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Vibrotactile Guidance for Motor Skill Learning and Its
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Vibrotactile Guidance for Motor Skill, Learning and Its Application to. Drumming Learning, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. P OHANG U NIVERSITY OF S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY, A thesis submitted to the faculty of Pohang University of Science. and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the. degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Computer. Science and Engineering, Pohang Korea, December 20 2014. Approved by, Seungmoon Choi Academic Advisor, Vibrotactile Guidance for Motor Skill.
Learning and Its Application to, Drumming Learning. The undersigned have examined this dissertation and hereby certify. that it is worthy of acceptance for a doctoral degree from POSTECH. 12 20 2014, Committee Chair Seal, Member Seal, Member Seal. Member Seal, Member Seal, DCSE In Lee Vibrotactile Guidance for Motor Skill Learning and Its. 20065073 Application to Drumming Learning, Department of Computer Science and Engineering 2015 105P. Advisor Seungmoon Choi Text in English, With recent medical and economical advances people are spending more and more time.
on leisure time physical activities such as jogging swimming or playing music These. activities or motor skills often require to perform a certain sequence of unit movements at a. given performance speed which can be difficult to learn One efficient way of skill learning. is to observe another s demonstration and to practice the skill based on it It seems not. efficient to use the sight or hearing for demonstration observation because those channels. are usually occupied by the skill Via the sense of touch it is possible to deliver the guidance. information while making the sight and hearing available for the acquisition of other vital. information about the skill Also it can provide guidance to whom visual demonstration is. not applicable i e the blind, In this regard we propose a vibrotactile guidance method for learning complex procedu. ral motor skills using vibrotactile cues generated by multiple vibration actuators worn by. the learner Drumming is used as a target skill representing the motor skills requiring fast. patterned coordinated discrete movements of multiple limbs A natural egocentric mapping. of our system from the body site of vibrotactile stimulation to a target percussion instru. ment PI in a drum set enables intuitive guidance for striking movements The method also. informs the learner of two levels of PI striking strength by varying both the intensity and. duration of vibrotactile cues, To evaluate the performance of our method in delivering guidance information a series. of human subject experiments were conducted An initial perceptual assessment of the. system showed 96 18 of accuracy and 0 77 s of time in delivering the information on the. target PI and strength level for a single strike and it was 55 03 and 1 11 s for a pair of. concurrent strikes When provided with a sequence 4 items of single or paired vibrotactile. cues the participants showed 88 4 56 3 23 3 of response accuracy and 7 53 10 15 and. 13 71 s of response time for simple moderate and complex sequences respectively. The effectiveness of our guidance system was also evaluated with an actual experimental. scenario of drum rhythm learning Three sets of short drum rhythms were learned for. three days using different learning methods practice only practice with video guidance. and practice with vibrotactile guidance and the participant s performance was compared. among the learning methods The experimental results indicated that vibrotactile guidance. was as helpful as video guidance in learning the temporal pattern of a drum rhythm which. suggests that our vibrotactile guidance method is a viable alternative to video guidance. 1 Introduction 1, 1 1 Motivation and Goal of Research 1. 1 2 Target Motor Skill 2, 1 3 Approach 3, 1 4 Contribution 4. 1 5 Organization 5, 2 Background 6, 2 1 Motor Learning 6.
2 2 Haptic Guidance for Motor Learning 7, 2 2 1 Force feedback Guidance 7. 2 2 2 Vibrotactile Guidance 8, 2 2 3 Cuncurrency in Haptic Guidance 10. 3 Initial Study Multimodal Guidance of Random Drum Sequences 11. 3 1 Experiment Design 12, 3 1 1 Task and Apparatus 12. 3 1 2 Guidance Methods 14, 3 1 3 Experimental Conditions and Participants 17. 3 1 4 Procedures 17, 3 1 5 Performance Measures 18.
3 2 Results 19, 3 2 1 Familiarization 19, CONTENTS ii. 3 2 2 Error Ratio 20, 3 2 3 Task Completion Time 21. 3 2 4 Subjective Evaluation 22, 3 3 Discussion 23, 3 3 1 Familiarization 23. 3 3 2 Error Ratio 24, 3 3 3 Task Completion Time 25. 3 3 4 Subjective Evaluation 26, 3 4 Conclusions 26.
