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Vasile ZOTIC Diana Elena ALEXANDRU Debate on the
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Vasile ZOTIC Diana Elena ALEXANDRU, Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning vol 4 no 1 2013 129 142. dimensions iv leaving out the Vitruvian dimensions in modelled by several driving forces mainly influenced by. architecture and urbanism the contemporary society the great population movement from rural to urban. adopting rather a mimetic position than discovering areas This has led to major transformations especially. itself and its values All these connotations of the at the periphery of the urban areas eventually missing. primary cause are even more reflected in habitat quality sustainability and management Even though the. and personality cities becoming simple residential sustainability of Richard Rogers 2008 should become. areas not being able to declare them as the expression the guiding principle of modern urban design the reality. of human culture and civilization What to do Aside of new cities built rapidly and highly dense due to. from the fact that it s time we wake up from collective agglomeration of incoming population reveal little. indifference it is even more necessary to rediscover the thought for future environmental or social impact 2 p. Vitruvian features in architecture and urbanism and 5 7 Due to the reckless urban sprawl we also perceive. find expression for the artistic creation the lost of significance of the terms of building and. dwelling Gunter A Dittmar 2000 concluding that, 2 THEORY AND METHODOLOGY ultimately the building itself has been reduced to. engineering and construction whereas dwelling has, Architecture plays an important role in the been replaced by dwellings and buildings as. urban landscape both through aspect and structure inhabitable functional shelters 3 In the end we. influenced by the socioeconomic context and also by should also consider the contemporary globalized. influencing the human behaviour and functionality of conditions technology and sustainability concerns. the inhabited urban area At the same time brought to attention by Sirowy Beata 2010 who. architectural patterns have developed in time due to the explained how they to some extent unsettle the previous. various ideologies and timeframes always passing form ways of thinking about architecture and debated on the. old to new but regulated by guidelines like aesthetics diagrammatization of architectural theory 20. space cost efficiency economic crisis functionality. rationality and others No matter the scale or time 2 1 Vitruvian triad revisited. period the main qualities of the building beauty, functionality and durability have always been taken Any debate on architecture architectural. into account eventually opting either to incorporate expression urban design or urban development has. them all or just to a certain extent almost always been based on the Vitruvian triad and its. Our approach focuses on the several aspects of three symmetrically proportioned major dimensions. architecture with certain limitations mainly based on named differently along the years as features. perception and not from the viewpoint of architectural conditions properties qualities or even demands. professionals and practice However the results consist firmitas utilitas venustas Vitruvius De Architectura. in revealing the major first hand factors and effects or firmness commodity delight Henry Wotton 1624. perceived as influential in the current urban design and p 201 or strength utility and beauty Joseph Gwilt. architectural related future choices in the context of 1826 durability convenience and beauty Morris. urban sustainable development First we try to clarify Hickey Morgan 1914 soundness utility and. the significance of the Vitruvian triad soundness attractiveness Rowland and Howe 1999 7 or. utility and beauty and its employment in the urban strength function and beauty Eric Inman Daum. architecture during time and the shapes it has taken 2009 Starting from the initial Vitruvian definition of. since as Rabun Taylor 2003 stated it has never been firmitas as mass and solidity crafted to endure. not immune to taste and cultural change 1 p 22 eternally we got the sense of permanence which laid. Then our perspective is framed by perception over years as a grounding definition for the term s. understanding and acknowledging the importance of evolution into contemporary usage 9 Firmitas. architecture in the urban identity and order despite the represents the static feature of a building related to. accelerated growth both economically and resistance to the action of gravity and other physical. demographically Literature abounds in debates on forces force by resonance shear strength elasticity and. architecture related aspects certain specialists paying others as well as environmental factors temperature. tribute to Vitruvius and its De architecture while others wind humidity 10 pp 9 12 The architectural. diminish or argue on the role of the fundamental expression of this attribute is determined by the type of. architectural dimensions in the contemporary construction materials used stone brick wood. architecture like Jeremy Till 2007 considering the concrete steel etc the configuration of the resistance. Vitruvian triad as simplistic but a pervasive call for structure of a building and the visibility of this structure. coherence whereas its components background in its architecture 10 pp 9 12 This was the first of the. beginnings rather than the foreground ends 4 p 120 Vitruvian features established and enhanced by man in. 121 Much of the contemporary urban architecture has the history of human civilization starting from the. been dictated by the evolution of the urban areas Stone Age Today we are the witnesses of a number of. Debate on the Presence Absence of the Vitruvian Triad in the Current Architecture and Urban Design. Journal Settlements and Spatial Planning vol 4 no 1 2013 129 142. artefacts from that period such as the assembly of 2 2 Representative architectural patterns. Stonehenge in the UK or the megalithic fortress, Sacsayhuaman near the Peruvian city Cuzco in South The permanent adaptation of the Vitruvian.
