Turning Sufferers Into Settlers Western University-Books Pdf

Turning Sufferers into Settlers Western University
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490 JOURNAL OF THE EARLY REPUBLIC Summer 2013, white settlers in Florida Congress passed a resolution to Aid the Suffer. ing and Indigent Inhabitants of Florida on February 1 1836 Under. this policy the U S Army distributed food to hundreds of individuals. whom they considered eligible for aid As that program became too. expensive and counter to the goal of populating the frontier with white. families policy shifted in the summer of 1841 to require whites to return. to the Florida frontier as members of families if they wanted to con. tinue to receive rations Federal assistance changed again in 1842 when. Congress passed the Armed Occupation Act under which white. household heads received free public land rather than food a policy. aimed at creating permanent settlements of white male headed family. farms throughout Florida 2, Over the course of six years leaders used ideas about femininity and. masculinity the social norms that Americans used to construct gender. difference to build support for these policies Initially they relied on. women s feminine dependence to justify a rations policy as chivalrous. charity Subsequently leaders exploited armed men s masculine inde. pendence to rationalize free land programs as the most effective way to. permanently install white settler families throughout Florida As recipi. ents of federal aid changed from suffering inhabitants to armed set. tlers between 1836 and 1842 each aid program aimed to restore. women and men to their proper roles which policymakers assumed. would settle the frontier As this shift indicates gender is not a synonym. for women in this story although the essay will pay special attention to. women Policymakers used ideas about men s and women s ideal roles. to naturalize and justify federal spending in Florida Gender made it. possible for them to debate policies aimed at ending the Second Semi. nole War as if those policies were federal social provision for the benefit. of deserving white Americans Gender allowed American leaders to. begin a welfare program for war victims and subsequently change it into. a policy of land entitlements for deserving settlers 3. 2 Resolution Authorizing the President to Furnish Rations to Certain Inhabi. tants of Florida Feb 1 1836 reprinted in Public Statutes at Large of the USA. Boston 1850 131, 3 Feminist historian Joan Scott defines gender as a constitutive element of. social relationships based on perceived differences between the sexes as well as. a primary way of signifying relationships of power Joan Scott Gender A. Useful Category of Historical Analysis American Historical Review 91 Dec. 1986 1053 75 quote on 1067,18437 CH4 05 07 13 14 11 57 PS PAGE 490. Shire TURNING SUFFERERS INTO SETTLERS 491, The 1836 Suffering Inhabitants policy became law in the first few.
months of the Second Seminole War the costliest Indian war the United. States ever fought Spain relinquished Florida to the United States in 1821. and in the early 1830s Americans began to exert pressure on the Seminoles. to leave Florida By late 1835 conflicts between whites and Indians in. Florida had escalated into a guerilla war which lasted until 1842 Home. steads and therefore women and children were on the front lines Ameri. cans viewed Seminole attacks on families and property as savage and. barbaric in spite of the fact that American forces resorted to similar. strategies The U S Army attacked Seminole villages where they killed. and captured people and burned homes goods and fields The Semi. noles retaliated by bringing the fight to white settlers while evading Ameri. can troops Many white settlers fearful of Indian depredations as. Americans termed them fled to other states or to military garrisons 4. This was not the first conflict in which American leaders combined. military land and social policies in support of territorial expansion. Generous land policies for veterans pre emption rights for squatters. and distribution and graduation schemes all happened before or concur. rent with the policies in Florida discussed here Laura Jensen argues that. beginning in the early republic entitlements such as land grants and. veteran pensions enabled and largely accomplished the geographical. expansion of the country through military and civilian conquest Jensen. contends that social provision in the United States was rarely about need. but was usually about drafting citizens into service toward national goals. This study supports Jensen s case but argues that gender should not be. overlooked in the history of welfare and expansion The desire to sup. port independent men and help dependent women shaped the debates. content and implementation of expansionist policies Gendered ratio. nales for expansionist welfare policies appeared so natural however that. one can easily fail to see them For example one might assume that all. the suffering inhabitants were female or that as Jensen assumes all. armed occupiers were men After all women rarely appear as signifi. cant actors in territorial conquest they are usually the victims or help. meets And Americans typically have not classified men whether settlers. 