Understanding Management And Leadership Styles-Books Pdf

UNDERSTANDING MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP STYLES
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Some models of management and leadership styles, Rensis Likert. Early theories about management and leadership style focused primarily on the manner by which authority. was exercised Based on research carried out at the University of Michigan in the 1950s Rensis Likert. identified four different styles, exploitative authoritative the leader has little trust or confidence in his subordinates manages by. issuing orders and uses fear and punishment as motivators. benevolent authoritative the leader has some trust in his workers but treats them in a. condescending and paternalistic manner, consultative the leader shows trust and confidence towards subordinates seeks their opinions. and ideas but retains decision making power, participative the leader trusts his subordinates completely seeks and acts on their ideas and. involves them in setting goals, Likert s research suggested that consultative and participative styles were more effective but he did not.
consider the context in which management was being carried out. The Tannenbaum Schmidt Leadership Continuum, An early contribution to the literature on leadership styles was made by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt back in the 1950s They looked at the extent to which a manager exerts authority or control and the. degree to which subordinates have freedom to act on their own initiative They proposed a leadership. continuum consisting of seven stages moving from a situation where the manager makes all the decisions to. a context where the manager permits team members make decisions independently within pre designated. limits Seven styles are identified tells persuades shows consults asks shares and involves. They further suggested that a good manager will be able to judge the capabilities of the team and move. between points on the continuum accordingly Over time as abilities develop the manager may choose to. accord a greater level of freedom while retaining overall responsibility for the work. Theory X and theory Y, Douglas McGregor working in the 1960s believed that management style was determined by the manager s. assumptions about human nature Based on his research he identified two broad sets of beliefs which he. labelled theory X and theory Y, Theory X suggests that human beings have an inherent dislike of work and need to be controlled and. directed if they are to achieve objectives This leads to autocratic and paternalistic management styles. Theory Y sees work as a natural part of life from which people gain a sense of satisfaction Workers can be. motivated to give their best by respect and recognition This leads to more consultative and participative. management styles, McGregor believed that while both styles could be effective theory X management could lead to. demotivation and low levels of performance whilst conversely theory Y management could produce high. levels of motivation and performance, The managerial grid.
Working in the 1950s and 60s Robert R Blake and Jane S Mouton identified two drivers of managerial. behaviour concern for getting the job done and concern for the people involved To demonstrate how an. individual manager s style is affected by their level of concern for these two factors they used a nine by nine. grid See Related models below This showed five basic management styles. 1 Impoverished management little concern for either the task or the people This style involves little. more than going through the motions doing only enough to get by. 2 Authority obedience high levels of concern for task and low for people. This represents a controlling style close to the traditional command and control approach but runs. the risk of damaging human relationships, All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system or transmitted in. any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without the. prior permission of the publisher, 3 Country club leadership high levels of concern for people and low for task. This is seen as accommodating it may create a warm and friendly working environment but at the. cost of getting the job done efficiently, 4 Team management high levels of concern for both task and people. This is seen as the most effective style with the potential for high achievement. 5 Middle of the road management moderate level of concern for task and people. This achieves a balance between task and performance but is likely to perpetuate the status quo. rather than achieve notable success, William B Reddin s 3D theory. Reddin 1970 also focused on concern for the task and concern for people which he defined as Task. Orientation TO and Relationship Orientation RO He introduced the idea that particular styles might be. more appropriate in some contexts than others Starting from four basic styles related high RO integrated. high RO and TO dedicated low RO and separated low RO and TO he added a third dimension. depending on how appropriately and therefore efficiently the style was used See Related Models. Style Inappropriately used Appropriately used, Related Missionary Developer.
Integrated Compromiser Executive, Dedicated Autocrat Benevolent autocrat. Separated Deserter Bureaucrat, Situational leadership. Following on from the work of Bill Reddin Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard writing in the late 1980s further. developed the idea that different situations require different types of leadership As the name suggests their. situational leadership theory See Related models below states that leaders need to be ready to adjust their. style to suit the context They saw the willingness and ability of subordinates to carry out the tasks allocated. to them as the key factor in selecting the most appropriate leadership style Four leadership styles were. identified based on the level of support and direction required. a telling directing style when they are both unwilling and unable. a selling coaching style when there is some competence but a lack of commitment. a participating supporting style where they are competent but unwilling or insecure. a delegating style where competence and commitment are both high. Action centred leadership, Another situational approach to leadership is action centred. leadership made famous by John Adair Action centred. leadership is perhaps more of an approach than a style but it is. very widely taught on management and leadership courses and. used by leaders globally particularly in the United Kingdom. Adair suggests that leaders need to be attentive to task needs. group needs and individual needs The most effective leaders. balance all three areas as demonstrated by the Venn diagram. below However the leader may need to vary the degree of. emphasis given to each of the three components in response to. the situation at any point in time, Transactional leadership. In the 1970s and 1980s the transactional model of leadership was dominant This is based on an exchange. between leader and follower where the interests of both parties are served The efforts made by followers to. achieve organisational aims are exchanged for specific rewards which may be financial or non financial. Whilst the idea of transactional leadership may lack the dynamism of other approaches it may well be the. case that it accurately describes practice in many workplaces Additionally this kind of leadership can be. particularly effective in emergency or conflict situations when all parties are able to see a tangible benefit. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system or transmitted in. any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without the. prior permission of the publisher, Bernard M Bass felt that effective leaders needed to exercise two transactional elements contingent reward.
