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Ubiquitous commerce is intimately related to electronic and implications of changes brought about from new methods. mobile commerce and it uses its infrastructures and to conduct commerce The workshop is organized around. developed expertise but it is characterized by two extra position statements and panel discussions so as to represent. features the electronic identification of physical products the multidisciplinary nature of the workshop. consumer or otherwise and the seamless provisioning of Using experience gained via participation in several. business and consumer services over ubiquitous computing industrial ubiquitous commerce projects Elgar Fleisch and. infrastructures Electronic tagging annotates physical Christian Tellkamp develop a framework for the evaluation. artifacts with identification information which can be used of ubiquitous commerce opportunities Given the. for tracking but also to associate particular characteristics multiplicity of systems and solutions that may be. or properties to the specific item This facility provides for developed on top of ubiquitous computing infrastructures a. a rich information source that can be utilized either in question which arises naturally is which ones would create. supply chain applications or for enhancing the consumer value for the involved actors and how should they be. experience both applications are discussed in position structured to achieve that Their solution is a set of. papers in this workshop Moreover using ubiquitous challenges that must be met in order for a particular. computing infrastructures to deliver business services application to be appropriate for conducting business. offers the opportunity for the development of novel. customer centric approaches that truly deliver the Matthias Lampe and Martin Strassner identify a limitation. anywhere anytime promise of electronic and mobile in existing corporate information systems namely their. commerce applications in customer relationship lack of appropriate management of moveable assets. management and retailing are also discussed in position Indeed they find that assets are not managed on a per item. papers in this workshop basis and information about location situation and usage is. either not accurate or lacking detail The effect of this issue. WORKSHOP GOALS is that industrial operations may be delayed inventories are. Ubiquitous computing has been recognized as an inherently used ineffectively or have to be maintained at much higher. interdisciplinary research field requiring the collaboration levels than necessary which is particularly costly with. between several technical disciplines including but not higher value assets They show how the use of RFID asset. restricted to computing telecommunications human tagging can help eliminate many manual tasks for example. computer interfaces and industrial design In addition to searching for assets inspecting for damages or counting. these ubiquitous commerce requires contributions from the them using a smart toolbox and smart inventory software. product development finance business process application for tool management in aircraft maintenance. management standardization law consumer experience. design and social science points of view to produce useful Anatole Gershman looks at the possibilities for the. results However researchers with the required expertise implementation of novel customer relationship. rarely have a common forum to exchange ideas and management applications opening up by the use of. concerns and develop a research agenda and roadmap ubiquitous computing technologies Arguably networking. physical objects and collecting large amounts of, This workshop brings together researchers with diverse information is of little value if it is not used to improve. backgrounds to existing or develop novel services Indeed the combination. Share understandings and experiences as well as of a service channel a sensor and an actuator will change. recognize each other s concerns the way many business functions are perceived and. performed Finally he identified three ingredients for a. Foster collaboration across research communities,successful strategy in ubiquitous commerce. Create effective channels of communication to transfer To be always on and connected to their customers. lessons learnt from one community to the other,To be always aware of their customers real time. Co develop a roadmap for future research directions context where the customers are what they are doing. The workshop also aims to highlight the relevance of what is around them. ubiquitous commerce to the already established electronic To be always pro active taking advantage of the real. and mobile commerce research communities In fact time opportunities to satisfy customer needs. ubiquitous commerce is seen as an evolutionary step. Olli Pitk nen focuses on the forthcoming legal challenges. towards a business environment where all activities are. that will result from the deployment of ubiquitous. conducted electronically and where physical entities have. commerce systems Several issues stand out if ubiquity. an equivalent electronic counterpart, will bring computer networks even into the most intimate. WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES places and walks of life it is of essence that privacy will be. This workshop brings together participants with technical in jeopardy at an unprecedented degree and its protection. business and legal backgrounds as well as those with should be guaranteed using technical but also legal. experience in consumer culture research and the social measures and mechanisms Moreover the novel rich. information streams collected by ubiquitous commerce 4 A Gershman Ubiquitous Commerce Always On. systems will require that rights in information that is Always Aware Always Pro active Proc SAINT 2002. intellectual property rights will be a central issue 37 38. especially with regard to revenue sharing Last but not 5 E A Gryazin and J O Tuominen The SMART. least ubiquitous commerce transactions will create new Environment for Easy Shopping Proc Int ITEA. challenges to traditional contract law while its fundamental Workshop on Virtual Home Environment February. concepts will need to be revised especially where 2002. ubiquitous computing infrastructures will be relied on to. make decisions on behalf of the consumer 6 J King Is IT Ready to Support Ubiquitous E. Commerce Computer World March 2000, The position papers discussed thus far take primarily the.
