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Form Approved OMB No 0704 0188,REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE. The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response including the time for reviewing instructions searching. existing data sources gathering and maintaining the data needed and completing and reviewing the collection of information Send comments regarding this. burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information including suggestions for reducing this burden to the Department of Defense Executive. Services and Communications Directorate 0704 0188 Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law no person shall be. subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1 REPORT DATE DD MM YYYY 2 REPORT TYPE 3 DATES COVERED From To. June 2000 Technical Paper,4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACT NUMBER. Some History and Hydrology of the Panama Canal,5b GRANT NUMBER. 5c PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER,6 AUTHOR S 5d PROJECT NUMBER. Arthur F Pabst,5e TASK NUMBER,5F WORK UNIT NUMBER, 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME S AND ADDRESS ES 8 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER.
US Army Corps of Engineers TP 159,Institute for Water Resources. Hydrologic Engineering Center HEC,609 Second Street. Davis CA 95616 4687, 9 SPONSORING MONITORING AGENCY NAME S AND ADDRESS ES 10 SPONSOR MONITOR S ACRONYM S. 11 SPONSOR MONITOR S REPORT NUMBER S,12 DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY STATEMENT. Approved for public release distribution is unlimited. 13 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES, Presented at Watershed Management Operation Management 2000 Colorado State University Fort Collins Colorado.
20 24 June 2000,14 ABSTRACT, At the request of the Panama Canal Commission now Panama Canal Authority the Hydrologic Engineering Center. participated in the development of a model to simulate the exiting operation of the Panama Canal System This model was. developed to be a basis for evaluating alternative water use scenarios The model reflected the existing two lakes Gatun. Lake and Madden Lake navigation lockage water demands municipal water supply hydropower and flood spillway. flows This paper describes some of the history related to the construction of the Panama Canal the lock and lake design. that was implemented and some of the water sues in the basin. 15 SUBJECT TERMS, Panama Canal canal hydrology canal reservoir operations canal history. 16 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 17 LIMITATION 18 NUMBER 19a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON. a REPORT b ABSTRACT c THIS PAGE OF OF,ABSTRACT PAGES. U U U 19b TELEPHONE NUMBER,Standard Form 298 Rev 8 98. Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39 18,Some History and Hydrology.
of the Panama Canal,US Army Corps of Engineers,Institute for Water Resources. Hydrologic Engineering Center,609 Second Street,Davis CA 95616. 530 756 1104,530 756 8250 FAX,www hec usace army mil TP 159. Papers in this series have resulted from technical activities of the Hydrologic. Engineering Center Versions of some of these have been published in. technical journals or in conference proceedings The purpose of this series is to. make the information available for use in the Center s training program and for. distribution with the Corps of Engineers, The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of. the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising publication or. promotional purposes Citation of trade names does not constitute an official. endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. Some History and Hydrology of the Panama Canal,Arthur F Pabst.
US Army Corps of Engineers,Hydrologic Engineering Center. Davis California,I Introduction, The Hydrologic Engineering Center HEC par ticipated in the development of models for. evaluating current and future alternatives for sustaining and improving water management of the. Panama Canal This paper presents some history regarding the construction of the Panama Canal. and a general overview of the hydrology of the canal watershed. I1 Historical Overview, The United States officially took over the task of canal construction on May 4 1904. Approximately ten years later on August 15 1914 the steamer SS Ancon made the first official. canal transit Much has been written about the events that led up to the United States taking up. the gauntlet after the French attempt which cost dearly in economic and human suffering The. French exerted intense political effort within the US in the hope of recovering some of the. financial loss they suffered Significant conflicts existed between several US political factions. regarding where an Atlantic Pacific canal should be built. Dedicated in memory of,Gaspar Alvarado,March 7 1939 to July 20 1999. Hydrologic Engineer,Panama Canal Commission,Gaspar Alvarado.