4 Joe Knetsch Florida s Seminole Wars 1817 1858 Charleston SC 2003. John K Mahon History of the Second Seminole War 1835 1842 Gainesville. FL 1967 2nd ed 1985 John Missall and Mary Lou Missall The Seminole Wars. America s Longest Indian Conflict Gainesville FL 2004. 18437 CH4 05 07 13 14 11 58 PS PAGE 491,492 JOURNAL OF THE EARLY REPUBLIC Summer 2013. veterans firefighters or civil servants as welfare recipients even. though the benefits granted to such men were arguably a form of social. provision This study of a short period on a specific frontier reveals. however that both men and women benefitted from all of these policies. and furthermore that military policies aimed at supporting male settlers. included social provision and that aid programs aimed at women were. part of a larger military strategy of conquest 5, These assumptions arise from the ways that gender has shaped. notions of independence and dependence concepts that had both gen. dered and racial connotations in early America The antebellum social. order across regional variations presumed that white men were inde. pendent chivalrous and responsible for the well being of depen. dents women children servants and slaves Those dependents. especially women and the servants and slaves they supervised were. charged with creating domestic spaces that nurtured their families Since. the policies enacted in Florida in the period discussed here were aimed. at providing for widowed and orphaned dependents and supporting the. settlement of white families many of them slave owners the household. social order was central to the framework policymakers used 6. Although in some ways women were limited by antebellum gender. ideology women s roles also expanded due to their presumed ability to. create proper domesticity especially on a violent frontier In Florida. white women played important roles as wives mistresses of slaves. domesticators of new territory and mothers of what would be the first. generation of Americans born in Florida Nineteenth century domestic. ideology did not confine women to the private sphere rather gender. operated as a way for politicians and military leaders to recognize women. 5 Laura Jensen assumes that only men applied for and received Armed Occu. pation Act AOA land in Patriots Settlers and the Origins of American Social. Policy New York 2003 181 Susan Sterett notes that beginning in the mid. nineteenth century Americans framed entitlements granted to men as benefits. given to deserving citizens and those granted to women as charity for the indigent. and dependent Sterett Public Pensions Gender and Civic Service in the States. Ithaca NY 2002, 6 Amy Greenberg Manifest Manhood and the Antebellum American Empire. New York 2005 Joan Cashin A Family Venture Men and Women on the South. ern Frontier New York 1991 Bruce Dorsey Reforming Men and Women Gen. der in the Antebellum City Ithaca NY 2002 Stephanie McCurry Masters of. Small Worlds Yeoman Households Gender Relations and the Political Culture of. the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country New York 1995. 18437 CH4 05 07 13 14 11 58 PS PAGE 492,Shire TURNING SUFFERERS INTO SETTLERS 493. in Florida the women and children of respectable planters as indi. viduals with a direct claim on the nation s resources Domesticity Amer. ican politicians believed would guarantee permanent settler colonialism 7. Yet there were also gender challenges policymakers had to meet to. pass each policy Politicians believed that settlers were more effective. than soldiers at colonizing and holding land in Florida yet it was a. dangerous frontier where Indians harmed and killed white women and. children American politicians thus cast white women in two roles the. innocent victim and the civilizing agent As victims of Indian violence. white women were highly visible in American press and support for the. war in Florida was cast as a defense of white women and their families. regardless of public dispute over the expansion of slavery or the removal. of Native Americans In their role as moral helpmeets white women. became less visible in policy Behind protective male household heads. policymakers tacitly recognized women s presence in language about. families In the midst of these rhetorical changes some women adeptly. played both roles widowed sufferers under one policy became set. tlers under another and some single women filed land claims as heads. of families 8, 7 On white women s work in Florida see Anya Jabour The Privations.
