Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016 Design And Fabrication Of A-Books Pdf

Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016 Design and Fabrication of a
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ISSN Online 2319 8753, ISSN Print 2347 6710, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, An ISO 3297 2007 Certified Organization. Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016, 1 Using this type of energy to generate electricity is not dependent upon the price of uranium oil or other types. of fuel This makes electricity costs lower and more stable one of its most significant advantages. 2 The pollution created by hydroelectric energy generation is quite minimal There is some pollution involved in. initially constructing the power stations but this is true of all power plants It also does not produce. radioactive waste or involve the environmental impact of fuel being transported to it. 3 It doesn t require many employees to run a hydroelectric station According to wikipedia org most plants of. this type are largely automated This is another one of the advantages which help keep the cost of. hydroelectricity low, 4 Hydroelectric power stations can be set up in almost any size depending upon the river or stream used to. operate them big enough power a single home factory small town or large city. 5 Another of its advantages is that hydroelectric is a renewable form of energy like wind and solar it doesn t. rely upon finite resources like natural gas or coal to generate power. 6 Hydroelectric stations can operate for many years after they are built Wikipedia org states that a number of. operational hydro stations were constructed fifty to one one hundred years ago in contrast to this IAEA org. indicates that the design life of nuclear power plants is generally thirty to forty years. 7 Small hydro electricity generation systems sometimes offer more economic advantages for home owners than. solar power and tend to last longer than solar panels do. The above mentioned factors make hydroelectric a form of energy generation which offers advantages with regard. to cost pollution flexibility of installation and conservation of resources. II RELATED WORK, OUR PROJECT AND ITS BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE.
CAUSES FOR SELECTING THE PROJECT, India s incremental demand for the next decade is projected to be the highest in the world. This increasing energy demand also translates into higher demand for electricity. North east India has lots of hydro power resources like streams in most of the hilly areas which have the potential for. using for utilization of hydro power, The components of Micro hydro power can be locally manufactured and the Micro hydro power systems can be. locally built, The possible target sites for Micro hydro systems are the isolated areas which are not connected to the national grid. of electricity, PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION, 1 When the magnetic flux linking a conductor or coil changes an emf is induced in it whose magnitude is given by. e Nd dt which is known as Faraday s law, 2 The basic principle of hydropower is that if water can be piped down from a certain level then the resulting water.
pressure is converted to work If the water pressure is allowed to move a mechanical component then that movement. involves the conversion of the potential energy of the water into mechanical energy Hydro turbines convert water. pressure into mechanical shaft power which can be used to drive an electricity generator a grinding mill or some other. useful device, KNOWLEDGE OF SOME OF THE IMPORTANT PARTS FOR THE PROJECT. Pelton wheel, The Pelton wheel is an impulse turbine which is among the most efficient types of water turbines It was invented. by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the impulses momentum of moving water. In a Pelton Tribune or Pelton Wheel water jets impact on the blades of the tribune making the wheel rotate producing. Copyright to IJIRSET DOI 10 15680 IJIRSET 2016 0505089 7264. ISSN Online 2319 8753, ISSN Print 2347 6710, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, An ISO 3297 2007 Certified Organization. Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016, torque and power Different types of Hydraulic Turbines were developed with the increasing need for power Three.
