical documentation on the VMware Web site at. http www vmware com support, The VMware Web site also provides the latest product updates. If you have comments about this documentation submit your feedback to. docfeedback vmware com, Copyright 2009 2011 VMware Inc All rights reserved This product is protected by U S and international copyright and. intellectual property laws VMware products are covered by one or more patents listed at. http www vmware com go patents, VMware is a registered trademark or trademark of VMware Inc in the United States and or other jurisdictions All other marks. and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. VMware Inc,3401 Hillview Ave,Palo Alto CA 94304,www vmware com.
2 VMware Inc,About vSphere Networking 5,1 Updated Information 7. 2 Introduction to Networking 9,Networking Concepts Overview 9. Network Services 10, View Networking Information in the vSphere Client 10. View Network Adapter Information in the vSphere Client 11. 3 Setting Up Networking with vSphere Standard Switches 13. vSphere Standard Switches 13,Standard Port Groups 14. Port Group Configuration for Virtual Machines 14,VMkernel Networking Configuration 15.
vSphere Standard Switch Properties 18, 4 Setting Up Networking with vSphere Distributed Switches 21. vSphere Distributed Switch Architecture 22,Configuring a vSphere Distributed Switch 22. Distributed Port Groups 27,Working with Distributed Ports 28. Private VLANs 29, Configuring vSphere Distributed Switch Network Adapters 31. Configuring Virtual Machine Networking on a vSphere Distributed Switch 35. 5 Managing Network Resources 37,vSphere Network I O Control 37.
TCP Segmentation Offload and Jumbo Frames 40,NetQueue and Networking Performance 42. DirectPath I O 43,6 Networking Policies 45,Load Balancing and Failover Policy 45. VLAN Policy 52,Security Policy 52,Traffic Shaping Policy 56. Resource Allocation Policy 59,Monitoring Policy 60. Port Blocking Policies 61, Manage Policies for Multiple Port Groups on a vSphere Distributed Switch 62.
VMware Inc 3,vSphere Networking,7 Advanced Networking 67. Enable Internet Protocol Version 6 Support 67,VLAN Configuration 68. Working With Port Mirroring 68,Configure NetFlow Settings 72. Switch Discovery Protocol 72,Change the DNS and Routing Configuration 74. MAC Addresses 74,Mounting NFS Volumes 76,8 Networking Best Practices 77.
4 VMware Inc,About vSphere Networking, vSphere Networking provides information about configuring networking for VMware vSphere including how. to create vSphere distributed switches and vSphere standard switches. vSphere Networking also provides information on monitoring networks managing network resources and. networking best practices,Intended Audience, The information presented is written for experienced Windows or Linux system administrators who are. familiar with network configuration and virtual machine technology. VMware Inc 5,vSphere Networking,6 VMware Inc,Updated Information 1. This vSphere Networking documentation is updated with each release of the product or when necessary. This table provides the update history of vSphere Networking. Revision Description, EN 000599 01 n Added clarification to the section DirectPath I O on page 43 to describe vMotion requirements and. functionality using Cisco specific switches, n Added clarification to the section Enable DirectPath I O with vMotion on a Virtual Machine on.
page 44 to describe Cisco specific switch functionality with vMotion. n Added the section Removing NICs from Active Virtual Machines on page 32 to describe the. behavior of the vSphere Client when NICs are removed from active virtual machines. EN 000599 00 Initial release,VMware Inc 7,vSphere Networking. 8 VMware Inc,Introduction to Networking 2, The basic concepts of ESXi networking and how to set up and configure a network in a vSphere environment. are discussed,This chapter includes the following topics. n Networking Concepts Overview on page 9,n Network Services on page 10. n View Networking Information in the vSphere Client on page 10. n View Network Adapter Information in the vSphere Client on page 11. Networking Concepts Overview, A few concepts are essential for a thorough understanding of virtual networking If you are new to ESXi it is.
