Updated Health And Air Pollution In New Zealand Study-Books Pdf

Updated Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand Study
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Disclaimer, This research was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand the. Ministry for the Environment the Ministry of Transport and the New Zealand. Transport Agency through the HRC s Partnership Programme. The views expressed in research reports are the outcomes of the independent. research and should not be regarded as being the opinion or responsibility of the. funding partners The material contained in the reports should not be construed in. any way as policy adopted by the funding partners or indeed any agency of the New. Zealand Government The reports may however be used by New Zealand. Government agencies as a reference in the development of policy. While research reports are believed to be correct at the time of their preparation. the funding partners and agents involved in their preparation and publication do not. accept any liability for use of the research People using the research whether. directly or indirectly should apply and rely on their own skill and judgement They. should not rely on the contents of the research reports in isolation from other sources. of advice and information If necessary they should seek appropriate legal or other. expert advice,Updated Health and Air Pollution in,New Zealand Study. Volume 1 Summary Report,Prepared by, Gerda Kuschel and Jayne Metcalfe Emission Impossible Ltd. Emily Wilton Environet Ltd,Jagadish Guria Independent Consultant. Simon Hales University of Otago,Kevin Rolfe Independent Consultant.
Alistair Woodward University of Auckland,March 2012. Lead author Gerda Kuschel Emission Impossible Ltd, Suite 1 6 D72 Building 72 Dominion Road Mt Eden Auckland 1024 64 9 629 1435. gerda emissionimpossible co nz mob 64 21 2700 639,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report i. Acknowledgements,This project was originally funded by. o Health Research Council of New Zealand,o Ministry of Transport.
o Ministry for the Environment,o NZ Transport Agency. With in kind support from,o Ministry of Health,o Auckland Council. During the course of the project the following three councils supplemented the funding to. enable the Health Effects Model to automatically output results by all 71 airsheds across. New Zealand,o Auckland Council,o Waikato Regional Council. o Environment Canterbury, In addition to the funding the authors would also like to acknowledge the invaluable. assistance provided by various staff members from,o Northland Regional Council.
o Auckland Council,o Waikato Regional Council,o Bay of Plenty Regional Council. o Gisborne District Council,o Hawke s Bay Regional Council. o Taranaki Regional Council,o Horizons Manawatu Wanganui Regional Council. o Greater Wellington Regional Council,o Tasman District Council. o Nelson City Council,o Marlborough District Council.
o Environment Canterbury,o West Coast Regional Council. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report ii. o Otago Regional Council,o Southland Regional Council. And the inimitable guidance provided by the Environmental Health Joint Research Steering. Committee members comprising,o Iain McGlinchy Chair Ministry of Transport. o Gary Hook Health Research Council,o Louise Wickham Ministry for the Environment.
o Rob Hannaby New Zealand Transport Agency,o Frances Graham Ministry of Health. o Janet Petersen Auckland Council,March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report iii. Executive Summary, This report estimates the health impacts and social costs1 associated with air pollution in. New Zealand for 20062, Although air pollution is a complex mixture of contaminants and particles this report is. based on particulate matter less than 10 micrometres in size commonly known as PM10. because the majority of health effects in New Zealand are associated with this pollutant. and it is a good indicator of the sources and effects of other air pollutants. Air pollution health effects in New Zealand were first comprehensively assessed in the. Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand HAPINZ study undertaken by Fisher et al 2007. In this original study health effects were evaluated for 67 urban areas based on the 2001. population and ambient monitoring data The resulting social costs were presented in NZ. as at June 2004 The authors estimated that air pollution from all sources in New Zealand. was responsible for approximately 1 400 premature deaths per year of which 1 100. premature deaths were attributed to anthropogenic human caused sources. Since the release of the original HAPINZ study both the data availability and the. understanding of air pollution health effects have improved In particular air quality. monitoring is now undertaken in most urban locations in New Zealand largely in response. to the introduction of a national environmental standard for ambient PM10 concentrations. in September 2005, This report was commissioned to update the original study and is based on existing.
