This bulletin provides a basic understanding of the FCC regulations for digital devices followed. by some answers to commonly asked questions To assist readers in locating specific rules the. rule references are displayed in a column to the right of the text. We welcome comments on improvements that can be made to this bulletin Please address such. comments to,Federal Communications Commission,Office of Engineering and Technology. Customer Service Branch MS 1300F2,7435 Oakland Mills Road. Columbia MD 21046,Fax 301 344 2050,E Mail labinfo fcc gov. Note Some editorial changes were made in this bulletin for clarity and to reflect changes in the. names addresses and telephone numbers of information sources and FCC offices. The information in this bulletin reflects the current rules and regulations governing digital devices. These rules and regulations are expected to change soon as a result of final action to be taken on. the Notice of Proposed Rule Making NPRM adopted in ET Docket 95 19 In the NPRM the. FCC proposes to amend Parts 2 and 15 of the rules to deregulate the equipment authorization. requirements for digital devices, The fees listed in this bulletin reflect those in effect at the time of printing but are subject to. change Current fee information can be obtained from The FCC s Public Access Link PAL and. the Office of Engineering and Technology OET Fee Filing Guide See FCC s computer. bulletin board and Obtaining forms and fee filing guides under Additional Information on. pages 12 and 13 of this bulletin,TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction 1,Digital Devices and Personal Computers 2. Peripherals to a Digital Device 2,Subassemblies of a Digital Device 3. Class A and Class B Digital Devices 3,Equipment Authorization 5. Certification 5,Verification 6, Digital devices that are exempt from FCC technical standards 7. Commonly Asked Questions 8, What is the difference between a Class A and Class B digital device 8. What happens if one sells or imports non compliant digital devices 9. Can someone assemble and sell a computer without getting FCC. authorization 10, What changes can be made to an FCC authorized device without requiring a. new FCC authorization 10, How does the FCC regulate a digital device that is part of another radio. frequency device 11, What happens if a digital device causes interference 11. Additional Information 12,Obtaining rules 12,Obtaining forms and fee filing guides 12. Equipment authorization procedures 12, Obtaining equipment authorization filing packets 12. Rule interpretations 13,Part 68 registration requirements 13. FCC s computer bulletin board 13,Status desk 13,FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION. Office of Engineering and Technology,Washington DC 20554. UNDERSTANDING THE FCC REGULATIONS,FOR COMPUTERS AND OTHER DIGITAL DEVICES. OET Bulletin 62,December 1993,Edited and reprinted Feb 1996. Introduction, Digital technology is used virtually everywhere Coffee pots wrist watches automobiles cash. registers personal computers telephones and thousands of other types of common electronic. equipment rely on digital technology to function At any time of the day most people are within a few. meters of consumer products that use digital technology. While digital technology has been used to provide outstanding convenience and benefit to today s. society it also has the potential to interfere with radio communications Digital technology by its very. nature generates radio noise and that noise can interfere with police ambulance and fire. communications radio and television broadcasting and air traffic control operations. The Federal Communications Commission FCC has rules to limit the potential for harmful. interference being caused to radio communications by computers and other products using digital. technology In its regulations the FCC takes into account the fact that different types of products using. digital technology have different potentials for causing harmful interference As a result the FCC s. regulations have the greatest impact on products that are most likely to cause harmful interference and. little impact on those that are least likely to cause interference. This bulletin is intended to provide a general understanding of the FCC s regulations and policies. applying to products using digital technology and especially computers It reflects the current text and. interpretations of the FCC s regulations More detailed information is contained in the regulations. themselves which can be found in Part 15 of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations This bulletin. does not replace or supersede those regulations, Manufacturers and parties that sell products containing digital technology are strongly encouraged to. review the FCC s regulations closely Recognizing that new uses of digital technology often generate. questions that are not directly addressed in the regulations we welcome inquiries or requests for. specific interpretations Occasionally the FCC proposes changes to its regulations generally to address. industry concerns and as new uses of digital technology and new communications services appear See. the section titled Additional Information for information on obtaining the FCC regulations requesting. interpretations and finding out about proposed rule changes. Digital Devices and Personal Computers, A digital device is a device or system that generates and uses digital timing signals Section 15 3 k. operating at greater than 9 000 cycles per second 9 kHz Many types of electronic. equipment and consumer products are