Pabst Operations Management 2000 1 Histo y Hydrology Panama Canal. Figure 1 Alternative canal sites From Ref 1, Figure 1 shows five of the proposed routes that were under consideration The strongest. alternative to the actually constructed route was the one in Nicaragua Politics at the time played. a significant role in these decisions as compared to engineering considerations There were. several interests that sought to influence which of the routes should be chosen with the French. hoping to reduce their financial losses by selling their canal rights in Panama to the US. Pabst Operations Management 2000 Histo y Hydrology Panama Canal. Figures 2 and 3 show items that,were used by the advocates of the. Panama route to counter those favoring,the Nicaragua route The flat arch. located in Panama City shown in,Figure 2 was offered as proof that. Panama was an area of stable ground,conditions As the photo shows this.
flat arch still exists today The,Nicaraguan postage stamp shown in. Figure 3 was sent to each US senator,to carry the message that Nicaragua was. an area of unstable ground conditions,Figure 2 Flat arch in Panama City Nov 1998. In the time preceding the route,decision Panama was a territory of. Columbia The choice of Panama as a,route naturally required negotiation with.
Columbia These negotiations did not go,well eventually leading to the local. Panama politicians triggering a revolt for,their own independence from Columbia. The US stood to benefit greatly by such a,change and under the guise of protecting. US interests in the Panama Railroad US,Naval vessels appeared on the Atlantic and. Pacific coasts of Panama effectively,blocking Columbia from dealing with the.
rebellion In the end the French interests,were payed 40 000 000 for the canal. works the new Panama government was,payed 10 000 000 and the US effort. commenced Later in 1921 Columbia, was payed 25 000 000by the US for the Figure 3 Nicaraguan stamp showing a volcano. loss of Panama From Ref 1,I11 Engineering Considerations. The French had considered several alternative canal designs in their initial eff0r t The. sea level design had won out based on the successfbl French built Suez Canal With greater. engineering information to go on the US abandoned the French design and proceeded with a. design based on a large lake at elevation 85 with three locks at the Atlantic North side at Gatun. and a one and two lock combination on the Pacific South side The sea level design suffered. Pabst Operations Management 2000 3 History Hydrology Panama Canal. greatly fiom the larger volume of excavation required and from flooding that would have. occurred along the Chagres River The Chagres River was subject to fiequent flooding that. would have endangered the canal and impacted navigation traffic By constructing a dam near. the mouth of the Chagres River the combined effect of reducing excavation and mitigating flood. impacts was achieved at the cost of constructing lock structures. Figure 4 Panama Canal Features Gatun and Madden Lakes. Figure 4 shows the location of the lakes and lock structures Dual lock chambers were. constructed at all locations permitting bidirectional transits and allowing lock maintenance to be. performed with only reduced traffic capacity All lock chambers are 1000 feet in length and 110. feet in width The locks are controlled by a well designed. electro mechanical conb ol system Figure 5 in place and still. functional since 1914,Some of the lock gate,systems Figure 6 have.
been upgraded with,hydraulic components,however in some locks. the same gear,mechanisms that were,designed in 1914 are. currently being used to,open and close the lock, Figure 5 Lock control panel Figure 6 Gear gate mechanism 1914. From Ref 2 From Ref 2, Pabst Operations Management 2000 History Hydrology Panama Canal. IV Hydrology, The Panama Canal watershed is 1289 square miles drained by six rivers The Chagres is.
the largest of the rivers and is the source for a major portion of the watershed runoff. Figure 7 Map showing stream gage locations, Figure 7 shows the location of the major stream gages in the basin Clockwise from the. top the Gatun River is gaged at Ciento CNT the Boqueron at Peluca PEL the pequeni at. Candelaria CDL the Chagres at Chico CHI the Trinidad at El Chorro CHR and the Ciri. Grande at Los Canones CAN The records at these long term stations provide excellent. information for modeling runoff into the system The Madden dam on the upper Chagres was. completed in 1934 to provide water storage flood control and hydropower The Madden dam. controls 396 square miles of tributary area About 30 years of data are available for all these. gages with longer records being available for some of the gages Four meteorological stations. record wind humidity radiation and related parameters. Pabst Operations Management 2000 5 History Hydrology Panama Canal. A network of more than 30,precipitation gages and a weather. radar station monitor rainfall events,over the area The locations of the. precipitation gages are shown in,Figure 8 The predominant storm. direction is fiom the north On the,Atlantic coast warm moist air from.
