Table One Comparing different types of reviews,Review Characteristics Uses Limitations. Traditional Describes and appraises Overviews The writers. literature previous work but does not discussions assumptions and. review describe specific methods by critiques of agenda often. narrative which the reviewed studies previous work and unknown. review were identified selected and the current gaps in. evaluated knowledge,Biases that occur in,Often used as selecting and. rationale for new assessing the,research literature are. To scope the types,of interventions Cannot be,available to replicated. include in a review, Systematic The scope of the review is Identifies Systematic reviews. review identified in advance eg appraises and with narrowly. review question and sub synthesises all defined review. questions and or sub group available research questions provide. analyses to be undertaken that is relevant to a specific answers to. particular review specific questions,Comprehensive search to question. find all relevant studies Alternative,Collates all that is questions that. Use of explicit criteria to known on a given have not been. include exclude studies topic and identifies answered usually. the basis of that need to be, Application of established knowledge reconstructed by. standards to critically the reader,appraise study quality Comprehensive. report using,Explicit methods of explicit processes. extracting and synthesising so that rationale,study findings assumptions and. methods are open,to scrutiny by,external parties,Can be replicated. Advantages of systematic reviews,Reduces bias,Replicable. Resolves controversy between conflicting findings,Provides reliable basis for decision making. Reviews of clinical interventions vs reviews of public health interventions. Some of the key challenges presented by the health promotion and public health field are a focus or. emphasis on, populations and communities rather than individuals. combinations of strategies rather than single interventions. processes as well as outcomes, involvement of community members in program design and evaluation. health promotion theories and beliefs, the use of qualitative as well as quantitative approaches to research and evaluation. the complexity and long term nature of health promotion intervention outcomes 5. REFERENCES, 1 Undertaking Systematic Reviews of Research on Effectiveness CRD s Guidance for those. Carrying Out or Commissioning Reviews CRD Report Number 4 2nd Edition NHS Centre. for Reviews and Dissemination University of York March 2001. 2 Klassen TP Jadad AR Moher D Guides for Reading and Interpreting Systematic Reviews 1. Getting Started Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998 152 700 704. 3 Hedin A and Kallestal C Knowledge based public health work Part 2 Handbook for. compilation of reviews on interventions in the field of public health National Institute of. Public Health 2004 http www fhi se shop material pdf r200410Knowledgebased2 pdf. 4 Chalmers I Hedges LV Cooper H A brief history of research synthesis Eval Health Prof. 2002 25 12 37, 5 Jackson SF Edwards RK Kahan B Goodstadt M An Assessment of the Methods and. Concepts Used to Synthesize the Evidence of Effectiveness in Health Promotion A Review of. 17 Initiatives, http www utoronto ca chp chp consort synthesisfinalreport pdf. ADDITIONAL READING, Mulrow CD Systematic reviews Rationale for systematic reviews BMJ 1994 309 597 599. McQueen D The evidence debate J Epidemiol Community Health 2002 56 83 84. Petticrew M Why certain systematic reviews reach uncertain conclusions BMJ 2003 326 756 8. Petticrew M Systematic reviews from astronomy to zoology myths and misconceptions BMJ. 2001 322 98 101, Grimshaw JM Freemantle N Langhorne P Song F Complexity and systematic reviews report to the. US Congress Office of Technology Assessment Washington DC Office of Technology Assessment. Rychetnik L Hawe P Waters E Barratt A Frommer M A glossary for evidence based public health J. Epidemiol Community Health 2004 58 538 45, 1 In pairs discuss some of the differences using examples between reviews of. clinical medical pharmaceutical interventions vs reviews of health promotion or public health. interventions,E g effectiveness of antibiotics for sore throat. Health promotion public health, E g effectiveness of mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Clinical medical pharmaceutical Health promotion public health. Study participants,Types of interventions, Types of outcomes process proxy outcomes intermediate and or long term. Participants involved in design of intervention, Potential influences on intervention success failure consider external environment social. political cultural and internal factors training of those implementing intervention literacy of. population access to services etc,Types of reviews. Background to systematic Reviews,narrative literature. reviews traditional,Systematic reviews,Meta analysis. Narrative reviews What is a systematic review, Usually written by experts in the field A review of the evidence on a clearly. Use informal and subjective methods to formulated question that uses. collect and interpret information systematic and explicit methods to. identify select and critically appraise, Usually narrative summaries of the relevant primary research and to. evidence extract and analyse data from the,studies that are included in the. Read Klassen et al Guides for Reading and Interpreting Systematic review. Reviews Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998 152 700 704, Undertaking Systematic Reviews of Research on Effectiveness CRD s Guidance for those Carrying Out or. Commissioning Reviews CRD Report Number 4 2nd Edition NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. University of York March 2001,High quality Systematic vs Narrative reviews. Structured systematic process involving Scientific approach to a Depend on authors. several steps review article inclination bias,Criteria determined at Author gets to pick any. 1 Plan the review outset criteria, 2 Formulate the question Comprehensive search Search any databases. 3 Comprehensive search for relevant articles, 4 Unbiased selection and abstraction process Explicit methods of Methods not usually. 5 Critical appraisal of data appraisal and synthesis specified. 6 Synthesis of data may include meta analysis Meta analysis may be Vote count or narrative. used to combine data summary,7 Interpretation of results. Can t replicate review,All steps described explicitly in the review. Advantages of systematic Increased interest in,reviews systematic reviews. Reduce bias Government interest in health costs,Replicability Variations in practice. Resolve controversy between conflicting Public want information. studies Facilitated by computer developments,Identify gaps in current research. Provide reliable basis for decision,Competing factors and. pressures Who benefits, Expectations Evidence Practitioners current knowledge to assist with decision. Experience,Opinions Researchers reduced duplication. identify research gaps, Community recipients of evidence based interventions. Financial Time pressures Funders identify research gaps priorities. Policy makers current knowledge to assist with policy. formulation,Clinical vs,Limitations public health interventions. Clinical Public health,Results may still be inconclusive. Individuals Populations and communities, There may be no trials evidence Single interventions Combinations of strategies. Outcomes only generally Processes as well as,The trials may be of poor quality. Often limited consumer input outcomes, The intervention may be too complex to be Quantitative approaches to Involve community members. tested by a trial research and evaluation in design and evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative, Practice does not change just because you Health promotion theories. have the evidence of effect effectiveness and beliefs.
Pelaksanaan Program Raskin di Kabupaten Bengkayang Tahun 2014 mengacu kepada Pedoman Umum Raskin 2014 dan Petunjuk dan Pelaksanaan (JUKNIS) Program Raskin Kabupaten Bengkayang 2014 sebagaimana tercantum dalam Lampiran yang merupakan bagian tidak terpisahkan dari Peraturan Bupati ini. BAB IV KETENTUAN PENUTUP Pasal 3
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