point of view of the business and how it can benefit from 7 M K rkk inen and Jan Holmstr m Wireless product. ubiquitous commerce The last two papers of the workshop identification Enabler for handling efficiency. adopt the consumers viewpoint and discuss implications customisation and information sharing Supply Chain. for their day to day living Steven Barile and Tony Management An International Journal vol 7 no 4. Salvador build on their work on frameworks that examines 2002 242 252. ecologies of consumption In this position paper they focus 8 V Kotlyar M Viveros S S Duri R D Lawrence and. on transaction from both the consumer and the retailer G S Almasi A Case Study in Information Delivery to. perspectives and also consider the individual worker s Mass Retail Markets in T Bench Capon G Soda and. point of view in their attempt to identify useful and A M Tjoa Eds DEXA 99 LNCS 1677 1999 842. appropriate technological innovations that satisfy the 851. transaction context They follow an ethnographic 9 P Kourouthanassis L Koukara C Lazaris K. methodology in their work which is also informed by Thiveos Last Mile Supply Chain Management. previous social research studies in this area Cultural MyGROCER Innovative Business and Technology. differences aside the results they report are twofold on the Framework Proc 17th International Logistics. one hand they identify broad areas that have been Conference 2001 264 273. overlooked as areas for innovation in retail and on the. other they look at specific concepts that have found to be 10 P Kourouthanasis G Lekakos and G Doukidis 2001. indicative of these broad areas Challenges for Automatic Home Supply. Replenishment in e Retailing e Commerce Frontiers, Finally in Panos Kourouthanassis and George Roussos 2001 Cheshirehenbury Macclesfield UK. attempt to explore some of the possible effects on the. consumer experience due to the introduction of ubiquitous 11 P Kourouthanassis and G Roussos Consumer Culture. computing systems in grocery stores They argue that and Pervasive Retail IEEE Pervasive Computing to. ubiquitous computing technologies may potentially appear in the April issue on The Human Experience. transform the function of particular activities in April 2003. fundamental ways Their starting point is their recent study 12 G S Lawrence V Almasi M S Kotlyar M Viveros. on consumer behavior carried out during the trials of a and S S Duri Personalization of Supermarket. prototype ubiquitous retail system for grocery shopping Recommendations Data Mining and Knowledge. They observe that novel shopping opportunities enabled Discovery vol 5 2001 11 32. by ubiquitous computing infrastructures can provide a 13 G Roussos L Koukara P Kourouthanasis J O. more entertaining and stress free shopping trip compared to Tuominen O Seppala G Giaglis and J Frissaer A. conventional shopping and thus transform a utilitarian case study in pervasive retail ACM MOBICOM. activity into an opportunity for entertainment WMC02 2002 pp 90 94. 14 G Roussos P Kourouthanassis and T Moussouri, REFERENCES Appliance Design for Mobile Commerce and. 1 R Asthana M Cravatts and P Krzyzanowski An Retailteinment Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. indoor wireless system for personalized shopping Vol 7 No 3 4 2003 pp 203 209. assistance Proc of IEEE Workshop on Mobile, Computing Systems and Applications Santa Cruz 15 G Roussos D Peterson and U Patel Mobile Identity. California IEEE Computer Society Press 1994 69 74 Management An Enacted View Int Jour E. Commerce Vol 8 No 1 2003 pp 81 100,2 J Buckhardt H Henn S Hepper K Rindtorrff and T. Schaeck Pervasive Computing Addison Wesley 2001 16 G Roussos Diomidis Spinellis Panos Kourouthanasis. Eugene Gryazin Mike Pryzbliski George, 3 A Fano and A Gershman The Future of Services in Kalpogiannis George Giaglis Systems Architecture for.
the Age of Ubiquitous Computing Communications of Pervasive Retail Proc ACM SAC 2003 Melbourne. the ACM 45 12 December 2002 83 85 Florida 2003 pp 631 636. 17 S Sarma D L Brock and Kevin Ashton The Mattern ed Proc Pervasive 2002 Short Paper. Networked Physical World Proposals for Engineering Proceedings Zurich 2002. the Next Generation of Computing Commerce and 20 P Tarasewich Wireless Devices for Ubiquitous. Automatic Identification Whitepaper WH 001 Auto Commerce User Interface Design and Usability in. ID Centre MIT Cambridge MA Brian E Mennecke and Troy J Strader Eds Mobile. 18 J Smaros and J Holmstrom Viewpoint Reaching the Commerce Technology Theory and Applications. consumer through e grocery VMI International Journal 2002 Hershey PA Idea Group Publishing 26 50. of Retail and Distribution Management vol 28 no 2 21 C Trigueros ALBATROS Electronic tagging. 2000 55 61 solutions for the retail sector Informatica El Corte. 19 M Strassner and T Schoch Today s Impact of Ingl s Madrid Spain 1999. Ubiquitous Computing on Business Processes in F, The Challenge of Identifying Value Creating Ubiquitous. Computing Applications,Elgar Fleisch Christian Tellkamp. Institute of Technology Management Institute of Technology Management. University of St Gallen University of St Gallen, CH 9000 St Gallen Switzerland CH 9000 St Gallen Switzerland. 41 71 228 2465 41 71 228 2467, elgar fleisch unisg ch christian tellkamp unisg ch. ABSTRACT Gellersen 6 mention economic concerns as one of the. Ubiquitous computing UbiComp applications involve inhibitors for deploying ubiquitous systems. large numbers of non traditional networked computing We believe there is no general answer which UbiComp. devices which are often mobile and or equipped with applications are value creating Companies that want to. sensors to collect data So far there is only limited invest need to determine the value of a UbiComp. knowledge on the impact of these technologies on business application on a case by case basis If companies have. processes and how these applications can create value In difficulties to identify promising applications this can delay. this paper we consider challenges for identifying value the adoption of these technologies. creating UbiComp applications For the individual,LITERATURE REVIEW.
