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Veterinary Drugs
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to achieve cures In livestock farming sometimes thousands of animals are treated at one time in. batch drug treatments However there is now in the veterinary world a slight reformation going. on with the realization that nutrition management of stress genetics quarantine isolation housing. and nursing can in fact be equally relevant in successfully treating such animals Every species of. animal can be treated with drugs Fish reptiles and even insects can be given drugs Drugs for. which there is a big market such as in the livestock and fish industries are specially designed and. manufactured by large multinational companies for that species and are tested and licensed before. they are released for use Some of these drugs are produced and used by the ton and this has raised. concerns about the overuse of drugs Drugs for which there is a small market such as in the treatment. of snakes are often those which were originally designed and licensed for another species but were. found by experience to be effective, III What types of veterinary drugs are there and how are they used. The drugs used by vets are at least as many if not more. than those used by doctors The list would include antibiotics. used to kill certain bacteria anthelminthics, used to kill internal parasites insecticides used to kill fleas. lice mites and ticks hormones used to treat infertility and. promote growth drugs to treat specific conditions such as. heart and respiratory disease anaesthetics and others The. list is endless, The route of administration is similarly variable Drugs can. be injected by the subcutaneous intradermal intramuscular Intradermal Drug Route. or intravenous route or they can be inhaled nebulized or. mixed in the water or in the food Drugs mixed into drinking water or food is a common method of. administration used in pig and poultry farms often to reduce the stress of handling individuals. The addition of antibiotics into animal feed is a controversial matter particularly if they are used as. a growth promoter or for the prevention of disease However an antibiotic used in feed for therapy to. treat a large group of sick animals provided they still have an appetite is considered a good way to. Food Medicated Drug Route Intramuscular Drug Route. treat thousands of individuals Tons of food can be so medicated having the antibiotic inside it. Drugs for external treatment can be poured shampooed sponged or rubbed on and in some cases. the whole animal can be placed in a bath dip of drug in solution This dipping is a common method. used for treating sheep and cattle for parasites,IV What is the good use of a veterinary drug. The good use of a good drug is such that it achieves a cure But a. good drug must also have series of caveats A caveat is a warning or. proviso of specific stipulations conditions or limitations about. the use of the drug one reason being that many drugs are poisonous. if used incorrectly Drugs wrongly used can in some circumstances be. lethal Examples of the caveats about drugs,are as follows the drug should have little or.
no side effects or deleterious effects on the,animal being treated no deleterious effects. Poured on Skin Drug Route,on the person managing the animal none. on the person who may consume the animal,if the animal is one designed to be eaten. and little or no deleterious effects on the,environment as whole Government as we. shall see has involvement in these matters,In simple terms the government tries to make.
sure that all the caveats about a drug are Nebulized Drug Route. complied with, V What are the potential dangers to Water Medicated Drug Route. the general public with regard to veterinary drugs. As mentioned above the overuse of,Drugs animals and mutations. antibiotics in livestock production may The World Health Organization has detected increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics. as a direct result of overuse of drugs in agriculture. lead to antibiotic resistance developing, in both animal and man The potential Path of resistance. spread of antibiotic resistance is of 1 Antibiotic given to. 5 Same antibiotic,farm animals to,serious concern worldwide keep them healthy. given to humans,has no effect as the,pathogen is already.
Recently scientists have detected low,levels of veterinary medicines in soils. surface waters and ground waters, worldwide Although the environmental 2 Antibiotic protects animal. against known strains, of bacterial infection 3 Mutated form of bacteria 4 Humans infected by mutant. occurrence and associated impacts of resists antibiotic. contaminates meat,bacteria after consumption,of infected meat. Antibiotic Resistance,Sourced from World Health Organization.
some compounds such as selected antibacterial compounds have been investigated the impacts of. many other substances found in the environment are not well understood As a result questions have. arisen about the effects of veterinary medicines on organisms in the environment and on human health. VI What is the role of government in these matters. The answer is that just as there are,good drugs so there must be bad drugs. That is drugs that are fakes drugs that, are ineffective drugs that are dangerous Livestock Treatments. Veterinary Medicines Manufacturing,Although to some extent the pharmaceutical. industry through its own industry standards, can set certain controls it is the opinion Treatment of. Aquaculture,Treatments,Companion Inappropriate Disposal of.
of nearly every government in the world Animals Used Containers and. Unused Medicines,Storage of, that it is government s role to stop the sale and Slurry. and supply of bad veterinary drugs,Furthermore it is the role of government to. Manure and Slurry, stop the incorrect or bad use of any drug Spreading. Soil Receiving,no matter whether the drug itself is good. Vertinary Medicines in the Environment, or bad http toxics usgs gov highlights vet meds html Ref 1.