Hardships of a New Country Southern Women and Southern Hospitality on the. Florida Frontier Florida Historical Quarterly 75 Winter 1997 259 75 Tracy. Revels Grander in Her Daughters Florida s Women During the Civil War. Columbia SC 2004 Edward Baptist Creating an Old South Middle Florida s. Plantation Frontier before the Civil War Chapel Hill NC 2002 On domestic. ideology see Amy Kaplan Manifest Domesticity American Literature 70 Sept. 1998 581 606 Barbara Welter The Cult of True Womanhood 1800 1860. American Quarterly 18 Summer 1966 151 74 Nancy F Cott The Bonds of. Womanhood Woman s Sphere in New England 1780 1835 New Haven CT. 1977 Christine Stansell City of Women Sex and Class in New York 1789 1860. Urbana IL 1987 Thomas Dublin Women at Work The Transformation of. Work and Community in Lowell Massachusetts 1826 1860 New York 1979. Alisse Portnoy Their Right to Speak Women s Activism in the Indian and Slave. Debates Cambridge MA 2005 Elizabeth Varon We Mean to Be Counted White. Women and Politics in Antebellum Virginia Chapel Hill NC 1998 Michael. Pierson Free Hearts Free Homes Gender and American Antislavery Politics. Chapel Hill NC 2003, 8 Amanda Bleach Willis Adela Flotard Eliza L Crews Susannah Brown and. Rebecca Munden were suffering inhabitants in 1842 and filed AOA land claims. in 1842 43 Single widowed women Eliza Ann Riley Charlotte Davis Christian. Brown Mary Darby Eliza Glenn Elizabeth Standley Susan Whitehurst Mary. 18437 CH4 05 07 13 14 11 59 PS PAGE 493,494 JOURNAL OF THE EARLY REPUBLIC Summer 2013. This article analyzes the passage and implementation of the Suffering. Inhabitants policy in Florida The analysis follows several of its female. beneficiaries into the decades following the Second Seminole War when. many of them became successful farmers and planters The choices made. by the women who received these benefits shaped these policies as did. the ideas about male and female roles held by men in congress and the. military Throughout some of the surprising connections among gender. welfare and national expansion in antebellum Florida become clear. The resolution for the relief of the indigent and suffering inhabitants of. Florida enacted by Congress in early 1836 gave rations from the. public stores to the unfortunate sufferers who have been driven from. their homes by Indian depredations It was in the context of a public. outcry against Seminole attacks on whites that the U S Congress voted. to aid the suffering inhabitants of Florida A January 13 1836 memo. rial to congress from the leading citizens of St Augustine requested. rations for citizens who had been dispossessed by Indians or who had. lost male providers killed in action Sympathy for the victims of Indian. violence was one motivation for congressional action but Florida leaders. also believed that stabilizing and increasing the population of white fami. lies moved Florida closer to statehood something that affluent planters. in Middle Florida hoped to achieve in the 1830s 9, Hall Elizabeth Ann Barry Mary Ann Garrison Charlotte Ayers Nancy Camp. bell Elizabeth Hogan and Ann Mangham filed AOA claims Rolls of Suffering. Inhabitants Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General 1822 1860. Record Group 94 National Archives Washington DC United States Bureau of. Land Management Florida Pre 1908 Homestead Cash Entry Patents General. Land Office Automated Records Project CD ROM Springfield VA 1993. Armed Occupation Act Permits General Land Office Records Title and Land. Records Section Division of State Lands Florida Department of Environmental. Protection Tallahassee, 9 See note 2 Reid recounted that during a very recent attack on the Stafford. Turning Sufferers into Settlers Gender that both men and women bene tted from all of Bruce Dorsey Reforming Men and Women Gen der in the Antebellum

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