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VELAMMAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY MADURAI
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5 What is the composition of earth, Crust Low density minerals like quartz and feldspar. Mantle MgSiO3 Iron calcium aluminium silicate etc,Core sulphur and oxygen. 6 Define interior of earth, The real interior of the earth is nowhere exposed to our direct observations With our. present scientific skills we can hardly penetrate more than a few kilometers below the Earth. whereas the average radius of the Earth is taken as 6371km As such our present views regarding. the internal structure of the Earth are based on indirect geophysical methods These involve. application of very sensitive instruments complicated calculations and imaginative. interpretations The study of seismic waves forms the single most important source of. information for the interior of the Earth The earth interior is divided in to three parts. 7 Define mantle, It is the second concentric shell of the Earth that lies beneath the crust everywhere This. zone starting from the lower boundary of the crust The mohorovicic discontinuity continues. upto a depth of 2900km The exact nature of the mantle is as yet incompletely understood It has. been sub divided into an upper mantle and a lower mantle the boundary between the two layers. being placed between 900 1000km The structure of the upper mantle is believed to be quite. complex It is assumed to be made up of two layers, B layer fairly uniform in composition and nearly400 km thick.
C layer about 600km thick and where limited changes in chemicatl composition are indicated. The lower mantle is believed to have a less complex structure. 8 Define core, It is the innermost concentric shell of Earth as deciphered from the record of seismic. wave It s existence was first suggestd by R D Oldham in 1906 and subsequently confirmed by. other seismologists The core boundary begins at a depth of 2900km from the surface and the. region extends to the centre of the Earth at 6371 km Further studies of the behaviour of. seismic waves reveal that the core itself can be distinguished into at least to main zones the. outer core and the inner core The outer core 2900km to 4580km resembles a liquid like. substance because S wave are not transmitted through this zone at all It is the characteristic of. S waves or shear waves that they do not travel through liquids The inner core with a thickness. of around 1790 km is believed to be a solid metallic body. 9 What is the seismic properties of earth, If the earth were of uniform nature from the surface t0 the centre seismic waves traveling. through it would be recorded on the opposite and without undergoing any significance changes. are interruptions in their velocity during their journey Conversely a major change in the. velocity of seismic waves at some depth below the surface can be take to mean that there is a. change in the nature of the medium at that particular depth Such a major change in the velocity. of seismic waves is called a seismic discontinuity and is of fundamental importance in the. interpretation of the internal structure of the Earth. A number of such seismic discontinuities have been repeatedly observed during many. earthquakes in the past and the calculated depths at which they occur show remarkable. agreement As such these are now accepted as established facts and believed to demarcate. different zones within the body of the Earth The tow most important seismic discontinuities are. the Mohorovicic discontinuity and The Mantle Core discontinuity These basic discontinuities. demarcate three major internal zones in the constitution of the Earth the crust the mantle and. 10 What is mohorovicic discontinuity, This is the first major discontinuity iin the seismic records for the earth and is named after its. discover a mohorovicic it occurs in the seismic records at depth between 30 40 km below the. continents 5 6 km below the oceans and 60 70 km below the mountains It is observed that both. p and s waves on reaching these depths sharp increase in their velocity Thus P waves attain a. velocity of 7 75 km per second from an original velocity of 5 54 km sec in the upper layer. Similarly S waves start travelling at 4 35 km sec from an original velocity of 3 35 km sec in the. immediate upper layer, Thus the Mohorovicic discontinuity marks the lower limits of the uppermost shell or. sphere of the earth which is named as crust The layer is merely 35 km thick on an average. under the continents and 5 6 km under the oceans Comparisons of the Earth with an old large. sized apple will help clarifying the conception of crust The crust is to the Earth what skin is to. the apple a very thin hard and wrinkled sheet or covering. 11 Define weathering, The process by which rocks are broken down and decomposed by the action of external.