digital devices because they contain circuitry. using such digital timing signals Examples of digital devices include computers. calculators digital watches and clocks automotive electronic systems and most. telephones microwave ovens video cassette recorders and security alarm systems. A personal computer is a special type of digital device a computer that is marketed Section 15 3 s. for use in the home Computers that are marketed through retail outlets or through mail. order catalogs and advertised to the general public are considered to be personal. In order to prevent the radio noise generated by the digital device from interfering with. radio communications digital devices must be designed to contain the noise This is. accomplished by 1 designing the digital circuitry in a manner that minimizes radio. noise emissions 2 enclosing the circuitry in a well grounded case that prevents radio. noise from escaping and 3 including a well filtered power supply that keeps the radio. noise from leaking onto the electrical power lines. Most digital devices are subject to FCC technical standards that limit the amount of Section 15 107. Section 15 109, radio noise that can be radiated from the digital device or conducted by the digital Section 2 803. device onto the electrical power lines Most digital devices must be tested and shown Section 2 805. Section 2 806, to be compliant with these standards before they can be marketed In addition Section 15 101 a. personal computers are required to be authorized by the FCC because they have been. found to have the potential for causing interference. Peripherals to a Digital Device, Any device that feeds data into or receives data from a digital device is a peripheral of Section 15 3 r. the digital device Peripherals include external devices that connect to a digital device. by wire or cable and circuit boards within the digital device that connect it to external. peripherals Also included are circuit boards that increase the operating or processing. speed of a digital device Examples of peripherals are computer printers monitors. keyboards printer cards video cards local area network cards modems and. enhancement or accelerator boards, Peripherals to a digital device are subject to FCC technical standards because they can Section 15 101 a. generate their own radio noise or allow the escape of radio noise generated by the. digital devices to which they are connected Peripherals to a personal computer must. be authorized by the FCC,Subassemblies of a Digital Device. Circuit boards integrated circuit chips and other components that are completely Section 15 101 e. internal to a digital device are subassemblies of the digital device Note however that. circuit boards or cards that are connected to external devices or increase the operating. or processing speed of a digital device are considered peripherals Examples of. subassemblies include internal memory expansion boards internal disk drives internal. disk drive controller boards CPU boards and power supplies. Subassemblies may be sold to the general public or to manufacturers for incorporation. into a final product While subassemblies are not directly subject to FCC technical. standards or equipment authorization requirements digital devices containing. subassemblies must still comply with the FCC s technical requirements Accordingly. manufacturers of subassemblies should design their products so the digital devices into. which they are installed will comply with the technical standards. Class A and Class B Digital Devices, Digital devices fall into two categories Class A and Class B Class A digital devices Section 15 3 h. Section 15 3 i, are ones that are marketed exclusively for use in business industrial and commercial. environments Class B digital devices are ones that are marketed for use anywhere. including residential environments,Examples of Digital Devices. Class A Class B,Mainframe computers Personal computers. Sophisticated multiuser computers Portable computers. Sophisticated engineering,workstations, The technical standards for Class B equipment are stricter than those for Class A Section 15 107. Section 15 109, equipment because the Class B equipment may be located closer to radios TVs and. other receivers that tend to be susceptible to interference Class A equipment on the. other hand will generally be located in office buildings and factories where it is likely. to be separated from radio and TV receivers by greater distances. The Class B technical standards are designed to protect against interference being. caused to a receiver located about 10 meters away such as might be found in a. neighbor s house or apartment The standards are not intended to prevent interference. at closer distances or within the digital device user s residence Such interference. problems can usually be resolved by the user, The Verification Process The Certification Process. Equipment Authorization, A digital device must be tested and authorized before it may be marketed. Section 15 101 a, Digital Device Authorization Procedure Section 2 803. Section 2 805,Section 2 806,Class B personal computers Certification. and their peripherals,Other Class B digital devices Verification. and their peripherals,Class A digital devices Verification. and their peripherals,External switching power supplies Verification. Any equipment that connects to the public switched telephone network such as a. modem is also subject to regulations in Part 68 of the FCC Rules and must be. registered by the FCC prior to marketing The rules in Part 68 are designed to