major types are Pelton Wheel Francis and Kaplan Turbine. Design of Pelton Wheel Turbine, The Pelton Turbine has a circular disk mounted on the rotating shaft or rotor This circular disk has cup shaped. blades called as buckets placed at equal spacing around its circumference Nozzles are arranged around the wheel such. that the water jet emerging from a nozzle is tangential to the circumference of the wheel of Pelton Turbine According. to the available water head pressure of water and the operating requirements the shape and number of nozzles placed. around the Pelton Wheel can vary, Working Principle of Pelton Turbine. The high speed water jets emerging from the nozzles strike the buckets at splitters placed at the middle of a. bucket from where jets are divided into two equal streams These streams flow along the inner curve of the bucket and. leave it in the direction opposite to that of incoming jet. The high speed water jets running the Pelton Wheel Turbine are obtained by expanding the high pressure water through. nozzles to the atmospheric pressure The high pressure water can be obtained from any water body situated at some. height or streams of water flowing down the hills, The change in momentum direction as well as speed of water stream produces an impulse on the blades of the. wheel of Pelton Turbine This impulse generates the torque and rotate the shaft of Pelton Turbine the impulse received. by the blades should be maximum possible That is obtained when the water stream is deflected in the direction. opposite to which it strikes the buckets and with the same speed relative to the buckets. III PRICIPAL COMPONENTS REQUIRED AND THEIR USES, MECHANICAL SECTION The various mechanical components required for the project include. a PELTON WHEEL For converting water potential energy to Mechanical Rotational energy. b SHAFT To link the rotational energy of the Pelton wheel to the alternator for generating power. c BEARINGS For easy movement of the shaft in the frame and rotor. d STABLE FRAME To hold whole of the project firmly and rigidly so that there is no breakdown or vibrations or. less movements, e SCREWS NUTS BOLTS HAMMER ETC To be used for tighting various parts of the machine which include.
linking the shaft with the Pelton Wheel, f PUMP To provide the water flow and to create artificial Head. g NOZZLE To provide the water jet coming out of the pump for high velocity jet. h Other various mechanical parts as per the requirements basis. ELECTRICAL SECTION The various electrical components required for our project includes. a ALTERNATOR To be used for current generating purpose. b CABLES to connect and test the generated electricity. c 12V BATTERY To charge the electro magnet inside the stator of the alternator. d Other devices and materials as per the requirements. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS the various measuring instruments include. a MULTIMETER To measure current voltage generated, b TACHOMETER To measure the RPM of the shaft. c MARKED BUCKET To measure the rate of flow of the water from the pump. d VERNIER CALLIPER SCREWGAUGES ETC For measuring various dimensions. Copyright to IJIRSET DOI 10 15680 IJIRSET 2016 0505089 7265. ISSN Online 2319 8753, ISSN Print 2347 6710, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, An ISO 3297 2007 Certified Organization. Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016, IV CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY OF THE PROJECT.
CALCULATION FOR DESIGNING THE PELTON TURBINE, Data obtained from project work. Diameter of the wheel D 42cm, Diameter of the jet coming from the nozzle d 3 5 cm. Artificial head from pump 15m, Step1 velocity of jet at inlet V1 CV 2gH 1 2. 0 98 2 9 81 15 1 2, Step2 velocity of wheel U 2gH 1 2. 0 43 2 9 81 15 1 2, 7 38 m sec, Step3 RPM of the shaft N 60u D.
60 7 38 3 1416 0 42, Step4 Jet ratio m D d, Step5 Number of buckets Z 15 0 5 m. DESIGN OF THE PELTON WHEEL, As we know that the shape of the bucket or runner is quite complex in construction and there are material and. machine limitations to manufacture an exact form of Pelton bucket So in order to make an efficient bucket of the. Pelton wheel which will do the same work as the scientifically proved diagram of the bucket we had used some. household ladle whose shape resembles to that of a bucket. 1 Taking a mild steel flat rod of 30mm width and 0 5 mm thickness we had made a circle by hammering on an. anvil so that all the 21 nos of equidistant buckets could be placed For this purpose we measure the periphery. of the circle and marked in 21 parts as we get from calculation. 2 We then joined the circles taking 8 pieces of straight bars of 30mm width and 0 5mm thickness and joined it to. the manufactured circled bar using arc welding process. 3 Then we take the spoons or the ladle which are stainless steel and cut it at the middle leaving 5 cm from the. main bucket by using a hacksaw We also cut the upper portion of the bucket by using the grinding wheel so. that water get passes outside as shown in the diagram. 4 We then join the splitter made of thin sheet of mild steel by using special electrode made for arc welding. operation required for joining stainless steel and mild steel named as Durochrome heterogeneous welding rods. 5 We take 2cm square rod of 5cm length and cut into 21 equal dimensioned pieces using power hacksaw and. join it in the circular manufactured bar by using arc welding process as shown in the figure. 6 We then take a hollow circular mild steel bar of inner dia 25 mm having a small amount of tolerance and. fitted to the main centre of the circular framed turbine so that it can be fitted to the shaft. Copyright to IJIRSET DOI 10 15680 IJIRSET 2016 0505089 7266. ISSN Online 2319 8753, ISSN Print 2347 6710, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, An ISO 3297 2007 Certified Organization. Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016, Fig 1 Bucket of the Pelton wheel Fig 2 Pelton wheel without bucket.