America Compared to other dimensions of this triad architectural triad over time has led to the structuring. this is the only one that cannot be substituted or of several architectural representative patterns. removed from the wholeness of a building because it models acknowledged and validated as archetypes. would lead to collapse determined by its own weight or that have represented inspiration for the schools of. other forces mentioned Due to its indispensability this architecture and urban design and their. dimension has experienced a long process of adaptation representatives These archetypes have shaped and. and transformation in accordance with construction stylized architectural conceptions leading to the. requirements and the evolution of construction emergence of architectural styles and beautification of. materials and social needs needs for shelter advocacy urban habitat When approaching the three basic. defence manufacturing warehousing etc Hence the dimensions of architecture in order to reveal the most. second dimension utilitas was developed too representative patterns developed in time we used the. Utilitas is the special dimension representing synthetic analysis made by Mihaela Criticos 2007 in. the adaptation of construction to the purpose and her course on Architectural Language Considering her. functionality for which it was designed Purpose and focused classifications we tried to highlight the most. functionality of a building derive from the basic and representative examples as to eventually reveal the. secondary human needs Once with the increasing of main reasons for the dissolution of the Vitruvian triad. these needs this feature has been developed as well mainly present in the residential areas. currently being found in a variety of types If the first Firmitas dimension was the first that went. part of the history of human civilization is dominated by through transformations and successive adjustments in. the firmitas dimension dictated by the type of building time as proved by Pierre von Meiss 2012 so that we. materials or type of representation the archaic the currently find it enhanced and shaped due to the. Gothic imposing the features of firmitas dimension actions and proposals of the active specialists in the. e g civil engineering in ancient Rome sumptuous on field We note the most visible trends in modelling. the outside yet with reduced functionality inside in the architectural soundness emphasizing on technological. modern and contemporary period once with the integration in which art and technique are in perfect. diversification of building materials and in particular balance and whose promoter is Frank Lloyd Wright see. the extensive use of reinforced concrete steel glass fig 1 excitement in which technique is emphasized. aluminium the utilitas dimension has become and represents the main means of architectural. dominant imposing the adaptation of firmitas to its expression and whose promoter is Pier Luigi Nervi see. requirements Thus the interior spaces of the buildings fig 2 figuration in which technique is considered not. have become bulky for multipurpose use and adjusted only a sophisticated technical image but also a. for housing and needs of manufacturing storage metaphor overlapping structural reality see fig 3. provision of public services leisure and recreation dissimulation in which technique is hidden under. Venustas expresses the aesthetic artistic other technique due to multiple reasons in which a. symbolic and poetic architectural dimension having the reference image prestige is needed The representative. role of decoration beautification and personalization of of this trend in architecture is Andrea Palladio see fig. a construction or building Venustas dimension can 5 subordination in which technique is subject to a. result either from the association and expression of the prevailing artistic expression and whose core. other two dimensions firmitas and utilitas or can representative is Charles douard Jeanneret Gris. stand as a complementary individual feature expressing known as Le Corbusier see fig 5 10 p 12. through proportions ornaments facade and colour Throughout the history of architecture utility. Thus venustas can be equated with art and symbolism has always sought its place and corresponding. together since the artistic feature of a work lies not only proportion within the triad In the end as James F. in its physical reality but primarily in the meanings O Gorman 1998 stated architecture starts with utility. expressed by form with the need and this need should be fulfilled by the. Starting from the ancient times and ending building through the form given by the architect and the. with the modern and contemporary period Venustas builder 19 p 17 Utility is determined both by the type. dimension has known a variety of forms of expression and the quality of construction materials used and the. eventually all transformed into architectural styles The technical and architectural solutions available Ever. expressiveness of architectural forms is determined since the modern and contemporary period this. both by their absolute reality geometry texture and dimension has started to become dominant in the triad. colour and by the meanings they explicitly convey It resulting from two major perspectives practical. ultimately depends on how they are perceived by the functionality volume space material use quantity. observer according to the associations or connections and idealistic functionality comfort significance. they determine symbol quality 10 p 12,Vasile ZOTIC Diana Elena ALEXANDRU. Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning vol 4 no 1 2013 129 142. Fig 1 Frank Lloyd Wright one of his architectural Fig 4 Villa Capra La Rotonda Vicenza Italia. artworks personal house 21 24, Fig 2 St Mary s cathedral San Francisco USA 22 Fig 5 Notre Dam Cathedral Ronchamp France 25. Fig 3 Burj al Arab Hotel in Dubai high tech Fig 6 Marriot Marquis Hotel Atlanta SUA 26. architecture in tourism 23, Debate on the Presence Absence of the Vitruvian Triad in the Current Architecture and Urban Design. Journal Settlements and Spatial Planning vol 4 no 1 2013 129 142. Then all of the perspectives on the highlighted by scale and proportion and by using a. functionality in architecture derive from the changing of specific architectural approach For example in the case. perspectives and needs and perception challenges of of factories and plants pipelines and chimneys express. the new and the musts of the urban development industrial functionality see fig 7 Social meaning. Practical functionality relates to compliance refers to iconic or symbolic signs indicating a certain. of space and volume conditioned by the function of the social or group status Most significant in this respect. building and defines the relationship between the are the headquarters of large transnational corporations. interior spaces of the building volume distribution that convey the social significance and financial. functional design of the construction Practical strength through architectural greatness see fig 8. functionality is tailored to each category of Cultural meaning is about iconic or symbolic signs. constructions and it is the fundamental premise for expressing the cultural identity of a group or a place. their long term operation Incorrect thinking and The most striking example is the traditional. Debate on the Presence Absence of the Vitruvian Triad in the Current Architecture and Urban Design Vasile ZOTIC 1 Diana Elena ALEXANDRU 1 1 Babe Bolyai University Faculty of Geography Centre on Research of Settlements and Urbanism Cluj Napoca ROMANIA E mail zoticv geografie ubbcluj ro diana alexandru geografie ubbcluj ro K e y w o r d s Vitruvian triad architectural patterns urban

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