protect. against harm to the telephone network,Certification. The certification procedure requires that tests be performed on the device to be Sections 2 1031. through 2 1045, authorized These tests measure the levels of radio frequency energy that are radiated. by the device into the open air or conducted by the device onto the power lines After. these tests are performed a report must be produced showing the test procedure the. test results and some additional information about the device including design. drawings The specific information that must be included in a certification report is. detailed in Part 2 of the FCC Rules, Certified digital devices are required to have a compliance label affixed to them They Section 2 909. Section 15 19, also must have an information statement regarding the interference potential of the Section 15 21. device and information about any special accessories needed to ensure FCC Section 15 27. Section 15 105, compliance included in their instruction manuals The applicant for a grant of. certification is responsible for having the compliance label produced and for having. it affixed to each device that is marketed or imported However the compliance label. and FCC ID label see below may not be attached to any devices until a grant of. certification has been obtained for the devices The wording for the compliance label. and the information statement is included in Part 15. Certified devices are also required to have an FCC ID label attached to them The Section 2 925. Section 2 926, FCC ID label must be permanently marked etched engraved indelibly printed etc Section 15 19. either directly on the device or on a tag that is permanently affixed riveted welded. etc to the device The FCC ID label must be readily visible to the purchaser at the. time of purchase, The FCC ID is a string of characters that may be from 4 to 17 characters long It may. contain any combination of capital letters numbers or the dash hyphen character. Characters 4 through 17 are completely up to the applicant The first three characters. however are the grantee code a 3 character code assigned by the FCC to a particular. applicant grantee Any application filed with the FCC must have an FCC ID that. commences with an assigned grantee code To receive one of these codes new. applicants must send in a letter stating the applicant s name and address and requesting. a grantee code This letter must be accompanied by a completed Fee Advice Form. FCC Form 159 and a 45 processing fee See Obtaining filing packets on page 12. Once the report demonstrating compliance with the technical standards has been Section 2 907. Section 2 909, completed and the compliance label and FCC ID label have been designed the party Section 2 1033. wishing to get the device certified it can be anyone must file a copy of the report Section 1 1103. Section 1 1107, along with an Application for Equipment Authorization FCC Form 731 and an. 845 application fee with the FCC See Obtaining filing packets on page 12. After the application is submitted the FCC s lab will review the report and may or may Section 2 803. Section 2 943, not request a sample of the device to test If the application is complete and accurate. and any tests performed by the FCC s lab confirm that the device is compliant the FCC. will then issue a grant of certification for the device Marketing of the device may. begin after the applicant has received a copy of this grant. Typically 90 of the applications for certification that the FCC receives are processed. within 35 calendar days This time frame may increase due to incomplete applications. and pre grant testing of a sample if determined to be necessary. Verification, The verification procedure requires that tests be performed on the device to be Sections 2 951. through 2 957, authorized These tests measure the levels of radio frequency energy that are radiated. by the device into the open air or conducted by the device onto the power lines After. these tests are performed a report must be produced showing the test procedure the. test results and some additional information about the device including design. drawings The specific information that must be included in a verification report is. detailed in Part 2 of the FCC Rules, Once the report is completed the manufacturer or importer for an imported device Section 2 902. Section 2 953, is required to keep a copy of it on file as evidence that the device meets the technical Section 2 955. standards in Part 15 The manufacturer importer must be able to produce this report. on short notice should the FCC ever request it, Once the report is on file a compliance label must be affixed to the device Also an Section 2 909. Section 2 954, information statement regarding the interference potential of the device and Section 15 19. information about any special accessories needed to ensure FCC compliance must be Section 15 21. Section 15 27, included in its instruction manual The manufacturer or importer is responsible for Section 15 105. having the compliance label produced and for having it affixed to each device that is. marketed or imported The wording for the compliance label and the information. statement regarding interference problems is included in Part 15 Verified devices. must be uniquely identified However they may not be labelled with an FCC ID or in. a manner that could be confused with an FCC ID, Once the report showing compliance is in the manufacturer s importer s files the Section 15 19. Section 15 21, compliance label has been attached to the device and the information statement