and management by exception Contingent reward refers to the agreed exchange process between leaders. and followers e g leaders giving a salary or a bonus in exchange for the efforts and hard work of their. followers whilst management by exception is characterised by corrective criticism and giving feedback. when things go wrong, Transformational leadership, The term transformational leadership was first used by James V Downton in 1973 and was popularised by. James MacGregor Burns in his 1978 book Leadership It remains the predominant leadership approach in. the literature and has also had a significant impact on the way that modern leaders behave. Transformational leadership involves the engagement of followers and therefore transformational leaders are. often charismatic Accounts of transformational leaders differ but most focus on how the leader can fulfil the. development needs of their followers In uncertain times it has been suggested employees want to feel. inspired and empowered by their leaders and therefore transformational leadership fits well with the modern. There has been a huge amount of writing devoted to transformational leadership over the past two to three. decades so the focus here will be on the key thinkers. Bernard M Bass and Bruce J Avolio, In an echo of Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H Schmidt s work Bass devised a leadership continuum. from transformational leadership to laissez faire leadership with transactional leadership in the middle. Transformational leadership for him involved four factors. 1 Idealised influence charisma The leader is a strong role model whom followers seek to emulate. Leaders have strong moral and ethical principles and as a result are well respected. 2 Inspirational motivation Followers are encouraged to do more than the bare minimum due to the. inspirational communication and high expectations provided by the leader. 3 Intellectual stimulation The leader encourages followers to be creative innovative and to. challenge their own beliefs and those of the organisation. 4 Individualised consideration A supportive climate is provided with coaches and advisors assisting. followers Delegation is encouraged to support the development of employees. James M Kouzes and Barry S Posner, James M Kouzes and Barry S Posner describe five factors of excellent leadership that they believe anyone. can learn to incorporate into their leadership approach. 1 Model the way be clear about your values and philosophy. 2 Compelling vision you need to create a vision that followers can use to guide both their day to day. behaviour and their own dreams and visions, 3 Challenge the process willingness to challenge the status quo and innovate is seen as key. 4 Enable others to act collaborate trust and encourage others. 5 Encourage the heart authentic reward and recognition is also seen as important. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus, The qualities of a transformational leader were identified by Bennis and Nanus as.
1 Having a clear vision for the future, 2 Being social architects for their organisations communicating a direction and form for their. organisations that others could follow, 3 Trust created by consistency and clarity leaders need to make their positions clear and stand by. 4 Positive self regard this is about having an awareness of your strengths and weaknesses but then. concentrating on what you re good at rather than dwelling on your weak points. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system or transmitted in. any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without the. prior permission of the publisher, Transformational leadership is thus seen by all these authors as being characterised by certain. competencies and qualities Common themes of these qualities include having a vision emotional. intelligence charisma and being consistent and clear. Daniel Goleman on leadership styles, In an article for Harvard Business Review in 2000 see Additional resources below Goleman reported on. research into the leadership styles of over 3 000 executives worldwide carried out by consulting firm Hay. McBer The findings revealed six distinct leadership styles each emerging from varying elements of. emotional intelligence, coercive leader one who demands the instant compliance of others.
authoritative leader one who marshals others towards their vision. affiliative leader one who creates emotional connections and seeks harmony. democratic leader one who seeks consensus achieved through participation. pacesetting leader one who expects excellence from others encouraging self direction. coaching leader one who seeks to develop and equip others for the future. Goleman believes that leaders need a multitude of styles to fit the context at any given time with an ability to. adapt when necessary The modern style of heroic leadership follows this multi styled approach the notion. of the manager as a chameleon However managers need to be mindful that a constant switching of styles. can confuse those they are trying to lead, Modern literature on management and leadership styles puts emotional intelligence at the heart of. management and leadership and argues that it is more effective to engage the voluntary effort of employees. rather than use coercion The development of soft skills such as empathy honesty listening and trust. building are seen as the lynchpins for success today. Henry Mintzberg on managing, In his 2009 publication Managing see Additional resources below Mintzberg approaches management as a. practice and introduces the art craft science triangle as a means of identifying the many different managerial.

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