agencies such as wind rain temperature changes etc is called as weathering or weathering is. a process involving disintegration and decomposition of rocks The disintegrated and the. altered materials stay at the site of formation If these materials are transported from the site with. the help of natural agencies such as wind running water etc the process is called as erosion. Weathering is categorized as a mechanical chemical biological. 12 What is physical weathering Mechanical Weathering. Mechanical weathering In mechanical weathering the process involves only fragmentation or. break down of the rock into smaller fragments pieces In nature the physical breaking of rocks. are caused by several processes Waterfalls landslides during their fall cause extensive. breakdown of rocks Thus gravity contributes to mechanical disintegration of rocks However all. the processes involve widening of the fractures resulting in the detachment of blocks surrounded. by the weak planes 13 Explain the term chemical weathering. Chemical weathering involves chemical reactions resulting in the alteration of the rock. leading to the formation of new alteration products Water is the best fluid that directly affects. rocks by way of Dissolution Leaching making porous Hydration Oxidation Hydrolysis etc. 14 What is biological weathering, Biological weathering involves breakdown of rocks by living organisms Bacteria fungi. Living organisms release organic acids viz Oxalic acid Phenolic acid Folic acid Acetic Acid. Humic acid etc which cause decomposition of rocks Some of the microorganisms penetrate. into mineral crystals and remove specific ions from the inter layers Eg removal of K from. mica layers by fungi is an example of this type Man is also responsible for unnatural weathering. of rocks for construction of buildings dams bridges etc. There are two process which are concerned with the biological weathering are. 1 Bio physical process,2 Bio chemical process,15 Explain spheroidal weathering. It is a complex type of weathering observed in jointed rocks and characterized with the. breaking of original rock mass into spheroidal blocks the original solid roc is split into small. blocks b development of parallel joints due to isolation Simultaneously the chemical weathering. processes corrode the borders and surfaces of the blocs causing their shapes roughly into. spheroidal contours,16 Explain pedestal rock with neat diagram. Pedestal rock The rock particles travel along with blowing wind are commonly more. concentrated near the surface of the earth than higher up in the atmosphere blasts of wind. therefore cause more of abrasion near the earth s surface than in the higher horizons Vertical. columns of rocks are thus more readily worn out towards their lower portions and as a result. pedestal rocks or mushroom rocks are formed Figure 3. 17 Differentiate between pot holes and Ventifact, Ventifacts Due to wind abrasion small sized rock fragments having one two three or more. polished faces The polishing of the sides of the originally rough fragments is carried out by. prolonged wind abrasion on the surface of each fragment The exposed irregular surface of a. rock fragments are gradually converted into a plane surface which may be smooth and even. polished is called as ventifacts, These are variously shaped depression of different dimensions in the river bed that are excavated.
by extensive river erosion The formation of a pot holes are initiated by plucking out of a piece. of soft rock from the river bed by the river,18 Explain deflation. Deflation is the process of simply removing the loose sand and dust sized particles from an area. by fast moving winds Wind deflation can successfully operate in comparatively dry regions with. little no rainfall and where the mantle is unprotected due to absence of vegetation. 19 Define plate tectonics, The theory of plate tectonics supposes that the sphere of the earth is made up of 7 major and. Several minor plates which are in constant motion relative to each other The motions of the. plates refer to the rigid slabs of the continental and oceanic crust that slides over the plastic zone. of asthenosphere of the upper mantle A fractures egg shell forms a good analogy to the spherical. plates of the earth These plates are bounded by active linear zones causing volcanism and. earthquakes,20 What are the major plates,1 North American plate. 2 South American plate,3 Eurasian plate,4 African plate. 5 Indo Australian plate,6 Pacific plate,7 Antartic plate.
21 Define earthquake, Earthquakes are vibrations or oscillations due to sudden disturbances in the earth which produce. elastic waves which travel away in all directions from the point of origin. 22 Define Richter scale, Richter Magnitude is the logarithm to the base of 10 of the maximum seismic waves amplitude. recorded on a seismograph at a distance of 100 from the epicenter. Richter Earthquake Magnitudes Effects,Less than 3 5 Generally not felt but recorded. 3 5 5 4 Often felt but rarely causes damage,Under 6 0 At most slight damage to well designed. buildings Can cause major damage to,poorly constructed buildings over small.
6 1 6 9 Can be destructive in areas up to about,100 kilometers across where people. 7 0 7 9 Major earthquake Can cause serious damage over larger areas. 8 or greater, Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred kilometers across. earthquake, Richter s scale has magnitude numbers upto 10 But the maximum known magnitude is around. 9 6 only An earthquake magnitude of 6 0 involves energy of around 2 5x10 ergs equivalent to. that of an atom bomb while for magnitude of earthquake is 7 0 it is around 80x10 ergs. equivalent to that of a Hydrogen bomb For an earthquake of magnitude is 8 0 then the energy. may be around 2500x10 ergs most powerful,23 Define Mercalli scale. Intensity Effects,I Not serious, II Felt by few persons at rest particularly on upper floors of buildings.