has Section 15 27. been included in the instructions marketing of the device may begin There is no filing Section 15 105. Section 2 805,with the FCC required for verified equipment. Digital devices that are exempt from FCC technical standards. There are a number of digital devices that are exempt from the technical standards in. Part 15 These are, o Digital devices used EXCLUSIVELY in any transportation vehicle Section 15 103 a. including motor vehicles aircraft and watercraft, o Digital devices used EXCLUSIVELY as electronic control systems Section 15 103 b. by public utilities or in industrial plants Also digital devices used. EXCLUSIVELY as power systems such as switching power. supplies in public utilities or industrial plants The term industrial. plant in this case means a large scale production facility such as a. dedicated building or factory The term public utility means a. dedicated building or large room owned or leased by the utility and. does not extend to equipment installed in a subscriber s facility To. be eligible for the control system exemption a digital device may not. perform non control functions such as the printing of billing. information or the running of MS DOS OS 2 or UNIX software. o Digital devices used EXCLUSIVELY as industrial commercial or Section 15 103 c. medical test equipment Test equipment includes devices used for. maintenance research evaluation simulation and other analytical or. scientific applications in areas such as industrial plants public. utilities hospitals universities laboratories automotive service. centers and electronic repair shops Devices designed for home use. such as consumer blood pressure meters bathroom scales and digital. thermometers do not fall under this exemption, o Digital devices used EXCLUSIVELY in appliances Appliances Section 15 103 d. are devices that are designed to heat cool or move something by. converting electrical energy into heat or motion Examples of. appliances include vacuum cleaners toasters air conditioners and. clothes dryers Examples of things that are NOT appliances include. lights telephones home security systems exercise bicycles and clock. radios Devices that use radio frequency energy to do the actual. heating cooling or moving such as microwave ovens are subject to. technical standards in Part 18 of the FCC rules, o Specialized medical digital devices generally used at the direction of Section 15 103 e. or under the supervision of a licensed health care practitioner. whether used in a patient s home or a health care facility. Non specialized medical devices marketed through retail channels for. use by the general public do not fall under this exemption nor do. digital devices used for record keeping or any purpose not. directly connected with medical treatment Examples of. devices that are exempted by this provision include. computerized cameras used in surgery CAT scanners,X ray equipment and kidney dialysis machines. Non exempt devices include over the counter blood,pressure gauges and digital thermometers Medical. diathermy equipment and ultrasonic equipment while. exempt from the Part 15 digital device standards are. subject to the regulations in Part 18, o Digital devices that have a power consumption of 6 nanowatts or less Section 15 103 f. such as digital watches and solar calculators, o Joystick or mouse controllers or similar devices used with digital Section 15 103 g. devices but that contain only non digital circuitry or a simple circuit. to convert a signal to the format required such as an integrated circuit. for A D conversion These are viewed as passive add on devices and. are not themselves directly subject to the technical standards in. o Digital devices that do not generate or use frequencies above Section 15 103 h. 1 705 MHz and that do not operate while connected to the AC power. lines such as certain electronic calculators Digital devices that. include or make provision for the use of battery eliminators AC. adapters or battery chargers that permit operation while charging or. that connect to the AC power lines indirectly obtaining their power. through another device that is connected to the AC power lines do. not fall under this exemption, Digital devices that are exempt from the technical standards in Part 15 are still not Section 15 5. Section 15 103, permitted to cause harmful interference to any authorized radio communications. Accordingly it is strongly recommended that the manufacturer of an exempt digital. device endeavor to have the device meet the technical standards anyhow. Commonly Asked Questions, What is the difference between a Class A and Class B digital device. If a digital device will be sold to anyone who is likely to use it in a residential. environment then it is a Class B digital device When determining whether a particular. device should be classified as Class A or Class B the Commission normally considers. the following three questions in this order, Is the marketing of the device restricted in such a manner that. it is not sold to residential users, If a digital device is sold or offered for sale to any residential users including. commercial or industrial companies that could employ the equipment in a residential. environment then it is a Class B digital device regardless of its price or application. Marketing through a general retail outlet or by mail order to the general public with a. simple disclaimer such as For Business Use Only is not sufficient to qualify as. Class A Instead all marketing advertising sale and distribution must be restricted. by the marketer to users in a