published work detailed below as new research was not conducted for this update. o population data taken from the 2006 census, o recent monitoring inventory and source apportionment data collected across New. Zealand covering or representing ambient PM10 concentrations experienced in. 2006 averaged over 2006 2008, o recent epidemiological results for the main health impacts of air pollution exposure. for key population sub groups e g M ori and children as well as for the whole. population and, o updated social costs in NZ as at June 2010 particularly the use of a transport. risk road safety based value of a statistical life VOSL but not including any loss. of life quality due to prolonged pain and suffering. Costs here are referred at as social costs rather than health costs because they denote the total costs to. society of the health effects which are more than just the costs incurred by the health system. 2006 was chosen as it is the year of the most recent census. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report iv. The update estimates annual average PM10 concentrations for each census area unit CAU. across New Zealand and determines health effects and social costs associated with a range. of air pollution sources including,o domestic fires used for home heating.
o motor vehicles3,o industry,o open burning, o natural sources e g sea spray and windblown dust. We have developed a Health Effects Model based on an Excel spreadsheet which allows. end users to output results nationally regionally by Territorial Local Authority TLA4 by. Statistics NZ urban areas or by airshed End users are also able to run scenarios for. comparison with the base case by selecting from a range of plausible input values of. population exposure and epidemiological exposure response functions The scenario. option can be used to undertake sensitivity testing to test the effects of different. assumptions evaluate the effects of population and emissions trends or review the. effectiveness of different air quality management options. Key Findings from the Update, The primary health impact resulting from air pollution in terms of social costs is. premature mortality in adults More than 2 300 New Zealanders are estimated to die. prematurely each year due to exposure to PM10 pollution from all sources with just over. half associated with anthropogenic sources, The total health impacts associated with anthropogenic air pollution in New Zealand each. o 1 175 premature deaths in adults and babies, o 607 extra hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiac illnesses. o 1 49 million restricted activity days days on which people cannot do the things. they might otherwise have done if air pollution was not present. This source includes on road vehicles only off road vehicles aviation marine and rail are not included. Note the number of TLAs is based on those that were in existence for the 2006 census In 2010 there was an. amalgamation of the eight Auckland councils so the number of TLAs is now 67 excluding the Chatham Islands. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report v.
The total social costs associated with anthropogenic air pollution in New Zealand are. estimated to be 4 28 billion per year or 1 061 per person with the following overall. contributions attributed to each source,o 56 per cent due to domestic fires. o 22 per cent due to motor vehicles,o 12 per cent due to open burning. o 10 per cent due to industry, Domestic fires dominate the health impacts associated with anthropogenic air. pollution in every location across New Zealand except the Auckland region most. particularly in the TLA of Auckland City where motor vehicle health impacts are nearly. twice those of domestic fires However not being able to robustly assess NO2 exposure. means that the results of this update most likely under estimate the health impacts of. motor vehicle related air pollution, The remaining TLAs in the Auckland region show more or less equal proportions of effects. attributed to domestic fires and motor vehicles Other TLAs which are also more heavily. impacted by motor vehicle emissions than the average include Hamilton City Lower Hutt. City New Plymouth District Tauranga City and Wellington City. Open burning is an appreciable air pollution source in all locations rivalling motor vehicles. and industry in its effects in many areas, The effects associated with industry impacts vary significantly across New Zealand.
because the siting of many industries depends on access to particular resources which are. often location specific, M ori are disproportionately represented in the adult premature mortality figures 18 3. per cent of deaths but are only 8 7 per cent of adult population This is not unexpected. because the exposure response function for M ori is nearly three times that of the whole. adult population However the confidence intervals for the M ori adult and all adult. response functions overlap so this finding may not be statistically significant Regardless. it is of concern as this subgroup already experiences poorer health outcomes. For the respiratory hospital admissions one third of the cases occur in children aged 1 to 4. years again a disproportionate effect given the population in that sub group. The overall health impacts in the update are comparable to those found in the original. study allowing for increases in population and changes in the exposure response. functions but with a much greater proportion of health impacts found to be attributed to. natural sources taken from a number of source apportionment studies and the. emergence of a new but significant anthropogenic source open burning However it. should be noted that open burning has been banned in many airsheds since 2006 and is. unlikely to feature as prominently as a source requiring intervention in future updates. The other major difference is in the social costs The update estimates a higher cost from. air pollution than previously because we have adopted a VOSL based on transport road. safety risk to be consistent with the approach taken by overseas jurisdictions. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report vi. The information will be useful in cost benefit analyses for a range of applications such as. o weighing benefits of health improvements against the costs of various air. pollution reduction initiatives, o evaluating the effectiveness of existing policy initiatives back casting. o assessing the likely effects of current population and business as usual trends. forecasting, o developing targeted strategies for reducing the air pollution exposure of. particularly vulnerable groups in the population,Link to the other material as follows.