helpful to review these concepts, A physical network is a network of physical machines that are connected so that they can send data to and. receive data from each other VMware ESXi runs on a physical machine. A virtual network is a network of virtual machines running on a single physical machine that are connected. logically to each other so that they can send data to and receive data from each other Virtual machines can be. connected to the virtual networks that you create when you add a network. A physical Ethernet switch manages network traffic between machines on the physical network A switch has. multiple ports each of which can be connected to a single machine or another switch on the network Each. port can be configured to behave in certain ways depending on the needs of the machine connected to it The. switch learns which hosts are connected to which of its ports and uses that information to forward traffic to. the correct physical machines Switches are the core of a physical network Multiple switches can be connected. together to form larger networks, A vSphere standard switch works much like a physical Ethernet switch It detects which virtual machines are. logically connected to each of its virtual ports and uses that information to forward traffic to the correct virtual. machines A vSphere standard switch can be connected to physical switches by using physical Ethernet. adapters also referred to as uplink adapters to join virtual networks with physical networks This type of. connection is similar to connecting physical switches together to create a larger network Even though a. vSphere standard switch works much like a physical switch it does not have some of the advanced. functionality of a physical switch, A vSphere distributed switch acts as a single switch across all associated hosts on a datacenter This allows. virtual machines to maintain consistent network configuration as they migrate across multiple hosts. A distributed port is a port on a vSphere distributed switch that connects to a host s VMkernel or to a virtual. machine s network adapter,VMware Inc 9,vSphere Networking. A port group specifies port configuration options such as bandwidth limitations and VLAN tagging policies. for each member port Network services connect to standard switches through port groups Port groups define. how a connection is made through the switch to the network Typically a single standard switch is associated. with one or more port groups, A distributed port group is a port group associated with a vSphere distributed switch and specifies port.
configuration options for each member port Distributed port groups define how a connection is made through. the vSphere distributed switch to the network, NIC teaming occurs when multiple uplink adapters are associated with a single switch to form a team A team. can either share the load of traffic between physical and virtual networks among some or all of its members. or provide passive failover in the event of a hardware failure or a network outage. VLANs enable a single physical LAN segment to be further segmented so that groups of ports are isolated. from one another as if they were on physically different segments The standard is 802 1Q. The VMkernel TCP IP networking stack supports iSCSI NFS vMotion and Fault Tolerance Logging Virtual. machines run their own systems TCP IP stacks and connect to the VMkernel at the Ethernet level through. standard and distributed switches, IP storage refers to any form of storage that uses TCP IP network communication as its foundation iSCSI can. be used as a virtual machine datastore and NFS can be used as a virtual machine datastore and for direct. mounting of ISO files which are presented as CD ROMs to virtual machines. TCP Segmentation Offload TSO allows a TCP IP stack to emit large frames up to 64KB even though the. maximum transmission unit MTU of the interface is smaller The network adapter then separates the large. frame into MTU sized frames and prepends an adjusted copy of the initial TCP IP headers. Migration with vMotion enables a virtual machine that is powered on to be transferred from one ESXi host to. another without shutting down the virtual machine The optional vMotion feature requires its own license key. Network Services, A virtual network provides several different services to the host and virtual machines. You can to enable two types of network services in ESXi. n Connecting virtual machines to the physical network and to each other. n Connecting VMkernel services such as NFS iSCSI or vMotion to the physical network. View Networking Information in the vSphere Client, The vSphere Client shows general networking information and information specific to network adapters. 1 Log in to the vSphere Client and select the host from the inventory panel. 2 Click the Configuration tab and click Networking. 3 Optional Choose the type of networking to view,Option Description.
vSphere Standard Switch Displays vSphere standard switch networking on the host. vSphere Distributed Switch Displays vSphere distributed switch networking on the host. The vSphere Distributed Switch option appears only on hosts that are connected to one or more vSphere. distributed switches, Networking information is displayed for each virtual switch on the host. 10 VMware Inc,Chapter 2 Introduction to Networking. View Network Adapter Information in the vSphere Client. For each physical network adapter on the host you can view information such as the speed duplex and. observed IP ranges, 1 Log in to the vSphere Client and select the Hosts and Clusters inventory view. 2 Select the host in the inventory pane, 3 Click the Configuration tab and click Network Adapters. The network adapters panel shows the following information. Table 2 1 Network Adapter Parameters,Option Description.
Device Name of the network adapter, Speed Actual speed and duplex of the network adapter. Configured Configured speed and duplex of the network adapter. Switch vSphere standard switch or vSphere distributed switch that. the network adapter is associated with, Observed IP ranges IP addresses that the network adapter is likely to have access. Wake on LAN supported Network adapter ability to support Wake on the LAN. VMware Inc 11,vSphere Networking,12 VMware Inc,Setting Up Networking with vSphere. Standard Switches 3, vSphere standard switches handle network traffic at the host level in a vSphere environment. Use the vSphere Client to add networking based on the categories that reflect the types of network services. n Virtual machines,n VMkernel,This chapter includes the following topics.