the Caribbean Sea crosses the isthmus,moving southward The mountains. 400 to 900 feet high,along the northeast coast of the. watershed cause uplift which,contributes to the production of about. 130 inches of annual precipitation in,that area Thirty miles south at. Balboa on the Pacific coast the,precipitation is about 60 inches or.
only half as much,Figure 8 Network of Precipitation gages. Figure 9 shows the key,elements of the water budget in the. Canal watershed Madden Lake,receives inflow from its contributing. drainage area Municipal water,supply is withdrawn fiom the Madden. Reservoir All other outflows fkom,Madden contribute to Gatun Lake.
Madden attempts to pass all of its,releases through its power turbines. Spillway discharges are necessary,during high flow periods The. primary use of Gatun water is for,lockages on the Atlantic and Pacific. coasts When excess water is present,discharges are made through turbines. at Gatun Dam Flows in excess of,turbine capacity are passed over the.
Gatun spillway Municipal water Figure 9 Water budget for Panama Canal System. supply is also withdrawn from Gatun, Pabst Operations Management 2000 History Hydrology Panama Canal. On an annual basis the Canal watershed receives about 101 inches of precipitation. Approximately 40 inches of this precipitation is lost fiom the perspective of water budget going. to infiltration groundwater and plant use Approximately 6 inches is estimated to evaporate. from lake surfaces Spill during high flows accounts for about 4 inches on an annual basis Of. the remaining 5 1 inches 3 1 inches are used for lockages 17 inches are used for hydropower and. 3 inches satisfy municipal water supply needs, Figure 10 Percentiles of Water Surface Elevations for Gatun Lake 1966 to 1998. The nominal water surface elevation of Gatun Lake is 85 feet with an average elevation. of 85 70 feet The maximum elevation of record is U 93 feet shown by the dotted line near the. top of Figure 10 occurred in 1993 Of particular interest is the lowest elevation of record Until. 1998 the lowest elevation of record was 80 59 feet In 1998 the level dropped to 78 55 shown. by the dotted line near the bottom of Figure lo a full two feet lower than previously. experienced since the canal was opened in 1914 Figwe 10 shows percentiles of Gatun lake. elevation on a daily basis for the period 1966 through 1998 The curves from highest to lowest. are the Maximum value 90 7 5 2 5 and 10 percentiles and the Minimum value The canal. watershed system shows a remarkable resilience in its ability to recover fiom extreme conditions. The dark curve traces the daily elevations through August 1998 where it returned to the median. level after the record low in April, Pabst Operations Management 2000 7 History Hydrology Panama Canal. V Reservoir Modeling, In support of Panama Canal Authority PCA studies investigating canal capacity the. HEC developed an HEC 5 Reservoir simulation model of the existing canal system The model. included the two reservoirs Gatun and Madden reservoir operation rules and a representation of. the system water demands for lockage and municipal water supply The HEC 5 model also. included hydropower generation spillway discharges and lake evaporation The model was. verified using the derived lake inflows for the period of January 1980 through July 1998 The. model was evaluated as to its ability to represent the behavior of the system under existing. conditions The verified existing condition model was then the basis for evaluating alternative. system modifications As alternatives are proposed the model can be changed to evaluate the. ability of the system to meet increased lockage demands growth in municipal usage and. hydropower goals Those alternatives that appear to be feasible can be simulated in detail at a. daily operational time interval,VI Acknowledgments.