challenges we provide examples from projects on industrial. applications of UbiComp technologies in which we were In this section we look at selected research on evaluation. involved We conclude that companies can pursue two and valuation Findings from this research are used to. distinct strategies of dealing with these challenges one derive the framework that we propose below. aimed at incremental the other one at more radical The selection of an appropriate evaluation method e g for a. innovations UbiComp application depends on the application type. There are different taxonomies for classifying information. technology applications e g 9 13 According to Farbey. Business applications innovation adoption ubiquitous. et al 9 the complexity of evaluation and the degree of risk. computing value creation, and uncertainty is higher when e g an investment in an IT. INTRODUCTION infrastructure is evaluated compared to an application for. To date there is no widely accepted definition of automating a process However at the same time the. ubiquitous computing UbiComp One can probably say potential benefits become higher Often the term intangible. that applications based on UbiComp technologies involve benefits is used to refer to benefits that are hard to quantify. large numbers of non traditional networked computing either in monetary or non monetary terms As we use the. devices which are often mobile and or equipped with term here benefits are intangible if they can not be. sensors to collect data 10 expressed in monetary terms According to our. This paper focuses on business applications One of the understanding value is created when the returns from an. main capabilities of UbiComp technologies in the context of investment exceed the cost of capital see e g 4. business applications is their potential to reduce media Monetary evaluation or valuation can be conducted at. breaks between the physical world and information systems different levels ranging from market firm work group. 10 This provides the opportunity for a more accurate business process to individual 5. timely and detailed representation of the real world in Chircu and Kauffman 3 suggest a limits to value. information systems framework for IT investments The authors distinguish two. As UbiComp technologies start to become mature 11 types of barriers that make it difficult for companies to. commercial applications gradually become feasible 10 benefit from an investment in information technology The. There are already a number of UbiComp business initial sources of value or value flows may not be fully. applications which are in pilot phases or already available realizable due to valuation barriers that depend on the. on the market However so far there is only limited industry and organizational factors This includes e g. knowledge on the impact of UbiComp technologies on compatibility issues with current systems and. business processes and how applications based on these organizational characteristics such as existing work. technologies can create value for companies Davies and processes The potential value that remains after the. valuation barriers are taken into account may be further calculator considers pallet case and item level tracking. diminished by so called conversion barriers which include We are involved in a project with a software vendor. limited resources knowledge or actual use of the system and a number of other companies in which data from. CHALLENGES FOR IDENTIFYING VALUE CREATING vending machines is integrated in an ERP system The. UBICOMP APPLICATIONS data is gathered by sensors and transferred via the GSM. Our research question is as follows What are the network Among others the project aims at improving. challenges in identifying value creating UbiComp product availability and decreasing maintenance cost by. applications allowing timely and event based refill and maintenance. We propose four challenges which complicate the processes. identification of value creating UbiComp applications the For a car manufacturer it was analysed whether RFID. network challenge the constraints challenge the tags attached to certain spare parts could improve supply. implementation challenge and the valuation challenge chain performance in the company s spare parts business. The challenges were encountered in industrial projects on With the solution the car manufacturer intends to. business applications of UbiComp technologies Based on improve the efficiency of handling incoming deliveries. the literature review we suggest a framework which and to increase the accuracy of information on actual. incorporates the challenges To provide evidence for the deliveries and inventory levels. relevance of the individual challenges we present examples For a pharmaceutical company we examined a solution. from selected projects The projects were conducted during that monitors the compliance of patients with chronical. an ongoing research initiative Apart from the authors the illnesses in taking their prescribed medication By. projects involved people from a number of companies and increasing compliance of these patients pharmaceutical. selected other researchers at different stages companies hope to increase sales e g by reducing the. The framework proposed here uses ideas from the model churn rate The solution uses Bluetooth and GSM. presented by Chircu and Kauffman 3 although its technology for data communication To illustrate the. intention is different Our focus is on the challenges for concept a demonstrator was built as part of the project. identifying value creating applications both ex ante and ex A large European retailer tests different technologies in. post whereas Chircu and Kauffman focus on the barriers one of its supermarkets among them RFID technology In. that prevent the sources of value from being fully realized this test RFID tags are used to track the movement of. independent from their visibility The terminology we use is cases and pallets from the distribution center to the store. therefore different Our framework furthermore incorporates and from the backroom of the store to the shop floor. findings from the research discussed above regarding the Furthermore a number of products are tagged at item. level of analysis types of application and intangible level This allows to track products also on the shelves. benefits Figure 1 provides an overview of t he framework We already conducted site visits and are currently setting. The projects listed below are used to illustrate the relevance up a project to analyze the implications of using RFID. of the individual challenges tags within the supply chain for current processes and. information systems, For an industrial consortium we developed an internet. based tool that allows users to estimate the financial In the following the individual challenges are discussed. impact of using RFID technology in the supply chain The UbiComp applications often involve more then one. Network challenge Constraints challenge,Sources of Sources of value tangible. value per player benefits per,Implementation challenge Valuation challenge. benefits per, Fig 1 From sources of value to tangible benefits per player Challenges in identifying value creating UbiComp applications.
company The network challenge refers to the issue that realized value Implementation challenges are similar to the. generally companies will not invest in an application unless conversion barriers introduced by Ch ircu and Kauffman 3. they see a positive value for themselves An analysis at the In the above mentioned project with a car manufacturer the. network level may indicate high sources of value However potentials of RFID technology for product tracking in the. this is only a necessary but not a sufficient criteria spare parts business look promising but there are no. Relevant is the level of the individual company An example standard solutions available so far Introducing this. for the relevance of the network challenge is the technology still requires a company to invest resources to. introduction of RFID technology in retail supply chains solve a number of generic issues e g regarding the. Retailers such as Wal Mart expect to benefit from the use of selection of appropriate tags positioning of antennas and. RFID tags to track pallets and cases and are working on integration into legacy systems Experience from other. introducing the technology 2 They thereby implicitly pilots has shown that there is still a need for a lot of testing. expect that their suppliers pay for at least large parts of with RFID technology 1 Companies that follow later may. the tags If retailers had to pay for the tags the results from profit from this knowledge Therefore some players are. our calculator indicate that their net present value from an reluctant to adopt early Delays in implementing a solution. investment can turn negative Suppliers may initially not be reduce the potential value as a cash flows are delayed in. willing to introduce RFID technology unless they expect time and b an initial competitive advantage may be lost. their gains to exceed their cost A solution needs to be Valuation challenges refer to the problem of determining the. found