n vSphere Standard Switches on page 13,n Standard Port Groups on page 14. n Port Group Configuration for Virtual Machines on page 14. n VMkernel Networking Configuration on page 15,n vSphere Standard Switch Properties on page 18. vSphere Standard Switches, You can create abstracted network devices called vSphere standard switches A standard switch can route. traffic internally between virtual machines and link to external networks. You can use standard switches to combine the bandwidth of multiple network adapters and balance. communications traffic among them You can also configure a standard switch to handle physical NIC failover. A vSphere standard switch models a physical Ethernet switch The default number of logical ports for a. standard switch is 120 You can connect one network adapter of a virtual machine to each port Each uplink. adapter associated with a standard switch uses one port Each logical port on the standard switch is a member. of a single port group Each standard switch can also have one or more port groups assigned to it For. information about maximum allowed ports and port groups see the Configuration Maximums documentation. When two or more virtual machines are connected to the same standard switch network traffic between them. is routed locally If an uplink adapter is attached to the standard switch each virtual machine can access the. external network that the adapter is connected to,VMware Inc 13. vSphere Networking,Standard Port Groups, Port groups aggregate multiple ports under a common configuration and provide a stable anchor point for.
virtual machines connecting to labeled networks,Figure 3 1 vSphere Standard Switch Network. VM VM VM VM VM,A B C D E port A B C D E,vSphere Standard Switch vSphere Standard Switch. Host1 Host2 virtual,Host1 Host2 physical,physical network adapters. physical network, Each port group is identified by a network label which is unique to the current host Network labels are used. to make virtual machine configuration portable across hosts All port groups in a datacenter that are physically. connected to the same network in the sense that each can receive broadcasts from the others are given the. same label Conversely if two port groups cannot receive broadcasts from each other they have distinct labels. A VLAN ID which restricts port group traffic to a logical Ethernet segment within the physical network is. optional For a port group to reach port groups located on other VLANs the VLAN ID must be set to 4095 If. you use VLAN IDs you must change the port group labels and VLAN IDs together so that the labels properly. represent connectivity,Port Group Configuration for Virtual Machines.
You can add or modify a virtual machine port group from the vSphere Client. The vSphere Client Add Network wizard guides you through the tasks to create a virtual network to which. virtual machines can connect including creating a vSphere standard switch and configuring settings for a. network label, When you set up virtual machine networks consider whether you want to migrate the virtual machines in the. network between hosts If so be sure that both hosts are in the same broadcast domain that is the same Layer. ESXidoes not support virtual machine migration between hosts in different broadcast domains because the. migrated virtual machine might require systems and resources that it would no longer have access to in the. new network Even if your network configuration is set up as a high availability environment or includes. intelligent switches that can resolve the virtual machine s needs across different networks you might. experience lag times as the Address Resolution Protocol ARP table updates and resumes network traffic for. the virtual machines,14 VMware Inc, Chapter 3 Setting Up Networking with vSphere Standard Switches. Virtual machines reach physical networks through uplink adapters A vSphere standard switch can transfer. data to external networks only when one or more network adapters are attached to it When two or more. adapters are attached to a single standard switch they are transparently teamed. Add a Virtual Machine Port Group, Virtual machine port groups provide networking for virtual machines. 1 Log in to the vSphere Client and select the host from the inventory panel. 2 Select the host in the inventory pane, 3 Click the Configuration tab and click Networking. 4 Select the vSphere Standard Switch view, Standard switches appear in an overview that includes a details layout.
5 On the right side of the page click Add Networking. 6 Accept the default connection type Virtual Machines and click Next. 7 Select Create a vSphere standard switch or one of the listed existing standard switches and the associated. physical adapters to use for this port group, You can create a new standard switch with or without Ethernet adapters. If you create a standard switch without physical network adapters all traffic on that switch is confined to. that switch No other hosts on the physical network or virtual machines on other standard switches can. send or receive traffic over this standard switch You might create a standard switch without physical. network adapters if you want a group of virtual machines to be able to communicate with each other but. not with other hosts or with virtual machines outside the group. 8 Click Next, 9 In the Port Group Properties group enter a network label that identifies the port group that you are. Use network labels to identify migration compatible connections common to two or more hosts. 10 Optional If you are using a VLAN for VLAN ID enter a number between 1 and 4094 If you are not. using a VLAN leave this blank, If you enter 0 or leave the option blank the port group can see only untagged non VLAN traffic If you. enter 4095 the port group can see traffic on any VLAN while leaving the VLAN tags intact. 11 Click Next, 12 After you determine that the switch is configured correctly click Finish. VMkernel Networking Configuration, A VMkernel networking interface provides network connectivity for the host as well as handling VMware.
vMotion IP storage and Fault Tolerance, Moving a virtual machine from one host to another is called migration Using vMotion you can migrate. powered on virtual machines with no downtime Your VMkernel networking stack must be set up properly. to accommodate vMotion, IP storage refers to any form of storage that uses TCP IP network ESXi Because these storage types are network. based they can use the same VMkernel interface and port group.


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