4 Vibrotactile Drumming Guidance System 28, 4 1 Hardware 28. 4 2 Guidance Method 29, 4 3 Vibrotactile Guidance System Improvements 30. 4 3 1 System Improvements 32, 5 Experiment I Identification of a Cue 34. 5 1 Methods 36, 5 1 1 Participants 36, 5 1 2 Three Cue Response Tasks 36. 5 1 3 Procedures 38, 5 1 4 Performance Measures 39.
5 2 Results 41, 5 2 1 Effects of Processing Stage 41. 5 2 2 Effects of Cue Position and Strength 43, 5 3 Discussion 44. 5 3 1 Effects of Processing Stage 44, 5 3 2 Effects of Cue Position and Strength 45. 6 Experiment II Identification of Paired Cues 47, 6 1 Methods 47. 6 1 1 Participants 47, 6 1 2 Experimental Tasks and Vibrotactile Cues 47.
6 1 3 Procedures 48, 6 1 4 Performance Measures 49. CONTENTS iii, 6 2 Results 50, 6 2 1 Comparison between Experiment I 1 and I 2 50. 6 2 2 Effects of Concurrent Cue Presentation 52, 6 2 3 Effects of Cue Position Pair and Strength Pair 52. 6 3 Discussion 54, 6 3 1 Effects of Concurrent Cue Presentation 54. 6 3 2 Effects of Cue Position Pair and Strength Pair 56. 7 Experiment III Series Identification of Single or Paired Cues 58. 7 1 Methods 58, 7 1 1 Participants 58, 7 1 2 Task and Stimuli 58.
7 1 3 Procedures 60, 7 1 4 Performance Measures 63. 7 2 Results 63, 7 2 1 Recognition of Single or Paired Cues 64. 7 2 2 Series Recognition of Cues 65, 7 3 Discussion 65. 7 3 1 Recognition of Single or Paired Cues 65, 7 3 2 Series Recognition of Cues 68. 8 Experiment IV Application to Drumming Learning 71. 8 1 Methods 71, 8 1 1 Participants 71, 8 1 2 Task 71.
8 1 3 Conditions 73, 8 1 4 Procedures 74, 8 1 5 Performance Measures 75. 8 2 Results 77, 8 2 1 Performance Before Learning 78. 8 2 2 Guidance and Practice During Learning 78, 8 2 3 Performance Gains from Learning 79. 8 3 Discussion 81, 8 3 1 Guidance and Practice During Learning 81. 8 3 2 Targeting 81, CONTENTS iv, 8 3 3 Timing 82, 8 3 4 Strength Level 83.
9 Conclusions and Future Work 85, REFERENCES 90, List of Figures. 3 1 Instrument note cue relationships 12, 3 2 Example task and visual guidance given to the participant 12. 3 3 Participant learning the sight reading skill 13. 3 4 Schematic diagram of rhythm generation using amplitude modulation 15. 3 5 Experimental procedures 19, 3 6 Mean error ratios with standard error bars 20. 3 7 Mean task completion times with standard error bars 22. 3 8 Mean subjective evaluation scores with standard error bars 23. 4 1 Hardware for vibrotactile drumming guidance a Electronic drum set with. nine percussion instruments PIs b and c Vibrotactile vest and ankle. bands mirror images respectively Relationships between PIs and body. sites are denoted by numbers 29, 4 2 a Hardware for vibrotactile drumming guidance b Modified layout of. vibration motors mirror images Relationships between PIs and body sites. are denoted by numbers 31, 5 1 Visual scenes provided in each experiment task 37.