so that every player in the supply chain agrees to use tangible benefits from a project Valuation challenges are. RFID present at two distinct points in time Ex ante which means. Constraints challenges are issues which inhibit that the before a decision to go ahead with an investment is made. entire sources of value can be realized This can be existing and ex post i e after the solution is implemented In our. systems processes etc Constraints challenges are similar project with the pharmaceutical company the system would. to valuation barriers introduced in Chircu and Kauffman s have required the co operation of doctors pharmacists and. limits to value framework 3 Specifically for Ubicomp patients Their willingness to co operate was hard to judge. applications Davies and Gellersen 6 mention technical and we were not able to determine ex ante with reasonable. challenges as well as social and legal issues e g privacy accuracy a whether a monitoring solution would be able to. and data security These aspects can become major increase compliance and b what value would hereby be. constraints Due to these challenges there is only a certain created e g by reducing the churn rate The potential. part of the value sources available to a player which is benefits of the application thus remained intangible. called the potential value In the project with the software It can also be difficult to determine ex post whether a. vendor where data from vending machines is gathered solution is value creating Some UbiComp applications e g. remotely we analyzed the potential value of detailed the use of RFID technology for tracking products in a. information on demand product availability machine status supply chain focus on increasing the efficiency of. etc for one specific vending machine operator As we gathering data e g by automating the delivery verification. discovered current processes prevent some of the value process or avoiding the negative impact of inaccurate or. sources from being realizable The company has defined imprecise data e g on product availability A common. fixed routes that specify which vending machines are approach is to conduct a pilot project to see whether the. refilled at what dates Furthermore there is already a system potential benefits are really achievable However processes. in place to manage product availability Sales data for each in a pilot can often not entirely reflect actual processes In. slot in a vending machine is registered and refill intervals the demo store set up by the large European retailer. and levels are defined based on this information A main mentioned above the work routines are somewhat artificial. issue in defining a tour is minimizing the time personnel e g cases are manually tagged before shipment from the. needs fo r getting from one vending machine to the next distribution center This makes it difficult to measure e g. There is no system in place that allows for dynamic routes whether RFID technology really increases labor efficiency. to be defined based on product availability in certain. vending machines Such a system would have to take CONCLUSIONS. information from roughly ten thousand vending machines In this paper we have presented four challenges in. into account which are serviced by about 30 employees identifying promising business applications of UbiComp. These constraints currently inhibit the company from using technologies the network the constraints the. the data in order to achieve higher product availability implementation and the valuation challenge These. challenges are not unique for Ubicomp applications. As the term already indicates implementation challenges. However some of the challenges the network challenge. become relevant when a company starts to implement a the constraints challenge and the ex post valuation. solution Limited resources knowledge or low actual use of. challenge are from our point of view of specific relevance. the system after the implementation is finished diminish the for UbiComp applications. The network challenge occurs when more than one ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. company is involved in an application This is frequently Large parts of this paper have been funded by the M Lab. the case with business applications of UbiComp www m lab ch a joint research initiative of ETH Zurich. technologies The question of appropriate business models and University of St Gallen Switzerland in co operation. is far from being solved for a lot of scenarios 6 Further with the Auto ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of. examples of complex scenarios involving UbiComp Technology Cambridge USA M Lab works with several. technologies where the business model might not be international companies on business applications based on. obvious can e g be found in Fano and Gershman 8 and ubiquitous computing technologies. Tarasewich and Warkentin 12 REFERENCES, The constraints challenge deals with the limitations in 1 Anonymous RFID Supply Chain Applications Building. achieving the value sources due to e g compatibility issues Test 1 Alien Technology White Paper Available at. with existing processes or systems One of the main http www alientechnology com library pdf Building. challenges for UbiComp applications is putting the Test 1 White Paper Color Rev B pdf. information that can be gathered into use New kinds of 2 Anonymous Wal Mart Draws Line in the Sand RFID. application logic may be needed in order to benefit from the Journal June 16 2003 Available at. additional data For example what needs to be changed in http www rfidjournal com article articleview 462 1 1. an ERP systems when a company wants to benefit from the. ability to track each individual product as it moves through 3 Chircu A M and Kauffman R J Limits to Value in. the supply chain Electronic Commerce Related IT Investments Journal of. Management Information Systems 14 2 59 80, The ex post valuation challenge refers to the problem of. measuring the value that is supposed to be created by an 4 Copeland T Koller T and Murrin J Valuation. application Even when benefits may be tangible ex ante Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies. they can be difficult to observe and may only show when John Wiley Sons New York et al 1996. the performance before and after the solution was 5 Davern M J and Kauffman R J Discovering Potential. implemented is compared over a longer time period For new and Realizing Value from Information Technology. technologies such as UbiComp technologies it might take Investments Journal of Management In formation. some time to prove that tangible results are delivered Systems 16 4 121 143. The fact that it is challenging to identify value creating 6 Davies N and Gellersen H W Beyond Prototypes. UbiComp applications has certain implications for the Challenges in Deploying Ubiquitous Systems IEEE. adoption of UbiComp applications The previous comments Pervasive Computing 1 1 26 35. seem to suggest a strategy of focusing on incremental 7 Dewar R D and Dutton J E The Adoption of Radical. improvements and quick wins Companies may decide to go and Incremental Innovations An Empirical Analysis. ahead with applications based on UbiComp technologies Management Science 32 11 1422 33. which only involve a few players They may initially focus. on applications which do not require extensive changes to 8 Fano A and Gershman A The Future of Business. existing systems and which are consistent with existing Services in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing. processes Furthermore companies may prefer applications Communications of the ACM 45 12 83 87. with tangible benefits that can easily be observed after 9 Farbey B Land F F and Targett D A taxonomy of. implementation However there might be an alternative to information systems applications the benefits. this strategy Up to a certain degree a company may be able evaluation ladder European Journal of Information. to improve its evaluation process A good understanding of Systems 4 1 41 50. the challenges can lead to a higher chance of correctly 10 Fleisch E Business Perspectives on Ubiquitous. identifying value creating applications that are radical in Computing M Lab Working Paper No 4 University of. nature rather than provide incremental benefits Knowledge St Gallen St Gallen Switzerland 2001. seems to play an important role for this strategy to work. 11 Mattern F The Vision and Technical Foundations of. Depth of knowledge as well as company size has a,Ubiquitous Computing Upgrade 2 5 2 6. positive impact on the adoption of radical innovations 7. Companies that want to pursue this strategy may e g 12 Tarasewich P and Warkentin M Information Every. engage in industry initiatives collaborate with other where Information Systems Management 19 1 8 13. companies develop internal resources conduct extensive 13 Venkatraman N IT Enabled Business Transformation. pilots and seek close contact with academic institutions From Automatio n to Business Scope Redefinition Sloan. Management Review 35 2 73 87, The Potential of RFID for Moveable Asset Management. Matthias Lampe Martin Strassner, Institute for Pervasive Computing Institute of Technology Management.
Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich University of St Gallen. 8092 Zurich Switzerland 9000 St Gallen Switzerland. 41 1 632 71 23 41 71 228 24 68,lampe inf ethz ch martin strassner unisg ch. ABSTRACT increasingly tend to support asset management Good asset. Moveable asset management is still not appropriately management systems should be able to. supported by existing IT systems Items are not managed. individually information about location status and usage is manage assets individually. not accurate or lacking This can cause delays in industrial allow to locate the right assets. operations inefficient use or excess inventory of costly. assets We propose RFID technology as the key to link the provide information about the current physical status. necessary data directly with the physical assets Assets quality of an asset and. become able to manage themselves which eliminates many keep an information history of an asset. manually tasks like searching for assets inspecting for. damages or counting them The article demonstrates the Typical drawbacks of today s asset management systems. potential of RFID based asset management solutions using are the failure to appropriately support these tasks and a. the example of tool management in aircraft maintenance missing direct integration of physical assets with the IT. The example includes the smart toolbox and smart tool system They only manage the number of assets in stock. inventory application as an implemented solution and cannot manage items individually and they are not. designed to store enough related data with an asset for. example usage data or status information This results in. aircraft maintenance asset management RFID smart, manual data capturing which is expensive and error prone. assets Ubiquitous Computing, In this paper we want to show that Radio Frequency. INTRODUCTION Identification RFID technology 1 bears the potential to. The management of moveable assets is still a major overcome these drawbacks To demonstrate how RFID can. challenge in the industrial environment Examples for such improve the management of moveable assets see Section. assets are vehicles containers or tools The goal of 2 we developed two demonstrators for the tool. moveable asset management is to make assets available management in the business of aircraft maintenance see. when needed and ensure their efficient use For this reason Section 3 We use demonstrators to show the potential of. asset management encompasses activities like locating RFID technology Examples for institutions that are. assets tracking their usage and ensuring their maintenance performing and presenting research in this way are. From our daily life we might have experience about how Accenture 2 IBM 3 TeCo 4 and the M Lab 5. much time we are spending on searching for personal Section 4 closes with a summary about the benefits and. belongings This problem is much more complex for challenges in the adoption It also provides a prospective. companies that are dependent on many different kinds of how the impact of Ubiquitous Computing technology on. assets that are often used on a shared basis Workers are moveable asset management may develop in the future. wasting much time in searching for assets which results in. increased process costs For example if the right container RFID ENHANCED ASSET MANAGEMENT. is not available parts for the assembly cannot be RFID is one of the major technologies that are frequently. transported to the line and production schedules might be discussed in the area of Ubiquitous Computing As shown. delayed Improper maintained tools can cause damage or in Fig 1 this technology can be seen as the next. even lead to accidents evolutionary step in automatic identification Auto ID. technology It integrates the digital and the physical world. Existing standard business software like ERP systems. by seamlessly connecting objects in the physical world. with their representations in information systems 6 The. avoidance of media breaks bears the potential to improve. the efficiency of business processes through automation. that leads to reduced cost since less human intervention is. required human errors are eliminated and laborious manual. data gathering is avoided More efficient processes and brewery to get their asset back or claim for refund. new services will be the result 7 Later the brewery decided to outsource the. management of their beer kegs to the company, Trenstar who adopted the system and introduced a pay. data entry,per use model to bill for their service.
A gas dealer attached RFID tags to his gas bottles that. Digital world Bits, store the basic weight the type of gas and the filling. Inter and crosscompany,information systems,date As empty gas bottles have different weights. e g ERP systems,Local regional and global, knowing the base weight of a gas bottle makes it easy. communication networks,e g Internet,to determine exactly how many gas needs to be. Physical world Atoms, Nortel Networks uses expensive test equipment which.
Human beings,needs to be accessed by many engineers To avoid. Assets searching for the equipment Nortel implemented a. Human intervention No human intervention, RFID based local positioning solution Since Nortel. required required, Degree of has introduced the system most devices can be found in. RFID Radio Frequency Identification,automation,less than five minutes. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning,SMART SOLUTIONS FOR AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE.
Fig 1 The media break between the physical and the For the execution of MRO Maintenance Repair and. digital world 8 Overhaul of aircrafts many requirements by law regarding. quality safety and documentation exist which leads to. According to the definition of smart objects 9 smart extensively standardized processes within the industry The. assets have a unique ID may use sensors have a memory presented problems are therefore similar throughout the. and are able to communicate Using these features they are aircraft maintenance industry The solutions that are. able to meet the requirements for good asset management presented in Section 3 2 are based on the concept of RFID. systems that were stated in the previous section An enabled smart assets and were developed by the M Lab in. attached RFID chip makes it is possible to identify and cooperation with a major company from the aircraft. manage smart assets individually With an infrastructure of industry and SAP SI. reading devices in place they can be tracked and localized. Sensor enhanced RFID devices enable them to monitor Challenges in the Tool Management. their physical context awareness such as temperature or Each mechanic in the aircraft maintenance company has a. moisture The memory of smart assets can be used to store personal toolbox that contains the most often used tools. history information that can be requested later e g about The mechanic is personally liable for the tools for. usage As a result most tasks in asset management like example in case of loss he or she needs to pay for the. identification tracking monitoring can be done tools The mechanic is also liable for any damage that is. automatically From a users point of view the smart assets caused by a tool which was forgotten in an airplane after a. seem to manage themselves Decisions that affect the asset maintenance task The following processes could be. can be made on the object itself Information technology identified as labor intensive and cumbersome tasks for the. that indeed is empowered by a ubiquitous computing mechanics. infrastructure is directly linked to the movable assets. Marking Tools are marked by engraving the ID of, On top of the more efficient asset management additional the toolbox This task is done manually and can take. services around asset management can be created by using up to two days Since the marking fades it needs to. this infrastructure 10 The ability to manage moveable be replaced every two years. assets anywhere and anytime facilitates the outsourcing of. asset management to logistics service providers Accurate Routine completeness check The completeness and. information about usage enables pay per use models that correctness of the toolbox must be checked after. also support this trend Providing information about status each maintenance task This means the mechanic. and location of assets can also be seen as independent has to check whether all tools are in the box and no. services e g track trace tools were exchanged with colleagues. The following examples show how some companies are Base completeness check Each mechanic has to. using RFID to enhance asset management perform weekly cross checks of his toolbox together. with a colleague which can take several hours A, Scottish Courage had to face 3 5 shrinkage of their tool list acts as a written protocol to facilitate the. aluminum kegs per year To solve this problem the check and needs to be signed after completion. brewery decided to use the RFID technology to, individually identify their kegs and to track to what Lookup If a tool is missing after a maintenance task. customers they are lend out The system enabled the the aircraft in question needs to be searched until. the tool is found In the worst case this can lead to a forgotten and can take the appropriate actions right after he. delayed delivery of the aircraft to the customer finishes a maintenance task avoiding or reducing the. lookup process, Special tools can be checked out from a central tool. inventory The tools are stored in automated shelves and a. service operator is taking requests for tools Every. mechanic can have up to 10 tools checked out the same. time To ensure this limit a tool is handed out only in. exchange for a metal token that has the personal, identification number of the mechanic inscribed The.