Fig 3 Pelton wheel with bucket, DESIGN OF THE FRAME. Design of the frame is of great importance as it has to be manufactured in order accordingly with the design and scale. of the project The frame should have the capacity to hold the whole project firmly so that it could not fall or break. down during the running of water or running of the Pelton wheel during its live operation. 1 We start the fabrication part of the project from the construction of frame As shown in the below given. diagram we cut the L shaped mild steel bars and square hollow rods into required dimension in cm by using. a power hacksaw machine, 2 First we have joined the L shaped bars into the specified dimension so that a robust base can be fabricated. For that process we have joined and welded all the pre cut steel bars of various dimensions by using arc. welding process using E6013 type electrode3 After the construction of the main base we then cut hollow. square steel bars to be fitted vertically into the base For this purpose also we have cut the bars and welded to. the main base again by using arc welding method using E6013 type welding electrode. Copyright to IJIRSET DOI 10 15680 IJIRSET 2016 0505089 7267. ISSN Online 2319 8753, ISSN Print 2347 6710, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, An ISO 3297 2007 Certified Organization. Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016, Fig 4 Steps for completion of the main frame.
CONSTRUCTION OF NOZZLE, Nozzles are used to provide the high velocity jet coming out of the pump to the Pelton wheel We had made these. different sizes of nozzles The diameters of the nozzles are 20 25 and 30mm. For making converging nozzles we take two different sizes of cylindrical rods and cut it in machine into the desired. sizes Then both the rods are joined by using welding rods The various operation regarding the construction of various. sizes of the nozzles are shown in the picture given below We have used different types of nozzles so that we can vary. the jet velocity of the water jet so as to obtain different values of rpm of the rotating Pelton wheel. Fig 5 Steps for constructing the nozzle, Copyright to IJIRSET DOI 10 15680 IJIRSET 2016 0505089 7268. ISSN Online 2319 8753, ISSN Print 2347 6710, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, An ISO 3297 2007 Certified Organization. Vol 5 Issue 5 May 2016, DESIGN OF SHAFT, 1 We now move onto the shaft part for which we take a 35 mm diameter cylinder rod of 580 mm length We.
use lathe machine to make the shaft as per required size and for this we use operation like turning facing and. finally we get the shaft as per required size 30mm for the pelton wheel part shown in the figure. 2 To fit the shaft in the base frame and connect it to the alternator we had use bearing housing of internal. diameter 20 mm hole on the base This bearing housing is used for the purpose of holding the main shaft to the. frame rigidly The bearing housing is held tightly with the main ferame bu using nuts and bolts of 10 mm dia. and length 1 5 inch, 3 To connect the alternator and the shaft coupling is used For coupling one part of the shaft is threaded to join. the alternator We make a key slot on the shaft and the coupling part which is done in the lathe and the shaper. The design of a prototype of a hydro turbine has been discussed in this work The hydro turbine will be boon to such kind of areas where there are natural resources of falling water from some height particularly in the hilly areas and also the areas which are not connected to the national grid KEYWORDS Hydro turbine hydroelectric prototype

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