This report summarises the main findings of the updated Health and Air Pollution in. New Zealand HAPINZ study and describes the workings of the Health Effects Model. It is intended for a general audience, All of the technical reports in their entirety that were prepared as part of the. updated HAPINZ study are presented in the Updated Health and Air Pollution in New. Zealand Study Volume 2 Technical Reports for those readers who would like more. detailed information on the methodology This report is supported by a detailed. Exposure Model which contains all data calculations and assumptions used to derive. PM10 exposure for each CAU by source,March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report vii. Acknowledgements i,Executive Summary iii,Contents vii. 1 Introduction 1,1 1 Background 1,1 2 Reasons for this Update 2. 1 3 Project Funding and Steering Committee 3,1 4 Updated versus Original HAPINZ Study 3.
1 5 Report Layout 4,2 Assessing Air Pollution Health Impacts 5. 2 1 What are the Health Effects of PM10 5,2 2 How are the Health Effects of PM10 Assessed 9. 3 Assessing PM10 Exposure 11,3 1 Features of the PM10 Exposure Assessment 11. 3 2 How was PM10 Exposure Assessed in this Update 12. 3 3 Why Only PM10 and not Other Pollutants 14,3 4 What about Other Sources 15. 3 5 How does the Update compare with the Original HAPINZ 16. 4 Selecting Health Outcomes 17,4 1 Features of the Health Outcome Selection 17.
4 2 How were the Health Outcomes Selected 18,4 3 What are the Exposure Response Functions 20. 4 4 What about Other Health Outcomes such as Asthma 22. 4 5 How does the Update compare with the Original HAPINZ 23. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report viii. 5 Estimating Social Costs 24,5 1 Features of the Social Costs Estimation 24. 5 2 How were the Social Costs Estimated 24, 5 3 Why value Statistical Lives and not Life Years Lost 26. 5 4 How does our VOSL Compare with Overseas VOSLs 26. 5 5 How does the Update compare with the Original HAPINZ 28. 6 Results and Discussion 29,6 1 National Impacts 29.
6 2 Regional and Local Impacts 31,6 3 Sensitivity Testing 33. 7 Conclusions and Recommendations 37,7 1 Key Findings 37. 7 2 Policy Implications 38,7 3 Recommendations for Future Work 39. References 41,Glossary 43,Appendix 1 Tables of Results A1 1. A1 1 Premature Mortality Adults by Region by Source A1 1. A1 2 Premature Mortality Babies by Region by Source A1 3. A1 3 Cardiac Hospital Admissions by Region by Source A1 4. A1 4 Respiratory Hospital Admissions by Region by Source A1 5. A1 5 Restricted Activity Days by Region by Source A1 8. A1 6 Total Social Costs by Source A1 9,Appendix 2 Sensitivity Analyses A2 1.
A2 1 Effect of HiVol Corrections A2 1,A2 2 Effect of Exposure Response Values A2 2. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report ix. A2 3 Cross check of Mortality Effects using PM2 5 A2 3. A2 4 Effect of Cost Estimates A2 4, A2 5 Estimate of 2001 Air Pollution Health Impacts A2 5. Appendix 3 Users Guide to the Health Effects Model A3 1. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report 1. 1 Introduction,1 1 Background, In 2003 the Ministry for the Environment the Ministry of Transport and the Health.
Research Council of New Zealand with in kind support from the Ministry of Health and. regional councils commissioned the Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand HAPINZ. study In 2007 the HAPINZ study was published Fisher et al 2007 This represented. New Zealand s first study on the national health impacts of air pollution. HAPINZ examined 67 urban areas and included 73 per cent of New Zealand s population. The HAPINZ study linked anthropogenic human caused air pollution with approximately. 1 100 premature deaths each year HAPINZ further estimated other illnesses caused by. anthropogenic air pollution in New Zealand to include annually. o 700 extra hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiac illnesses. o 1 9 million restricted activity days5, The bulk of effects were associated with particulate pollution PM10 but there were also. effects associated with other pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide carbon monoxide and. benzene The total economic cost of anthropogenic air pollution in New Zealand from. both premature death and adverse health impacts was estimated at 1 1 billion per year. or 421 per person in NZ as at June 2004, HAPINZ further attributed health effects to major emission sources domestic transport. industry and background The primary sources were home heating nationally followed by. vehicles in central Auckland and industry, In order to judge the extent of health impacts in a given population likely to be caused by. an exposure in the environment scientists use the results of epidemiological studies that. have been carried out separately perhaps in other countries along with estimates of the. degree of exposure see page 8 for further details The most severe category of health. impacts estimated in the HAPINZ study was premature mortality resulting from chronic. long term exposure to PM10 The number of premature deaths was estimated by. multiplying an exposure response relationship by the estimated exposure In the HAPINZ. study the exposure response relationship assumed a 4 3 per cent increase in premature. mortality for every 10 g m3 increase in annual PM10 concentrations This was based on. American studies of effects of air pollution exposure K nzli et al 2000 The HAPINZ. study noted that based on more recent studies the true figure could be in the range of 4. to 8 per cent but it concentrated on providing a basis for comparison with a previous pilot. study for the Ministry of Transport Fisher et al 2002. A restricted activity day is a day on which people cannot do the things they might otherwise have done if air. pollution was not present,March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report 2. 1 2 Reasons for this Update, Since HAPINZ was published in 2007 a number of issues have been raised with the original.