In addition to the references cited below a great deal of information was provided by PCA. staff Significant contributions of basic data discussion on behavior of the canal system and. operating experience were provided by the following individuals of the PCA Met Hyd Branch. Sigli Probst Retired Carlos Vargas Jorge Espinosa Modesto Echevers Manuel Vilar Mike. Hart and Maritza Chandeck Assistance was also furnished by staff of the Canal Capacity. Projects Office Teodolinda Atencio Jorge de la Guardia Abelardo Bal Agustin Arias and John. VIP References, 1 The Path Between the Seas by David McCullough A Touchstone Book Simon Schuster. 1977 Much of the historical material cited is based on this interesting and complete book on the. building of the Panama Canal, 2 The Building of the Panama Canal in Historical Photographs By Ulrich Keller Dover. Publications NY 1983, 3 The Panama Canal Informational brochure by Panama Canal Commission 1997. 4 www pancanal com Panama Canal Authority Web Site 2000. 5 Panama Canal Reservoir System Project Repor t Hydrologic Engineering Center Davis CA. 6 Panama Canal Capacity Study Flow Data Processing Project Report Hydrologic. Engineering Center Davis CA 1999, Pabst Operations Management 2000 8 History Hydrology Panama Canal. Technical Paper Series, TP 1 Use of Interrelated Records to Simulate Streamflow TP 39 A Method for Analyzing Effects of Dam Failures in.
TP 2 Optimization Techniques for Hydrologic Design Studies. Engineering TP 40 Storm Drainage and Urban Region Flood Control. TP 3 Methods of Determination of Safe Yield and Planning. Compensation Water from Storage Reservoirs TP 41 HEC 5C A Simulation Model for System. TP 4 Functional Evaluation of a Water Resources System Formulation and Evaluation. TP 5 Streamflow Synthesis for Ungaged Rivers TP 42 Optimal Sizing of Urban Flood Control Systems. TP 6 Simulation of Daily Streamflow TP 43 Hydrologic and Economic Simulation of Flood. TP 7 Pilot Study for Storage Requirements for Low Flow Control Aspects of Water Resources Systems. Augmentation TP 44 Sizing Flood Control Reservoir Systems by System. TP 8 Worth of Streamflow Data for Project Design A Analysis. Pilot Study TP 45 Techniques for Real Time Operation of Flood. TP 9 Economic Evaluation of Reservoir System Control Reservoirs in the Merrimack River Basin. Accomplishments TP 46 Spatial Data Analysis of Nonstructural Measures. TP 10 Hydrologic Simulation in Water Yield Analysis TP 47 Comprehensive Flood Plain Studies Using Spatial. TP 11 Survey of Programs for Water Surface Profiles Data Management Techniques. TP 12 Hypothetical Flood Computation for a Stream TP 48 Direct Runoff Hydrograph Parameters Versus. System Urbanization, TP 13 Maximum Utilization of Scarce Data in Hydrologic TP 49 Experience of HEC in Disseminating Information. Design on Hydrological Models, TP 14 Techniques for Evaluating Long Tem Reservoir TP 50 Effects of Dam Removal An Approach to. Yields Sedimentation, TP 15 Hydrostatistics Principles of Application TP 51 Design of Flood Control Improvements by Systems. TP 16 A Hydrologic Water Resource System Modeling Analysis A Case Study. Techniques TP 52 Potential Use of Digital Computer Ground Water. TP 17 Hydrologic Engineering Techniques for Regional Models. Water Resources Planning TP 53 Development of Generalized Free Surface Flow. TP 18 Estimating Monthly Streamflows Within a Region Models Using Finite Element Techniques. TP 19 Suspended Sediment Discharge in Streams TP 54 Adjustment of Peak Discharge Rates for. TP 20 Computer Determination of Flow Through Bridges Urbanization. TP 21 An Approach to Reservoir Temperature Analysis TP 55 The Development and Servicing of Spatial Data. TP 22 A Finite Difference Methods of Analyzing Liquid Management Techniques in the Corps of Engineers. Flow in Variably Saturated Porous Media TP 56 Experiences of the Hydrologic Engineering Center. TP 23 Uses of Simulation in River Basin Planning in Maintaining Widely Used Hydrologic and Water. TP 24 Hydroelectric Power