It is after all perfectly possible to take a good,broncho dilator drug like clenbuterol. designed to treat allergic respiratory,disease in horses and to misuse it Thus people. have been known to manufacture clenbuterol,and supply it to pig farmers The pig farmers give. it to the pigs as a lean meat growth promoter,This is good business for the drug company and. the farmer but in fact is placing members of the,general public at risk because the residue of.
clenbuterol in the meat is dangerous to humans,Prohibited Chemicals in Farm Animals. where it is known to cause muscle tremor,headache dizziness and gastric irritation. Even when administered correctly veterinary medicine residues can thus remain in animal products. such as meat as in the case of clenbuterol above fish eggs honey and milk after slaughter or. collection and so make their way into the food chain Withdrawal periods are therefore imposed. The withdrawal period is the waiting time that must elapse before treated animals can be slaughtered. or their products such as milk and eggs are collected for human consumption A safety based legal. Maximum Residue Limits in Food Animal Tssues, limit called a maximum residue limit MRL is calculated for most registered veterinary. drugs and represents the maximum amount of the drug that is safely and legally permitted in the meat. or other animal products for human consumption The use of withdrawal periods ensures that residues. do not exceed legal limits and provides assurance of public safety. Government is thus required to produce legislation controlling such matters and has to employ and. empower enforcement officers to make sure the law to prevent the misuse of drugs is applied See X. VII What is the role of the general public in using veterinary drugs. The role of the general public in these matters is to understand and act in accordance with the good. use of any drugs they have dealings with This would also mean that their actions would comply with. the laws of Hong Kong Thus if they have been given veterinary drugs to give to an animal they. should give that drug to the correct animal That is the one animal or one group of animals that the. veterinarian has told them to give it to For example if they have been given a drug that has been. supplied to them for the use in poultry they,should not give it to pigs. They should only use drugs supplied to,them by a legal supplier They should not.
use drugs obtained from doubtful or illegal,sources The reason for this is common. sense it is not simply a matter of law Any,drug supplied from a dubious. source is an unknown quantity It could,have anything in it It might kill the animal. or it might cure it Even if the animal survives,the experience of this unknown drug the. Chemical Residues Regulations for Farm Animals, residues of the drug or any contaminants present in the drug may be left in the body tissues of the.
animal such as the muscle This may well make it dangerous for humans at some later time to consume. the meat of this animal, The fact that the person has used the drug before obtained by an illegal or dubious source is no. guarantee that the most recent batch of the drug supplied to them is safe The reason is that there is no. control or guarantee The drugs legally and correctly supplied in Hong Kong do have a strong form. of guarantee This is because as we shall see checks have been made to ensure as far as possible. when used correctly the risk to the animal to the environment and to the general public is minimal. and acceptable The aim which is in line with government s aim is to comply with the caveats of. the use of any drug, One of the most important but often forgotten roles of the general public is to correctly store or. dispose of any as yet unused excess or out of date drug Drugs unused and or incorrectly stored. represent a possible danger to others and to the environment while there is legislation to cover this. aspect it is the primary responsibility of every adult citizen at all times to store or dispose of drugs in. a sensible and responsible manner Many drugs can in fact be regarded as diluted poisons if these. potential poisons are found by say young children or by pets or disposed of in a river tragedies can. VIII How are veterinary vaccines and veterinary drugs related. Vaccines are not drugs or medicines and although they do have some chemical preservatives inside. their makeup they are not chemicals as we normally understand the term but usually highly complex. biological materials Or to put it another way they are made of chemicals but because they are. biological agents the active chemical molecules are usually much larger and more complex than. normal drugs Nevertheless because vaccines are often put into an animal in an unnatural way for. example by injection and because by their by nature many vaccines are unnatural and made by. man it has been thought that the safe option is to treat them in many respects like drugs The root. of the argument for doing this is safety first The laws and procedures involved with these vaccines. reflect this approach, IX How does government by legislation and enforcement action ensure that only. good veterinary drugs are used and these,drugs are used in a good way. The government does play an active role in this, matter At first sight this action is not very obvious.
The legislation looks good but it is not obvious at. first sight what is actually happening Or to give, an illustration the legislation looks like a beautiful. Avian Influenza Vaccination, swan but it is hard to see the legs in the water underneath paddling away It is hard to see the. enforcement action used to ensure the law is complied with It is not possible in this short article to. describe all the actions taken But if one looks at the whole process from importation Hong Kong has. no veterinary pharmaceutical manufacturing industry to retail supply to use of drugs to disposal of. drugs and protection of consumers from exposure to these drugs one can see examples of this work. These are described in the following Boxes 1 and 2. How are Veterinary Drugs Prescribed in Hong Kong, In general in Hong Kong veterinary drugs may only be purchased on and in accordance. with a prescription signed by a registered veterinary surgeon or in the case of farmers in. accordance with an antibiotic permit issued by the Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation. Department, In order to prevent the misuse of drugs strict conditions apply to the giving of a prescription. and to their dispensing supply and labeling, In so prescribing the veterinarian will have examined the animal s recently and would.
be personally acquainted with the keeping and care of the animal s. The prescription will be for animal treatment only and the drug shall not be dispensed. more than once It will be signed and dated by the prescribing veterinarian specifying his. or her address and the name and address of the person to whom the medicine is to be. delivered It will also indicate the name and total amount of the medicine to be supplied. by the dispenser pharmacist and the dose to be taken by or administered to the animal s. In addition the dispenser pharmacist is under strict orders to label the medicine for animal. treatment only to label the dose to be taken or administered and in certain situations to. The fact that the person has used the drug before obtained by an illegal or dubious source is no guarantee that the most recent batch of the drug supplied to them is safe The reason is that there is no control or guarantee The drugs legally and correctly supplied in Hong Kong do have a strong form of guarantee This is because as we shall see checks have been made to ensure as far as

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