following three processes describe the tasks of the. Fig 2 Setup and screenshot of the Smart Toolbox demo. Checkout If a mechanic requests a tool it is handed. out to the mechanic in exchange for a metal token The way the mechanic handles the tools does not change by. If the tool is not on its shelf position the operator introducing the smart toolbox The automatic monitoring. should find a metallic token instead which shows happens unobtrusively relieving the mechanic of annoying. who has lent out the tool checking procedures In addition the smart toolbox. identifies the mechanic who interacts with the box by. Return In exchange for the returned tools the, detecting the RFID badge of the mechanic If he is not the. mechanic gets the metal tokens back The operator, owner of the box a warning will be displayed to help avoid. receives the tool and puts it back into its shelf, mixing up of tools in advance Another additional benefit is. position Often tools are returned late and not, the usage history of the tools that is inferred by keeping the. available to other mechanics since there is no, times a mechanic takes out a tool and puts it back in The.
tracking information available, time until the next maintenance or exchange of a tool can. Lookup Sometimes mechanics wants to know what be visualized by combining the usage history with the. tools they have checked out In this case the service expected lifetime or maintenance frequency of a tool This. operator must search for the tokens which can take usage history also allows optimizing the content of the. up to three hours toolbox this means tools that are used infrequently can be. removed from the toolbox and placed in the tool inventory. Concluding the weaknesses in these processes are based. on missing documentation of checkouts and human errors Instead of manually marking the tools the toolbox can. This leads to searching for tools that are checked out initially write its identification on all tools in the box. misplaced tokens exchanged tools forgotten completeness However this requires RFID tags attached to the tools. checks and time consuming tool marking The smart This is done ideally during the manufacturing process of. toolbox and the smart tool inventory that are described in the tools. the following sections address these weaknesses A real world implementation of the smart toolbox faces the. following challenges a Most of the tools are made out of. The Smart Toolbox, metal which require specialized RFID hardware e g low. The Smart Toolbox was introduced in 11 in the context of. frequency systems or ferrit coated tags b the toolbox. the Smart Box Concept We implemented the Smart, itself is made out of metal which can be solved by placing. Toolbox see Fig 2 to demonstrate the concept of, RFID antennas in each drawer of the toolbox and c some. automatic and unobtrusive content monitor using RFID. of the tools have a small size which make it difficult to. technology RFID tags are attached to all tools and the. attach a RFID tag, boxes are equipped with RFID readers and antennas The.
identification of the toolbox in addition to the identification The Smart Tool Inventory. of the tool is written on each RFID tag this means the Similar to the smart toolbox RFID tags are attached to all. toolbox can uniquely identify all tools that are in the tools in the inventory and a RFID reader and antenna is. toolbox and automatically perform the routine and base placed in the checkout counter see No 1 in Fig 3 The. completeness check To check for completeness this is RFID hardware allows to uniquely identify tools that are. done by comparing all IDs on the tools with a list of IDs of placed on the checkout counter In addition to the tools. tools that are belonging to the box By comparing all IDs each mechanic can be identified using the security badge. on the tools with its own identification the toolbox can which also uses a RFID chip. automatically check for correctness The implementation consists of two parts a the RFID. The state of the toolbox is visualized see Fig 2 in two client that handles the identification of the tools and. ways corresponding to the two conditions a Missing mechanics and manages the checkout and return and b. tools are shown by empty spaces and b tools that belong the web application that allows the service operator to. to a different toolbox are highlighted with a special access information about the checkout state of tools This. indicator The mechanic easily recognizes if a tool was means the lookup process can be performed in seconds. The RFID client is connected via the intranet to the tool There are still several challenges to overcome when using. management system The tool management system is part RFID to enable smart assets First the technology has some. of an SAP R 3 system and the connection is done using the major drawbacks as long as it is used in metallic. Business Connector interface of the SAP system The data environments These problems can be solve using. to and from the client is sent using XML messages specialized RFID systems however engineering know how. is needed in addition to IT know how Second there is a. lack of standards in product identification A concept for a. ubiquitous Auto ID infrastructure is currently developed by. the Auto ID center at MIT Third traditional ERP systems. are not ready to manage all those assets individually ERP. vendors like SAP are also supporting the Auto ID center. and working on smart items infrastructures, In addition to the improved asset management innovative. services can be created by using this infrastructure a. outsourcing of asset management to logistics service. providers b pay per use models or c real time, information about status and location More research needs. 1 to be done in refining the solutions and developing. scenarios that are using Ubiquitous Computing, technologies beyond RFID In order to fully implement the. vision of smart assets sensor technology can be, Fig 3 Smart Tool Inventory setting with RFID reader and incorporated. antenna No 1 and display No 2 REFERENCES, The checkout and return processes do not get more 1 Finkenzeller K RFID Handbook Wiley 1999.