III Vibrations similar to a moving truck,IV Windows and doors rattle loose objects disturb. V Breakage of dishes wall plaster breaks,VI Walls crack. VII Slight to moderate damage in well built structures. VIII Falling of walls, IX Ground cracks breakage of underground pipes considerable damage to buildings. X Bending of rails occurrence of land slides,XI Buildings destroy. XII Total destruction surface displacements objects thrown into air. The intensity of earthquake can be measured with the help of Mercalli scale The intensity of. earthquake can be measured with the help of Mercalli scale Their write seismic zones of india. measurements are expressed for degree of vibration. 24 Define aquifer, It is defined as a rock mass layer or formation which is saturated with groundwater and which.
by virtue of its properties is capable of yielding the stored water at economical costs when. tapped Gravels limestone and sandstone generally form good aquifers when occurring in. suitable geological conditions and geographic situations. 25 Define confined and unconfined aquifer, Two basic types of aquifers are distinguished on the basis of physical conditions under which. water can exist in them the unconfined aquifer and the confined aquifer. Unconfined aquifer It is also called a water table aquifer and is the most common type. encountered in the field In this type the upper surface of water or the water table is under. atmospheric pressure which may be acting through the interstices in the overlying rocks Water. occurring in this type of aquifer is called free groundwater. Confined aquifer It is a rock formation saturated with water and capable of yielding water. when tapped but unlike unconfined aquifer has an overlying confining pressure Naturally held. in this type of aquifer is not under atmospheric pressure but under a greater pressure due to the. confining medium The upper surface of water in a confined aquifer is called piezometric. 26 What is erosion, Erosion is meant disintegration of the rocks by a natural agent Streams are the most powerful. sub aerial agent of erosion They perform their erosion works in the following ways By. hydraulic action Cavitations Abrasion Attrititon Corrosion. 27 Define seismology, Seismology the science dealing with the natural phenomena relating to earthquakes The. Greek word seismos means shaking Earthquakes are vibrations or oscillations due to sudden. disturbances in the earth which produce elastic waves which travel away in all directions from. the point of origin These elastic waves are called seismic waves. 28 Define denundation, It is general term used when the surface of the earth is worn away by chemical as well as. mechanical actions of physical agents and the lower layers are exposed This happens when the. rocks were exposed for a sufficient length of time to the attacks of physical agents. 29 Define the following term i focus ii epicenter, The exact spot underneath the earth s surface at which an earthquake originates is known as its.
The earthquake then moves in the from of wave which are spread in all directions These waves. first reach the point at the surface which is immediately above the focus or origin of the. earthquake This point is called epicentre,30 What are the causes for earthquake. The earthquake may be caused due to various reasons. Earthquakes due to superficial movements,Earthquake due to volcanic eruptions. Earthquake due to folding or faulting, 31 List out the various aftershock effect of earthquake. Loss of habitat,Economic loss for the country,Forest fire. Floods Dam collapse Landslide volcanic eruption,Death and injury of peoples.
32 Define earthquake resistance structures, The earthquake resistance structure is different from the earthquake proof structure The. earthquake proof structure completely safe without any damages but the cost of earthquake. proof structure is too high whereas the earthquake resistance structure protect the structure from. 33 How oxbow lake is formed, isolate curved or loop shaped parts of a meandering stream often contains some supplies. of water called as oxbow lakes,34 What is traction. Traction is when large materials such as boulders are rolled and pushed along the river. bed by the force of the river,35 What is perched water table. A perched water table is an accumulation of groundwater that is above the water table in. the unsaturated zone The groundwater is usually trapped above an impermeable soil layer such. as clay and actually forms a lens of saturated material in the unsaturated zone. 36 What are the discontinuities found in the earth. The propagation of these seismic waves P waves and S waves inside the earth demarcates. different zones by two major and three minor discontinuities These discontinuities are due to. differential composition and nature of the earth,The major discontinuities are.
a Mohorovicic discontinuity crust mantle discontinuity and. b Gutenberg discontinuity mantle core discontinuity. The minor discontinuities are,a Conrad discontinuity sial sima in crust. b Repetiti discontinuity outer mantle inner mantle and. c Lehmann discontinuity outer core inner core,37 Difference between stalactites and stalagmites. Stalactites and stalagmites are formed in caves by the deposition of calcium carbonate. Stlactites are the conical deposits that form at the roof of the cave and hang downward while. stalagmites are those that form on the bottom of the cave and grow upward as water drips down. from above,38 What is connate water, In geology and sedimentology connate fluids are liquids that were trapped in the pores. of sedimentary rocks as they were deposited These liquids are largely composed of water but. also contain many mineral components as ions in solution. 39 What is desert pavement, A mosaic of pebbles and large stones which accumulate as the finer dust and sand. particles are blown away by the wind,40 What is meant by continental drift.