commercial industrial or business environment. Does the application for which the device is designed generally. preclude operation in residential areas, For example mainframe computer systems have generally been considered Class A. digital devices because it is highly unlikely that they would be used in residential. environments, Is the price of the device high enough that there is little. likelihood that it would be used in a residential environment. including a home business, The merits of classifying a digital device as Class A based on its price are reviewed on. a case by case basis This is because for example the price threshold for an I O card. will be different than the price threshold for a computer system configuration. Portable computers because they are designed to be used anywhere are considered. Class B devices regardless of their price or restrictions placed on marketing Only in. those cases where the designed application precludes the possibility of operation in a. residential environment may portable computers be qualified as Class A devices. What happens if one sells or imports non compliant digital devices. As explained earlier the form of authorization that is required for a digital device Section 15 5. Section 2 803, depends on how the device will be marketed The FCC rules are designed to control Section 2 805. the marketing of digital devices and to a lesser extent their use If someone purchases Section 2 806. Section 2 1203, a non compliant digital device uses it causes interference to authorized radio. communications and is the subject of an FCC interference investigation the user will 47 U S C 501. be told to stop operating the device until the interference problem is corrected and 503. 18 U S C 3571, However the person or company that sold this non compliant digital device to the. user has violated the FCC marketing rules in Part 2 as well as federal law and may be. subject to an enforcement action by the Commission s Field Operations Bureau that. could result in one or more of the following,o forfeiture of all non compliant equipment. o 100 000 200 000 criminal penalty for an,individual organization. o a criminal fine totalling twice the gross gain obtained. from sales of the non compliant equipment, o an administrative fine totalling 10 000 day per violation. It is the act of selling or leasing offering to sell or lease or importing a digital device 47 U S C 302 b. that has not gone through the appropriate FCC equipment authorization procedure that. is a violation of the Commission s rules and federal law. Can someone assemble and sell a computer without getting FCC authorization. Yes as long as they start with an FCC authorized system and add to it only. FCC authorized peripherals or certain subassemblies that don t affect the authorization. of the system such as internal disk drives and internal memory expansion units. Assemblers however must follow any special instructions for the peripherals or. subassemblies such as the use of shielded cables and may not change the. identification of any peripheral or personal computer without the consent of the person. or company that obtained FCC authorization, The FCC does NOT currently authorize motherboards cases and internal power Section 15 101 c. supplies Vendor claims that they are selling FCC certified cases FCC certified. motherboards or FCC certified internal power supplies are false. What changes can be made to an FCC authorized device without requiring a new FCC. authorization, The person or company that obtained FCC authorization for a digital device is. permitted to make the following types of changes, For certified equipment personal computers and their peripherals the holder of the Section 2 1043. grant of certification can make modifications to the circuitry appearance or other. design aspects of the device provided that no change is made to its main clock circuitry. or its FCC ID, If such a change does not affect or reduces the radio frequency. emissions from the device then the grantee is not required to file any. information with the FCC These are called Class I permissive. If such a change increases the radio frequency emissions from the. device the grantee must file an application on FCC Form 731 along. with complete information about the change and results of tests. showing that the equipment continues to comply with FCC technical. standards In this case the modified equipment may not be marketed. under the existing grant of certification prior to acknowledgement by. the Commission that the change is acceptable These are called. Class II permissive changes, If the change is a major change e g it results in a new product then. a new application along with complete test results must be submitted. and a new grant must be obtained A change to the clock circuitry of. any digital device requires a new equipment authorization. For verified equipment digital devices that are not personal computers or peripherals Section 2 952. Section 2 953, to personal computers any changes may be made to the circuitry appearance or other Section 2 955. design aspects of the device as long as the manufacturer importer if the equipment is. imported has on file updated circuit drawings and test data showing that the equipment. continues to comply with the FCC rules, How does the FCC regulate a digital device that is part of another radio frequency. A digital device that is part of a radio frequency transmitter is not subject to the Part 15 Section 15 3 k. rules for digital devices This is because the transmitter itself is subject to other FCC. technical