Analysis in Reservoir Systems Resource Computer Models. TP 25 Status of Water Resource System Analysis TP 57 Flood Damage Assessments Using Spatial Data. TP 26 System Relationships for Panama Canal Water Management Techniques. Supply TP 58 A Model for Evaluating Runoff Quality in. TP 27 System Analysis of the Panama Canal Water Metropolitan Master Planning. Supply TP 59 Testing of Several Runoff Models on an Urban. TP 28 Digital Simulation of an Existing Water Resources Watershed. System TP 60 Operational Simulation of a Reservoir System with. TP 29 Computer Application in Continuing Education Pumped Storage. TP 30 Drought Severity and Water Supply Dependability TP 61 Technical Factors in Small Hydropower Planning. TP 31 Development of System Operation Rules for an TP 62 Flood Hydrograph and Peak Flow Frequency. Existing System by Simulation Analysis, TP 32 Alternative Approaches to Water Resources System TP 63 HEC Contribution to Reservoir System Operation. Simulation TP 64 Determining Peak Discharge Frequencies in an. TP 33 System Simulation of Integrated Use of Urbanizing Watershed A Case Study. Hydroelectric and Thermal Power Generation TP 65 Feasibility Analysis in Small Hydropower Planning. TP 34 Optimizing flood Control Allocation for a TP 66 Reservoir Storage Determination by Computer. Multipurpose Reservoir Simulation of Flood Control and Conservation. TP 35 Computer Models for Rainfall Runoff and River Systems. Hydraulic Analysis TP 67 Hydrologic Land Use Classification Using. TP 36 Evaluation of Drought Effects at Lake Atitlan LANDSAT. TP 37 Downstream Effects of the Levee Overtopping at TP 68 Interactive Nonstructural Flood Control Planning. Wilkes Barre PA During Tropical Storm Agnes TP 69 Critical Water Surface by Minimum Specific. TP 38 Water Quality Evaluation of Aquatic Systems Energy Using the Parabolic Method. TP 70 Corps of Engineers Experience with Automatic TP 105 Use of a Two Dimensional Flow Model to Quantify. Calibration of a Precipitation Runoff Model Aquatic Habitat. TP 71 Determination of Land Use from Satellite Imagery TP 106 Flood Runoff Forecasting with HEC 1F. for Input to Hydrologic Models TP 107 Dredged Material Disposal System Capacity. TP 72 Application of the Finite Element Method to Expansion. Vertically Stratified Hydrodynamic Flow and Water TP 108 Role of Small Computers in Two Dimensional. Quality Flow Modeling, TP 73 Flood Mitigation Planning Using HEC SAM TP 109 One Dimensional Model for Mud Flows.
TP 74 Hydrographs by Single Linear Reservoir Model TP 110 Subdivision Froude Number. TP 75 HEC Activities in Reservoir Analysis TP 111 HEC 5Q System Water Quality Modeling. TP 76 Institutional Support of Water Resource Models TP 112 New Developments in HEC Programs for Flood. TP 77 Investigation of Soil Conservation Service Urban Control. Hydrology Techniques TP 113 Modeling and Managing Water Resource Systems. TP 78 Potential for Increasing the Output of Existing for Water Quality. Hydroelectric Plants TP 114 Accuracy of Computer Water Surface Profiles. TP 79 Potential Energy and Capacity Gains from Flood Executive Summary. Control Storage Reallocation at Existing U S TP 115 Application of Spatial Data Management. Hydropower Reservoirs Techniques in Corps Planning. TP 80 Use of Non Sequential Techniques in the Analysis TP 116 The HEC s Activities in Watershed Modeling. of Power Potential at Storage Projects TP 117 HEC 1 and HEC 2 Applications on the. TP 81 Data Management Systems of Water Resources Microcomputer. Planning TP 118 Real Time Snow Simulation Model for the. TP 82 The New HEC 1 Flood Hydrograph Package Monongahela River Basin. TP 83 River and Reservoir Systems Water Quality TP 119 Multi Purpose Multi Reservoir Simulation on a PC. Modeling Capability TP 120 Technology Transfer of Corps Hydrologic Models. TP 84 Generalized Real Time Flood Control System TP 121 Development Calibration and Application of. Model Runoff Forecasting Models for the Allegheny River. TP 85 Operation Policy Analysis Sam Rayburn Basin, Reservoir