methodology6 and the study has also dated quickly The authors themselves noted that by. the time the original study was published the population within their study areas had. increased by 17 per cent from the base census year of 2001 which would similarly. increase health impacts associated with air pollution. Accordingly in 2010 the Ministry for the Environment the Ministry of Transport the New. Zealand Transport Agency and the Health Research Council of New Zealand with in kind. support from the Ministry of Health and Auckland Council commissioned this update to. HAPINZ7 The purpose of the update was to, o update the base data for New Zealand to the 2006 census year. o assess the suitability and update if appropriate of exposure relationship s for. PM10 with mortality and morbidity, o assess the suitability and update if appropriate of exposure relationship s for. other key pollutants with mortality and morbidity, o review the use of a transport risk road safety based value of a statistical life. VOSL and other jurisdictional approaches and if appropriate update this method. and or value,o update average medical costs, o review ambient air quality monitoring data since 2001 and if appropriate update. HAPINZ calculations, o review published source apportionment studies since 2001 and if appropriate.
update HAPINZ calculations, o review published emissions inventories since 2001 and if appropriate update. HAPINZ calculations and, o undertake sensitivity analyses for key parameters to query the robustness of. Another important feature of the update was the development of user friendly. spreadsheets and or databases to show all underpinning calculations data and. Many air quality practitioners noted inconsistencies and errors in the spreadsheets developed for the original. HAPINZ study in particular the over estimation of benzene cancer cases the use of arithmetic rather than. population weighted averages and the under estimation of natural source contributions Whilst unfortunate. these errors were found on investigation to largely counter each other resulting in the social costs remaining. essentially the same However greater attention to quality assurance was highlighted as a critical. requirement for future HAPINZ updates Kuschel Mahon 2010. New research was not commissioned for this update and data are from existing published work. March 2012,Updated HAPINZ Volume 1 Summary Report 3. assumptions The intent of these spreadsheets was to provide transparent robust and. defensible estimates of, o exposure to PM10 air pollution by census area unit attributed by source. o mortality impacts of PM10 exposure in adults for non external causes for all. ethnicities and separately for M ori, o morbidity impacts of PM10 and other air pollutants if available data support robust.
o annual social costs due to exposure to PM10 and other pollutants if available data. support robust estimates and, o sensitivity of predicted outcomes to key assumptions. 1 3 Project Funding and Steering Committee, The updated study has been overseen by an Environmental Health Joint Research. Partnership Steering Committee Steering Committee comprising representatives from. o Health Research Council both staff and independent representatives. o Ministry for the Environment initially staff post April 2011 a seconded technical. expert from Environment Canterbury,o Ministry of Health. o Ministry of Transport, o National Air Quality Working Group Auckland Council. o New Zealand Transport Agency, A number of representatives on the Steering Committee have air quality expertise and.
were involved with the original HAPINZ study,1 4 Updated versus Original HAPINZ Study. The Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand HAPINZ study Fisher et al 2007 was. published in 2007 with a base year of 2001 for census data and air quality monitoring. data with costs estimated as at June 2004 The original study will be referred to in this. report as the original HAPINZ study, The present study has a base year of 2006 to align with the most recent census data and. reflects trends in the national demographics since 2001 in particular. o New Zealand s overall population has increased by 7 8 per cent. o The urban population has grown by 8 1 per cent since 2001 while the rural. population has grown by 6 0 per cent, o The M ori population has increased by 7 4 per cent since 2001.


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