complex using the smart tool inventory application In 2 Accenture Seize the day The Silent Commerce. contrary since the metal tokens can be omitted the process Imperative Available at http www accenture com. is optimized No explicit user interaction with the system 3 Wolff J A RFID tags intelligent bar code. by the service operator is needed since the tools trigger all replacement Available at ftp service boulder ibm com. processes If a tool is placed on the counter its ID is. checked in the tool management system If the tool is 4 TeCo Telecooperation Office University of Karlsruhe. currently checked out a return process is initiated and the http www teco edu. identified tools are marked as returned in the system 5 Christ O Fleisch E and Mattern F M Lab The. otherwise a checkout process is initiated where the tools Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Lab Phase II. are marked as checked out by the identified mechanic To Project Plan Available at http www m lab ch. avoid missing tools due to RFID errors a visual feedback 6 Want R et al Bridging physical and virtual worlds. about the process is given to the service operator see No 2 with electronic tags Presented at ACM SIGCHI May. in Fig 3 In addition to the current state of a tool the 1999. history of checkout and return processes is stored This. allows detailed statistics of tool usage and can lead to an 7 Schoch T and Strassner M Today s Impact of. optimized tool inventory Ubiquitous Computing on Business Processes First. International Conference on Pervasive Computing, The implementation of the smart tool inventory faces the Short Paper Proceedings Zurich 2002 62 74. following challenges a Most of the tools are made out of. metal which can be solved using specialized RFID 8 Fleisch E Business Perspectives on Ubiquitous. hardware b the RFID tags need to be attached to the Computing M Lab working paper No 4 University of. tools As in the previous smart toolbox application this St Gallen 2001. should be done during the manufacturing process of the 9 Gellersen H W Schmidt A and Beigl M Adding. tools Some Smartness to Devices and Everyday Things IEEE. Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and,CONCLUSION. Applications Monterrey USA December 7 8 2000, In this paper we have shown that RFID technology has a. high potential to improve moveable asset management in 10 Fano A and Gershman A The Future of Business. several ways based on automatic and unique identification Services in the age of Ubiquitous Computing Commun. The following benefits are the result of avoidance of media ACM 45 12 December 2002 83 87. breaks by automating or reducing manual tasks a 11 Floerkemeier C Lampe M and Schoch T The. identification of the right assets b locating of assets c Smart Box Concept for Ubiquitous Computing. monitoring the quality or state of assets and d keeping Environments Presented at Smart Objects Conference. the history of assets Grenoble 2003,Customer Service with Eyes. Anatole Gershman Andrew Fano, Accenture Technology Labs Accenture Technology Labs.
3773 Willow Road 3773 Willow Road,Northbrook IL 60062 USA Northbrook IL 60062 USA. anatole v gershman accenture com afano techlabs accenture com. INTRODUCTION Looking ahead we see a new wave of infrastructural. Camera phones are the latest ubiquitous gadgets rapidly changes that includes pervasive broadband wireless. growing in popularity in Japan and Korea where they connectivity and a growing range of connected sensors. represent over 80 of all new cell phones sales IDC such as cameras microphones position readers auto ID. estimates there will be 300 million camera phones tags etc An early example of this trend is the camera. worldwide by 2007 Users can instantly and inexpensively phone We believe that it will change the way people. send and receive snapshots taken with these cameras We interact with businesses Until now in a typical interaction. believe that these are not isolated gadgets but an important with a call center people used the telephone to say. component of the new emerging infrastructure with something to a business As people grow accustomed to. significant consequences for many business processes In using camera phones to show things to each other. this paper we examine its impact on customer interaction inevitably they will want to use them to show something to. customer service and more specifically how it will affect a business It is also likely that they will expect businesses. call centers and the roles of call center agents to show things to them We believe that this change is. Every new infrastructure forces businesses to adapt their momentous in a very real sense businesses through their. strategies and business processes Those who adapt faster call centers will gain millions of eyes into the world of. and better gain significant competitive advantages Call their customers but they will also need much greater. centers are a prime example of businesses having to adapt intelligence to provide intelligent responses to vastly. their processes to accommodate the adoption of a new increased amounts of information they will be receiving. technological infrastructure The introduction of automatic In the remainder of the paper we provide an overview of. telephone switches made call centers possible In 1956 Pan the functions that may be served by cameraphones in. Am introduced one of the first 24 7 call centers giving interactions with call centers the new roles that call center. customers a local phone number in every market In 1967 agents may need to fill and the challenges of indexing. ATT s introduction of toll free 800 numbers opened a media provided to a call center. flood gate for phone based customer services Today over MEDIA IN CALL CENTER INTERACTIONS. 70 of customer interactions are handled by The following examples illustrate the new aspects of. telecommunications channels Call centers have become customer interaction and highlight both the opportunities. standard practice as an effective business tool and as a and the challenges of the new capabilities. convenience expected by consumers,Pointing Identification. More recent technological advances such as Instead of trying to describe an object using words. telephony computer integration voice recognition and the consumers will simply use the camera phone to send a. World Wide Web precipitated a new wave of changes in snapshot of the object customer service This works. the operation of call centers and in the business processes especially well when one tries to convey the style of. that rely on them The precipitous drop in furniture or a house An expert at the call center can gain a. telecommunications costs made offshore call centers much better understanding of the customer s need or. economical Businesses are actively trying to reduce intention and provide a better service At the same time it. customer service costs by channeling more and more will require an expert to correctly identify the style of. interactions to the Web and to the automated voice furniture from the snapshot thus raising the required level. response systems Customers also expect more from of qualification of the call center personnel. vendors online product manuals updates account status. Context Capture, shipment tracking etc Businesses have to be ever more. A customer can use the camera phone to take a picture of. creative in their use of IT infrastructure to satisfy the rising. the environment in which the desired product is used a. expectations of their customers while maintaining profit. yard a room an office a workshop a half finished project. etc This can help the service provider select the most. appropriate product for the customer as well as to suggest Relevancy For which cases is this media relevant. other products that might be useful Once interpreted or diagnosed the media will need to. Technical Support Training, be related to particular cases and associated with broader. A series of snapshots or a short video can be used to trends. capture how a user is performing a procedure A service Routing To whom should this media be routed Just. provider can then use it to correct or train the customer as an operator today routes calls to the appropriate. Customer Insight, person they may soon be routing media In many cases.