TP 122 The Estimation of Rainfall for Flood Forecasting. TP 86 Training the Practitioner The Hydrologic Using Radar and Rain Gage Data. Engineering Center Program TP 123 Developing and Managing a Comprehensive. TP 87 Documentation Needs for Water Resources Models Reservoir Analysis Model. TP 88 Reservoir System Regulation for Water Quality TP 124 Review of U S Army corps of Engineering. Control Involvement With Alluvial Fan Flooding Problems. TP 89 A Software System to Aid in Making Real Time TP 125 An Integrated Software Package for Flood Damage. Water Control Decisions Analysis, TP 90 Calibration Verification and Application of a Two TP 126 The Value and Depreciation of Existing Facilities. Dimensional Flow Model The Case of Reservoirs, TP 91 HEC Software Development and Support TP 127 Floodplain Management Plan Enumeration. TP 92 Hydrologic Engineering Center Planning Models TP 128 Two Dimensional Floodplain Modeling. TP 93 Flood Routing Through a Flat Complex Flood TP 129 Status and New Capabilities of Computer Program. Plain Using a One Dimensional Unsteady Flow HEC 6 Scour and Deposition in Rivers and. Computer Program Reservoirs, TP 94 Dredged Material Disposal Management Model TP 130 Estimating Sediment Delivery and Yield on. TP 95 Infiltration and Soil Moisture Redistribution in Alluvial Fans. HEC 1 TP 131 Hydrologic Aspects of Flood Warning, TP 96 The Hydrologic Engineering Center Experience in Preparedness Programs.
Nonstructural Planning TP 132 Twenty five Years of Developing Distributing and. TP 97 Prediction of the Effects of a Flood Control Project Supporting Hydrologic Engineering Computer. on a Meandering Stream Programs, TP 98 Evolution in Computer Programs Causes Evolution TP 133 Predicting Deposition Patterns in Small Basins. in Training Needs The Hydrologic Engineering TP 134 Annual Extreme Lake Elevations by Total. Center Experience Probability Theorem, TP 99 Reservoir System Analysis for Water Quality TP 135 A Muskingum Cunge Channel Flow Routing. TP 100 Probable Maximum Flood Estimation Eastern Method for Drainage Networks. United States TP 136 Prescriptive Reservoir System Analysis Model. TP 101 Use of Computer Program HEC 5 for Water Supply Missouri River System Application. Analysis TP 137 A Generalized Simulation Model for Reservoir. TP 102 Role of Calibration in the Application of HEC 6 System Analysis. TP 103 Engineering and Economic Considerations in TP 138 The HEC NexGen Software Development Project. Formulating TP 139 Issues for Applications Developers. TP 104 Modeling Water Resources Systems for Water TP 140 HEC 2 Water Surface Profiles Program. Quality TP 141 HEC Models for Urban Hydrologic Analysis. TP 142 Systems Analysis Applications at the Hydrologic TP 153 Risk Based Analysis for Corps Flood Project. Engineering Center Studies A Status Report, TP 143 Runoff Prediction Uncertainty for Ungauged TP 154 Modeling Water Resource Systems for Water. Agricultural Watersheds Quality Management, TP 144 Review of GIS Applications in Hydrologic TP 155 Runoff simulation Using Radar Rainfall Data. Modeling TP 156 Status of HEC Next Generation Software. TP 145 Application of Rainfall Runoff Simulation for Development. Flood Forecasting TP 157 Unsteady Flow Model for Forecasting Missouri and. TP 146 Application of the HEC Prescriptive Reservoir Mississippi Rivers. Model in the Columbia River Systems TP 158 Corps Water Management System CWMS. TP 147 HEC River Analysis System HEC RAS TP 159 Some History and Hydrology of the Panama Canal. TP 148 HEC 6 Reservoir Sediment Control Applications TP 160 Application of Risk Based Analysis to Planning. TP 149 The Hydrologic Modeling System HEC HMS Reservoir and Levee Flood Damage Reduction. Design and Development Issues Systems, TP 150 The HEC Hydrologic Modeling System TP 161 Corps Water Management System Capabilities.
TP 151 Bridge Hydraulic Analysis with HEC RAS and Implementation Status. TP 152 Use of Land Surface Erosion Techniques with.

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