Understanding And Using Collector Test Standard En 12975-Books Pdf

UNDERSTANDING AND USING COLLECTOR TEST STANDARD EN 12975
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QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975. SUMMARY 1 STANDARDIZATION, REQUIREMENTS AND BENEFITS 2. Standardized tests 2, Random selection of test samples 2. Requirements on Re testing are minimized 2, THE TESTS 3 OTHER STANDARDS 4. Test categories 3 Other relevant standards and references. to EN 12975 4, A rough comparison with other, solar thermal collector standards 4. TEST PROCEDURES FOR LIQUID RELIABILITY TESTS 6, HEATING SOLAR COLLECTORS Purpose and time schedule for.
AND SOME DEFINITIONS 5 the different tests 6, Solar collector types covered. by the standard 5, Area definitions 5, THERMAL PERFORMANCE TESTS 8 UNDERSTANDING THE TEST RESULTS 9. Comparing different collectors 9, The power curve 9. Annual energy output 10, Durability and reliability test results 11. Measurement and calculation uncertainties 11, CONCLUDING REMARKS 12 FURTHER READING 13.
QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975. This brochure gives an overview of the European Please note that the only official document in this. test standard for solar thermal collectors EN context is the standard itself For up to date. 12975 hereafter referred to as the standard detailed information always refer to the latest. It aims at promoting the understanding about the version of the full standard A revised version of. standard and its requirements Therefore this the standard is expected during 2012 13. publication will provide a brief overview of the, standard to non technical experts coming for. instance from the industry or from public, authorities This brochure will provide a short and. simple explanation about how the standard is, used for type and performance testing as well. as for innovation and development support, At the website of the QAiST project1 you can. download this brochure PDF Format as well as, the complete guide to the standard The guide.
was developed in parallel to this brochure and, contains more detailed information on most topics. being more suited for technical experts, Performance testing can be. From now on the guide will be referred to as, done indoors as well as. the guide outdoors and comparison tests, show very good agreement for. conventional collector designs, www qaist eu, QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975.
STANDARDIZATION, REQUIREMENTS AND BENEFITS, Standardized tests According to Keymark scheme rules performance. Standardized tests form the basis for certification tests must be carried out for the smallest as well. according to Solar Keymark2 and Solar Rating as the largest collector in a family Therefore at. and Certification Corporation3 SRCC least three collectors the smallest for performance. tests and two of the largest collector for parallel. Certification procedures under the European Solar performance and reliability testing will be. Keymark and the American SRCC are quite selected at the factory or from stock It would be. different from one another Solar Keymark sensible to choose some extra collectors and. certificates are issued by several certification leave them at the factory if something should. bodies CBs while tests are performed by testing happen during transportation or at the laboratory. laboratories test labs and test results sent to Measurements of length width and height of all. the relevant CB The test labs must have received other collector sizes in the collector family should. ISO IEC 17025 accreditation to perform tests also be taken in situ. in accordance with the EN 12975 standard The, CBs in turn must be located in Europe and have Requirements on. received ISO IEC 17020 accreditation The Re testing are minimized. testing laboratories may be recognized by one Changes in design components or materials. or more CBs used in a collector are often a result of product. development If the collector is certified e g with. With regard to SRCC certification only the SRCC the Solar Keymark the modification must be. can issue certificates Tests are performed by assessed by the certification body before it is. several recognized testing laboratories The test incorporated in a new product Depending on. labs must be ISO IEC 17025 accredited to the type of changes the manufacturer plans to. perform tests according to ISO 9806 and US undertake the certification body can either. standard 100 and or standard 600 approve the changes without any need for re. testing or require that some or all tests are, Random selection of test samples performed again on the modified collector The. Solar thermal test collectors being submitted for Solar Keymark network is continuously developing. testing should be selected randomly by the test the certification scheme to make design changes. laboratory or certification body designated easier and as a result some absorber coatings. representatives Please refer to documents on and glazing are interchangeable without any. procedures of solar thermal quality management requirements for re testing The plan is to extend. and application forms at the Solar Keymark and this concept to other materials and components. the SRCC websites See also point 3 1 in the, guide regarding the required number of collectors. to choose from, www solarkeymark org, www solar rating org.
QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975. Test categories, Performance testing type testing Development testing. This requires experienced laboratory This is less demanding on personnel. personnel and first class measuring and less advanced equipment is needed. equipment with traceable calibration for compared with the standard s requirements. irradiance fluid flow rate and temperature but then of course the level of instrument. difference across the collector to achieve accuracy as well as accuracy in final results. accurate high quality results will be much lower, TEST PURPOSE IN HOUSE TESTING RECOMMENDED. Internal pressure Can the absorber withstand the Yes see guide section 5 2 and 9 2 1. pressures which it might meet in service, High temperature resistance Can the collector withstand stagnation Yes see guide section 5 3 and 9 2 2. under high irradiance levels without, Exposure A short term ageing test aimed at sorting Yes see guide section 5 4 and 9 2 3. out low quality products Collector in, stagnation for minimum 30 days.