Businesses use surveys and focus groups to glean how their media interpretation may simply be a question of. customers use their products Media rich customer support determining who should view it. interactions will very likely provide real life data and Agent as Producer. images that will be more reliable than traditional surveys When making movies most footage winds up on the. They will show how the customers are using the product cutting room floor Call centers will likely find that most. what they are trying to do what other products they use media they receive either from people or from surveillance. etc cameras needs to be edited and annotated to be useful. Verification Documentation For example while a witness to a mugging might submit a. Consumers may use camera phones to document that a picture of a mugger the 911 agent may have access to. repair was performed for insurance purposes or that they numerous security cameras in the environment A key task. actually possess what they seek to insure They may verify for the 911 operator will be to identify environmental. that they are ordering the correct parts by sending pictures cameras likely to be relevant The feeds will then be. of the device into which the parts will be placed reviewed and filtered down to the few useful cameras from. Businesses similarly may send pictures to consumers to the far larger set of available ones Ultimately the task is. verify that a product ordered is the correct product in effect one of editing and producing the media. In the future 911 and other emergency call centers may be associated with a case To continue the 911 example the. flooded with snapshots of alleged perpetrators suspicious 911 operator after reviewing images sent in by witnesses. characters damaged property etc All of this information and accessing nearby security cameras may select. will undoubtedly contain valuable leads but their timely annotate and forward to the assigned officers only the. extraction may be very costly most useful media,Agent as collaborator. EVOLUTIONARY ROLES, The greatest challenge for media rich business interactions The rise of the camera phone is arguably indicative of the. is the timely intelligent interpretation of images video broader trend of consumers using increasingly powerful. audio and other sensory inputs as well as their indexing for collaboration tools such as video conferencing instant. future use Typically this requires humans At a time when messaging and soon multimedia messaging For. businesses are trying to automate as many interactions as computer technology support it is common for a call center. possible and offload customers to self service web sites agent to in effect collaborate with a user in solving a. new technologies such as camera phones that draw humans problem In many cases the call center agent has direct. back into the loop are a cause for concern At the broadest visibility into the caller s computer account or can. level there are three agent roles that are likely to gain reproduce a problem locally Technologies such as the. significance as media is incorporated into call centers camera phone promise to provide the same kind of. visibility for a broader range of environments enabling. Agent as media interpreter collaborative approaches for a wide set of tasks. Perhaps most obviously as media arrives at a call center a. key task will be to interpret the media What is depicted in MEDIA INDEXING. the media This is partly a question of indexing the media Not every picture a person takes necessarily leads to an. an issue we discuss below But beyond indexing the immediate interaction with a human A likely common use. question is how it relates to a given case Agents will have for consumer media is gathering examples of a problem. to answer questions including that will be discussed later in a single interaction For. example photographing locations for roof leaks during a. Diagnosis What functional questions are raised storm a suspicious person repeatedly loitering in front of a. While media may be indexed at a certain level it will building deteriorating conditions on a street corner are all. often likely be at a level unrelated to the business instances of images that may be captured over time and. processes of the organization For example a caller may preserved as a collection for future use Other examples. preindex a picture as a car but it may be up to the agent when immediate action may not be possible or appropriate. to further annotate the car as being involved in a hit and include insurance claims verification marketing. run and yet another to declare it a total loss from an information and crime reports In all such cases media rich. insurance perspective reports need to be indexed and classified for further. processing with other materials There are several OFFSHORE OUTSOURCING. approaches we can take to address the problem of the The fact that media is easy to transmit makes it a prime. increased need for human indexing of rich media candidate for offshore interpretation using inexpensive. labor Images depending on the application and accuracy. AUTOMATED INDEXING, requirements may be able to be classified as quickly as one. There are millions of cameras in our physical environment. per second by a trained analyst This can even be done in. from security cameras to ATM cameras to name a few. real time Robustness and consistency can be achieved. Most of what these unmanned cameras capture is, through redundancy by sending the same picture to several. completely unimportant The difficulty of course is. operators Security can also be achieved by sending. identifying points of significance Fortunately many events. pictures from different sources to different processing. of significance are accompanied by actions that trigger. centers in a randomized fashion, additional sensors For example users of ATM machines.
swipe their cards and thus identify themselves The CONCLUSION. transactions they conduct can also be a source of indexing Pervasive computing creates a new level of ubiquitous. Visitors to a building ring the bell of building and talk infrastructure enabling broadband wired and wireless. through the intercom These interactions can also be connection among countless sensors and smart objects. captured and added to the index The camera phone is one of the first manifestations of this. emerging infrastructure and as we tried to argue in this. INDEXING AT THE POINT OF CAPTURE, short paper it presents both interesting opportunities and. As suggested earlier camera phones are different from. formidable challenges to businesses It is an opportunity. security cameras they are manned They capture media. because it creates a media rich channel of communication. when a person finds something of significance The person. between companies and their customers It is a formidable. taking the picture can orally pre index it as being a vehicle. challenge because this channel does not simply reduce the. person or physical setting e g a street corner While this. cost of doing today s business It demands new ways of. is not an exhaustive index it can be very helpful when. interacting with one s customers and will require a. combined with automatically captured features such as the. substantial redesign of customer service processes and. identity of the person capturing the image the time and. date and the coordinates of the physical location,.

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