Tropical Agroforestry Springer-Books Pdf

Tropical Agroforestry Springer
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Alain Atangana Damase Khasa, Scott Chang Ann Degrande. Tropical Agroforestry, Alain Atangana Scott Chang, Renewable Resources Renewable Resources. University of Alberta University of Alberta, Edmonton Edmonton. Canada Canada, Institute of Integrative Ann Degrande. and Systems Biology West and Central Africa Regional Program. Universit Laval World Agroforestry Centre, 2208 Pavillon C E Marchand Yaounde.
Quebec G1V 0A6 Cameroon, Damase Khasa, Forest and Wood Sciences. Universit Laval, ISBN 978 94 007 7722 4 ISBN 978 94 007 7723 1 eBook. DOI 10 1007 978 94 007 7723 1, Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York. Library of Congress Control Number 2013951527, Springer Science Business Media Dordrecht 2014. No part of this work may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by. any means electronic mechanical photocopying microfilming recording or otherwise without written. permission from the Publisher with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose. of being entered and executed on a computer system for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Printed on acid free paper, Springer is part of Springer Science Business Media www springer com.
Agroforestry the deliberate introduction or retention of trees on farmlands is wide. ly recognized as a sustainable land use management practice including for tropi. cal landscapes that are threatened as a result of non sustainable land use practices. There is a need to promote environmentally friendly land management practices. and tropical ecosystems that provide local people with their everyday needs for. food cash shelter and medicine among others Agroforestry is a land use prac. tice that has come of age Agroforestry techniques have been practiced traditionally. worldwide for millennia Since the recognition of agroforestry as a discipline of. agricultural science numerous institutions have been dedicated to agroforestry re. search either on a global scale e g the World Agroforestry Centre formerly known. as the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry ICRAF or regionally In. addition agroforestry curricula have been developed for undergraduate and gradu. ate trainings in many universities Agroforestry practices have been particularly. popular in the tropics, Despite rapid developments in agroforestry practices and improvements in agro. forestry theory textbooks on tropical agroforestry are lacking The authoritative. textbook on agroforestry by Nair 1993 was published 20 years ago and that was. before the advent of tree domestication an important agroforestry practice today In. addition many other research activities and emerging issues such as agroforestry. for integrated pest management biofuel production carbon sequestration mitiga. tion of climate change and REDD reducing emissions from deforestation and for. est degradation including conservation and sustainable management of forests and. the enhancement of forest carbon stocks mechanism have become prominent in. the agroforestry agenda of recent years Therefore there is an urgent need to de. velop and make available up to date educational material on tropical agroforestry. for teaching agroforestry to students in agroforestry programs in general and to. students in tropical regions in particular This textbook strives to provide up to date. information on tropical agroforestry and thus to provide educational material spe. cific to the tropical context, This textbook is intended for agroforestry students teachers and practitioners. This textbook is divided into five main parts Part I describes the tropical biomes. and the traditional land use systems practiced in the tropics It also highlights the. vi Preface, negative impact of non sustainable land use systems on land and forest resources. This background is followed by an introduction to agroforestry including the ra. tionale history and definition of agroforestry and the description of major agro. forestry systems that are found in the humid and semiarid tropics Agroforestry. tree domestication in the tropics constitutes the fourth and last chapter of the first. part of the textbook In Part II the benefits and services of agroforestry systems. including tree crop interactions nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizal associations soil. conservation carbon sequestration biodiversity and integrated pest management in. agroforestry are discussed Research methods in agroforestry including diagnosing. methods experimental design and on farm research are covered in Part III Part IV. deals with economic and cultural considerations in agroforestry The last section. Part V provides an outlook on agroforestry in the 21st century Lastly this part cov. ers biofuel production phytoremediation carbon markets and modeling in tropical. agroforestry, As this is the first edition of the textbook errors and omissions are unavoid. able The authors would greatly appreciate feedback from readers instructors. and students who use this textbook for their agroforestry classes Suggestions. and comments can be sent to any of the four authors alainatangana yahoo com. ARA Damase Khasa ibis ulaval ca DPK Scott Chang ualberta ca SXC. and a degrande cgiar org AD, The authors, Acknowledgments.
The completion of this textbook was mainly supported by the International Office. of the Department of Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada former. ly the Canadian International Development Agency CIDA through a project. on training and management of natural resources in the Congo Basin FOGRN. The CIDA funded project was a collaborative effort led by Universit Laval with the. aim of strengthening forestry and agroforestry training in three countries most rep. resentative of the Congo Basin Democratic Republic of Congo DRC Cameroon. and Gabon Project partners were the University of Alberta Centre d enseignement. et de recherche en foresterie CERFO Oxfam Qu bec Canada and eight insti. tutions in the Congo Basin University of Dschang and cole nationale des eaux. et for ts ENEF Cameroon cole nationale des eaux et for ts ENEF Gabon. the Institut sup rieur d tudes agronomiques IS A de Tsh la Institut sup rieur. agro v terinaire ISAV Kimwenza Universit de Kinshasa and the cole r gio. nale d am nagement int gr des for ts et territoires tropicaux ERAIFT DRC and. the R seau des institutions de formation foresti re et environnementale d Afrique. centrale RIFFEAC Cameroon We are indebted to CIDA for funding this project. We also acknowledge the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of. Canada NSERC for partially supporting this work through funding to the Univer. sity of Alberta SXC and Universit Laval DPK, Many people provided photos for this textbook We thank Prof Roger Leakey. Drs Serge Bobo Kadiri University of Dschang Jules Bayala ICRAF and Pierre. Marie Mapongmetsem University of Ngaound r Cameroon for their support We. also thank Dr Bill Parsons Centre for Forest Research University of Sherbrooke. Canada and Ms Kether Hayden for providing language editing of earlier drafts. of this textbook Dr Estelle Campagnac IBIS Universit Laval provided useful. comments on an earlier draft of the eightieth chapter of this textbook Dr Julie. Godbout provided drawings for this textbook, The authors. Table of Contents, Part I Tropical Biomes Land Use Issues and Introduction to. Agroforestry Systems, 1 Tropical Biomes Their Classification Description and Importance 3. 1 1 Tropical biomes Classification and Description 3. 1 1 1 Classification of Biomes Based on Climate 4, 1 1 2 Other Classification Systems of Biomes 8.