The gradual movement of the continents across the earth s surface through geological. 41 What is Conrad discontinuity, A boundary within the Earth s continental crust that can be detected seismically at about. 10 12 km depth although exploratory deep drilling has failed to locate it The boundary. separates the crust into a lower basic layer and an upper granitic layer. 42 What is meant by freeze thaw, Water may get into a crack in a rock and freeze As the water turns into ice it expands and. causes the crack to open a little When it thaws the ice melts and changes back to water. Repeated freezing and thawing weakens the rock and splits it into jagged pices This type of. weathering is common in mountainous areas where temperatures are often around freezing. 43 How Oasis is formed, In many desert areas deflation produces hollows or basin with their bottom at water. table Such basins containing some water are called oasis. 44 Distinguish between swash and backswash, As waves approach the shore and water becomes shallower friction occurs with the seabed. This slows down the base of the wave However because the top of the wave is not affected by. the friction it keeps its energy so the wave becomes higher and steeper until eventually it breaks. The water which rushes up the beach is called swash. As the wave loses its momentum energy is transferred back to the sea this return flow is called. The force of the swash and backwash determines whether the waves are constructive waves or. destructive waves,45 Define deflation, Deflation is the process of simply removing the loose sand and dust sized particles from.
an area by fast moving winds Wind deflation can successfully operate in comparatively dry. regions with little or no rainfall and where the mantle is unprotected due to absence of. vegetation, 46 What do you understand by spheroidal weathering. When weathering occurs part of the disintegrated rock material is carried away by. running water or any other transporting agent Some of them are left on the surface of the. bedrock as residual boulders These boulders are then rounded off to spheroidal cores by the. simultaneous attack of eroding agents on all sides It is often seen that these boulders have an. onion like structure This kind of weathering is called spheroidal weathering. 1 Write short notes on, i Crust ii Mantle iii Core iv Stratosphere v Atmosphere. 2 Explain briefly about Branches of geology, 3 Write a critical essay on weathering and its significance in engineering construction. 4 Give an account of geological work of river explaining briefly some major geological. 5 Give an account of geological work of wind explaining briefly some major geological. 6 Write short notes on, a Hydraulic action b Abrasion c Attrition d Corrosion. 7 Explain the causes classification of earthquake, 8 Briefly explain the origin and occurrence of ground water.
1 What is a mineral, A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid substance that is characterized with a. definite chemical composition and very often with a definite atomic structure. 2 What is ore mineral, Ore forming minerals are those which are found in abundance in the rocs on the crust but. beneath ground and have high economic value,3 Define rock forming mineral. A few minerals not more than one hundred form the great bulk of the rock of the crust of the. earth These very common minerals have been grouped together as roc forming minerals Among. the roc forming minerals we shall confine our stud to the following three groups 1 sillicates 2. oxides 3 carbonates, 4 List the various physical properties of minerals. Physical chemical optical properties,Physical properties.
iii Streak,iv Hardness,v Cleavage,vi Fracture,vii Tenacity. viii Structure,ix Specific gravity,xi Miscellaneous. 5 What is the various colour classification of mineral. Idiochromatic fairl constant colour eg metallic minerals like copper group. Allochromatic variable colour eg non metallic minerals like quartz. Pseudochromatic false colour It is seen to show a set of colours in succession. The change of colour is attributed to simultaneous reflection and refraction from the mineral. surface at different locations,6 Write the difference between lusture and streak. The colour of mineral in poeder form is called as streak. the appearance of mineral surface in reflected light is called as lusture. 7 Define Mohs scale of hardness, Mohs scale of hardness comprises ten minerals arranged in order of ascending hardness. The softest is assigned a value of 1 and the hardest a value of 10. Talc 1 Feldspar 6,Gypsum 2 Quartz 7,Calcite 3 Topaz 8.
Fluorite 4 Corundum 9,Apatite 5 Diamond 10, 8 What are the various fractures present in a mineral. The common types of fractures are even uneven conchoidal splintry hackly and earthy. 9 List any two structure of a mineral, Tabular structure elongated structure bladed structure lamellar structure fibrous structure. granular structure,10 Define the specific gravity of a mineral. In mineralogy the term specific gravity signifies the ratio between the density of a mineral. and that of water at 4 Celsius It has no unit, 11 Define phosphorescence characteristics of a mineral. It is similar to fluorescence in essential character but in this case light is emitted by mineral. not during the act of exposure to radiation but after the substance is transferred rapidly to a dark. 12 Define chain structure of silicate group minerals. All silicates are simple or complex repetition of a fundamental silicon oxygen Tetrahedron. represented Ba a formula SiO4 In this setup the small SiO4 is situated at the center and is. surrounded on the four sides b relatively big oxygen ions The dimensions of the unit cell of. silicon oxygen tetrahedron is constant This fundamental unit is repeated lined and joined in. different was to get different types of silicate structure. 13 Define sheet structure with diagram, Sheet silicate structure is two dimensional continuation of silicon tetrahedron commonly.
results in a layered or sheet structure In this structure three of the four oxygen in unit tetrahedron. are shared with neighboring tetrahedron, 14 What is the chemical composition of feldspar group. In chemical constitution feldspar are chiefly aluminosilicates of N K and ca with. following general formula WZ4O8,In which W N K Ca and Ba.

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