External thermal shock To assess the capability of a collector Yes see guide section 5 5 and 9 2 4. to withstand a severe thermal shock that, can result from a sudden rainstorm on. a hot sunny day, Internal thermal shock To assess the capability of a collector to Yes see guide section 5 6 and 9 2 5. withstand a severe thermal shock that can, result from an intake of cold heat transfer. fluid a hot sunny day, Rain penetration To assess if glazed collectors are Yes see guide section 5 7 and 9 2 6. substantially resistant to rain penetration, Freeze resistance To assess if a collector which is claimed to No see guide section 5 8 and 9 2 7.
be freeze resistant can withstand freezing, an freeze thaw cycling. Mechanical load To assess the extent to which the transparent Yes see guide section 5 9 and 9 2 8. cover and the collector box are able to, resist the positive and negative pressure. load due to the effect of wind and snow, Impact resistance optional To assess the extent to which a collector Yes see guide section 5 10 and 9 2 9. can withstand the effects of heavy impacts, caused by hailstones. Final inspection Are there any severe failures such as Yes see guide section 5 11 and 9 2 10. permanent deformation of components, resulting from the tests above.
Thermal performance How must energy can be gained from No not recommended see guide section 6. the collector at different temperatures, irradiances and more. Note Several safety procedures must be followed when testing solar collectors see section 4 5 of the guide. QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975. OTHER STANDARDS, Other relevant standards A rough comparison with other. and references to EN 12975 solar thermal collector standards. Two important standards are directly related to There is a number of different standards describing. EN 12975 This standard being referred to in solar thermal collectors testing Historically an. both the EN 12976 dealing with factory made American ASHRAE standard 93 77 was the first. compact systems and in the EN 12977 series to be widely used Then the ISO 9806 series of. concerning custom built site assembled systems standards was developed and from this the EN. Furthermore the EN ISO 9488 contains a solar 12975 Several national standards are available. thermal technical glossary and the ISO 9060 outside Europe mostly based on the ISO 9806. includes criteria for radiation measurement whereas in Europe the EN 12975 has superseded. equipment For further information on the EN all national standards Currently the aim of CEN. 12975 standard scientific background please and ISO is to revise the ISO 9806 based on. refer to the standard s bibliography section new knowledge gained during the development. of the EN 12975 standard The major differences, between EN 12975 and other commonly used. standards are explained in section 2 1 of, A solar tracker facilitates the guide. performance testing in, particular when determining.
optical efficiency and, incidence angle modifiers, QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975. TEST PROCEDURES FOR LIQUID HEATING, SOLAR COLLECTORS AND SOME DEFINITIONS. Solar collector types Area definitions, covered by the standard Definitions for gross aperture and absorber areas. The standard covers performance durability and are given in ISO 9488 1999 and illustrated by. reliability testing of almost all collector types examples in the guide It is important to understand. available on the market Tracking concentrating that the efficiency and energy output of a collector. collectors have been recently included in the is related to the area definition In other words. standard s scope In the upcoming revision of the depending on how the reference area is defined. standard air collectors and PVT collectors will the collector may seem more or less efficient. also be incorporated however for the latter the However the output of a given collector module. standard will not apply to the collector s electrical is the same irrespective of the area definition used. components Currently only collector types, covered by the EN 12975 standard can obtain. a Solar Keymark certificate, QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975.
RELIABILITY TESTS, Purpose and time, schedule for the different tests. Over their lifetime collectors will be exposed to Under the current version of the standard it is. some severe climatic and working conditions and possible to reduce testing time by having three. it is stipulated that collectors must not suffer Major sample collectors tested simultaneously. Failures when these conditions occur Reliability, and durability tests were designed to reproduce One collector for thermal performance. the most likely extreme conditions that a collector The standard indicates that the thermal. will be subjected to The standard describes in performance test shall be carried out on a collector. a very simple way the conditions that are intended that has not been used for the other tests. to be simulated for each test This collector is only subjected to a short. preconditioning with five hours exposure to, irradiance above 700 Wm 2 before measuring. the performance, Mechanical load testing and outdoor exposure. for a minimum of 30 days are examples of, quality tests included in the EN 12975 standard.
QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975. One collector for high temperature One collector for mechanical loads. resistance exposure thermal shocks and rain penetration. together with a final inspection Although the current version of the standard allows. The standard does not impose a sequence in the the use of a third collector for the mechanical load. durability tests but indicates that high temperature and rain penetration test this third sample must. resistance and exposure test shall be carried out be submitted to a pre conditioning in the case of. on the same collector The standard also requests rain penetration taking into account the decision. that thermal shocks may be combined with the D8 M10 of the Solar Keymark Network x2. high temperature resistance and exposure test see www solarkeymark org. which is a good compromise between the number, of samples to be tested and the time needed It can also be noted that when testing for durability. for testing and reliability according to standards ISO 9806. and standard 100 for SRCC certification the, approach is different The sequence is well defined. in this case all tests are carried out on the same. collector and the performance test will be the final. one in the sequence, During the reliability tests no Major Failure shall. occur The definition of Major Failure is given, in section 5 3 part 1 of the standard These. definitions and tests where they are most likely, to be identified are shown in the table below.
DEFINITION OF MAJOR FAILURE TEST WHERE IT IS MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR. Absorber leakage or such deformation Internal pressure exposure test internal . QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975 QAiST Understanding and using collector test standard EN 12975 the EN ISO 9488 contains a solar

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