standards and these standards will ensure that the transmitter s digital. circuitry does not cause harmful interference The same is true for a digital device that. is part of a radio frequency device subject to the technical standards in Part 18 of the. FCC rules Part 18 applies to devices where radio frequency energy is used to do. work Microwave ovens and radio frequency lighting devices are examples of Part 18. A digital device that is part of a receiver part of a TV interface device or part of any. other radio frequency device must comply with the technical standards for digital. devices While the rules specifically address standards for CB receivers and receivers. that tune within the range 30 960 MHz other receivers are not regulated unless they. employ digital circuitry Consequently an AM band receiver that incorporates digital. circuitry is subject only to the authorization requirements for a digital device. What happens if a digital device causes interference. Digital devices that comply with the FCC technical standards and have been certified Section 15 5. and marketed in accordance with the FCC rules may not cause interference and must. accept any interference that they receive This means that the user of a personal. computer may be required to shut the computer off if it is found to be causing. interference to any authorized radio communications such as police fire TV or radio. even if the computer has been certified and has an FCC ID tag on it to prove it In the. event that this happens the user will be allowed to resume use of the computer only. after the cause of the interference problem has been eliminated. Additional Information,Obtaining rules, The FCC rules are contained in Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations 47 CFR which is printed in. five separate volumes Parts 2 and 15 located in the volume containing Parts 0 through 19 are applicable. to computers and other digital devices In addition to Part 15 requirements digital devices that connect to. the public switched telephone network are subject to Part 68 registration requirements which are located in. the volume containing Parts 40 through 69 To obtain a copy of these rules contact. Superintendent of Documents,U S Government Printing Office. P O Box 371954,Pittsburgh PA 15250 7954,Tel 202 512 1800 Fax 202 512 2250. 8 AM 5 PM Eastern Time,GPO deposit accounts VISA and MasterCard accepted. Obtaining forms and fee filing guides, To obtain copies of FCC Form 159 Fee Advice Form FCC Form 731 Application for Equipment. Authorization FCC Form 730 Registration of Telephone and Data Terminal Equipment and fee filing. guides contact,Federal Communications Commission,Forms Distribution Center. 9300 E Hampton Drive,Capitol Heights MD 20743,Tel 202 418 3676 or 1 800 418 3676. Equipment authorization procedures, Questions regarding equipment authorization procedures for Part 15 digital devices should be addressed to. Federal Communications Commission,Equipment Authorization Division. Application Processing Branch MS 1300F1,7435 Oakland Mills Road. Columbia MD 21046,Tel 301 725 1585 Fax 301 344 2050. E Mail labinfo fcc gov,Obtaining equipment authorization filing packets. Application packets to assist applicants in applying for certification of digital devices and obtaining a grantee. code are available from,Federal Communications Commission. Equipment Authorization Division,Customer Service Branch. Tel 301 725 1585 Ext 639 Fax 301 344 2050,E Mail labinfo fcc gov.
U.S. Track & Field and Cross Country Coaches Association Event Gender Last Name First Name School 2002 All-Americans Division II Outdoor Track & Field 100m Men Alexander Nic Abilene Christian University VanWyk Christie Abilene Christian University Bartlett Kevin Lincoln University of Missouri Smoots Jason North Carolina Central University Coleman Olan Tarleton State University Norman Josh
Life Satisfaction and Relative Income: Perceptions and Evidence Using a unique dataset we study both the actual and self-perceived relationship between subjective well-being and income comparisons against a wide range of potential comparison groups, enabling us to investigate a broader range of questions than in previous studies. In
Furthermore, the team plans to evaluate current Lightning Network implementations for the possibility of a fork. Several implementations are at an impressive condition and the team would be happy to gain a speed boost from taking over the work that has already been done. That goes especially for the parts that require minimal adaption for Mimblewimble, like the transportation layer and onion ...
The Safeguarding of the Audiovisual Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy (IASA-TC 03) Co-Edited by Will Prentice and Lars Gaustad 4th Edition 2017 This publication provides guidance to audiovisual archivists on a professional approach to the safeguarding of physical and digital audio and video objects ISBN 91-976192-0-5n
The present document describes a sound field recording and reproduction technique which can be applied for all types of terminals but is especially suitable for modern multi-microphone terminals including array techniques. The present document provides an additional simulation technique which can be used instead of the part 1 of ETSI multi-part
The manuscript for this volume was prepared entirely by Simo Parpola. He has also done almost all of the editing and typesetting work on the volume. The format of this volume differs somewhat from that of other SAA volume in that there is an extensive Introduction to the corpus of texts edited here.