5 2 Mean error rates for four processing stages Error bars represent stan. dard errors 42, 5 3 Mean processing times s for four processing stages Error bars represent. standard errors 42, LIST OF FIGURES vi, 5 4 Tukey s HSD test results on the processing time s of each processing stage. for different body sites Black dots represent stimulated body sites and. those with the same alphabet are of the same performance group by the test 44. 6 1 Mean error rates for four processing stages Error bars represent stan. dard errors 51, 6 2 Means and standard errors of the processing times s for four processing. 6 3 Graphical representation of the best upper row and the worst lower row. nine cue position pairs for the cue detection time D the cue recogni. tion error rate eR and time R and the response execution time E. Each pair is represented by a line connecting two body sites circles with. thickness representing its rank thick 1 3rd normal 4 6th dashed 7 9th 54. 6 4 Mean recognition error rates for the pairs of cue strengths n normal. and A accented Type A represents the misses caused by incorrect selec. tion of a target circle while Type B is for those with correct target selection. but wrong strength response Conditions with the same alphabet above the. bar are of the same performance group by the test 55. 7 1 Example of visual scenes provided to the participant and brief summary of. two experimental sessions 61, 7 2 Performances of single cues and cue pairs Higher correctness score and. shorter response time indicates better performance 64. 7 3 Performances of three cue combination types of different complexity levels 66. 8 1 Three sets of target rhythms 72, 8 2 Example visual scene 73.
8 3 Performance measures of participants measured at T1 7 for three learning. methods 84, List of Tables, 5 1 Two way ANOVA results on the main effects of cue position and cue strength. on two performance measures e error rate processing time measured. in four processing stages D detection R recognition C choice E exe. 6 1 T test results that compared two experiments I 1 and I 2 I 2 and II us. ing two performance measures e error rate processing time for four. processing stages D detection R recognition C choice E execution 50. 6 2 Two way ANOVA results of Experiment II for the effects of cue position. pair and strength pair on two performance measures e error rate pro. cessing time for four processing stages D detection R recognition C. choice E execution 53, 7 1 List of choices for a single cue and a cue pair Each body site is represented. by a unique number in the same way with Fig 60, 7 2 Comparisons of three cue combinations used in the experiment 60. 8 1 Three way ANOVA results on the effects of test point T learning method. M and existence of visual feedback F for three performance measures 79. Introduction, This study pertains to haptic guidance for learning coordinated discrete movements of mul. tiple limbs using vibrotactile cueing Drumming is used as a target skill representing those. requiring fast patterned coordinated discrete movements of the two arms and two feet. Our guidance method makes use of all of the spatial temporal and intensity aspects of. vibrotactile cues using by multiple tactors distributed on the learner s body. 1 1 Motivation and Goal of Research, A steady decline in the average work hours and an increased lifespan as a result of medical.
advances have allowed individuals to have more leisure time People are spending more. and more time on leisure time physical activities for better health and lifestyle 72 56. Frequent physical activities are ranged from those of moderate intensity e g walking or. weight lifting to more vigorous ones e g running swimming or aerobics including. artistic activities e g dancing or playing music These activities or motor skills often re. quire to perform a certain sequence of unit movements at a given performance speed which. can be difficult for beginners and requires explicit external guidance For the guidance. computerized guidance devices can be a good alternative of relatively expensive personal. trainers or instructors, Motivated by this we aim to develop an efficient guidance method for the learning of. 1 2 TARGET MOTOR SKILL 2, motor skills Specifically our research goal is to construct an efficient guidance system for. a complex cognitive motor skill involving a number of actions of multiple body extremities. which can be mastered after a prolonged practice, 1 2 Target Motor Skill. Playing drum rhythms in which an individual reads sheet music and simultaneously plays a. drum set according to the music piece was selected for the research as it was considered to. be one good example of complex cognitive motor skills A drum set is a musical instrument. comprised of many percussion instruments PIs and it provides the groove of music by. the repetitive and rhythmic presentation of percussion sound patterns i e drum rhythms. Playing all drum rhythms correctly and fluently is vital to good drumming so learning of. drum rhythms is the main content of drum lessons for novice drummers Playing a drum. rhythm involves a series of fast single or multiple drum strikes and this requires a series of. fast coordinated discrete movements of hands and feet Every strike must be executed onto. a PI with high accuracy in position timing and strength even a small error in a drum strike. can cause a substantial change in the overall perception of the drum rhythm. For practice learners read musical notations on a drum music piece interpret their mean. ings and execute the designated drumming sequence They make various execution errors. because they lack a well established knowledge for reading music and motor program for. degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering Pohang Korea December 20 2014 Approved by Seungmoon Choi Academic Advisor Vibrotactile Guidance for Motor Skill Learning and Its Application to Drumming Learning In Lee The undersigned have examined this dissertation and hereby certify that it is worthy of acceptance for a doctoral degree from POSTECH 12

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