1 1 3 Main Tropical Humid and Semiarid Biomes 12, 1 2 The Importance of Tropical Forest and Semiarid Ecosystems 18. Bibliography 20, 2 Major Land Use Issues in the Tropics and the History. of Agroforestry 23, 2 1 Introduction 23, 2 1 1 Impacts of Traditional Natural Resource Use on. Tropical Ecosystems 24, 2 1 2 History of Agroforestry 27. Bibliography 31, 3 Definitions and Classification of Agroforestry Systems 35.
3 1 Introduction 35, 3 1 1 Definition of Agroforestry 35. 3 1 2 Some Basic Concepts in Agroforestry 37, 3 1 3 Classification of Agroforestry Systems 38. Bibliography 47, 4 Major Agroforestry Systems of the Humid Tropics 49. 4 1 Introduction 49, 4 2 Homegardens 55, 4 2 1 Intensive Small Scale Farming Systems 61. 4 3 Perennial Crop Based Agroforestry Systems 63, 4 3 1 Jungle Rubbers Rubber Agroforests 69.
x Table of Contents, 4 4 Farm Woodlots 70, 4 5 Annual or Biennial Food Crop Farms S lash and Burn Agriculture 71. 4 5 1 Alley Cropping Intercropping Systems 73, 4 6 Improved Fallows and Rotational Tree Fallows 82. 4 6 1 Improved Fallows with Herbaceous Legumes, the Case of Cajanus cajan 83. Bibliography 88, 5 Major Agroforestry Systems of the Semiarid Tropics 95. 5 1 Introduction 95, 5 2 Annual or Biannual Food Crop Farms in the Semiarid.
Tropics Shifting Cultivation 96, 5 3 Multipurpose Trees on Farmlands Agroforestry Parklands 97. 5 4 Silvopastures 99, 5 4 1 Fodder Trees and Shrubs 100. 5 5 Windbreaks 100, 5 5 1 Trees Used as Windbreaks 106. 5 6 Live Fences 106, 5 7 Buffer Strips 107, Bibliography 108. 6 Participatory Domestication of New Crops, using Agroforestry Techniques 111.
6 1 Introduction 111, 6 1 1 History of the Participatory Domestication. of Agroforestry Species 112, 6 1 2 Participatory Domestication as Implemented. by ICRAF and its Partners 114, 6 1 3 Priority Species for Domestication 121. Bibliography 140, Part II The Benefits and Services of Agroforestry Systems. 7 Ecological Interactions and Productivity, in Agroforestry Systems 151.
7 1 Introduction 151, 7 2 Interactions of Components in Agroforestry Systems 151. 7 2 1 Positive Interactions 153, 7 2 2 Negative Interactions 154. 7 2 3 Neutral Interactions 156, 7 3 Soil Productivity in Agroforestry 157. Bibliography 168, Table of Contents xi, 8 Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Mycorrhizal Associations. in Agroforestry 173, 8 1 Introduction 173, 8 2 Plant Species Forming Associations with Rhizobium or.
Mycorrhizal Fungi 174, 8 2 1 Acacia Sensu Lato 177. 8 2 2 Albizia 179, 8 2 3 Calliandra calothyrsus 180. 8 2 4 Erythrina 180, 8 2 5 Gliricidia sepium 181, 8 2 6 Inga edulis 183. 8 2 7 Leucaena leucocephala 183, 8 2 8 Mimosa 185, 8 2 9 Sesbania 186. 8 3 Actinomycorrhizal Plants 186, 8 3 1 Alnus acuminata syn Alnus jorullensis 187.
8 3 2 Casuarinaceae 187, 8 3 3 Coriaria 187, 8 4 Quantification of Nitrogen Fixation 188. 8 4 1 Total Nitrogen Difference 188, 8 4 2 Acetylene Reduction Assay 188. 8 4 3 15N Enrichment 189, 8 4 4 Natural Abundance in 15N 189. 8 4 5 Sap Nitrogen Solute Analysis 189, 8 5 Technologies for the Exploitation of Nitrogen Fixing. Mycorrhizal Plants in Agroforestry 190, 8 5 1 Selecting Species and Provenances of Nitrogen.
Fixing Trees 191, 8 6 Areas of Research Concerning Nitrogen Fixation. and Mycorrhizae in Agroforestry 193, Bibliography 194. 9 Agroforestry for Soil Conservation 203, 9 1 Introduction 203. 9 2 Concepts and Trends in Soil Conservation 204, 9 3 Measurement of Soil Erosion 204. 9 4 Erosion Control Using Agroforestry Practices 207. 9 5 Effects of Agroforestry Practices on Erosion Factors 208. 9 5 1 Soil erodibility 209, 9 5 2 Runoff reduction 209.
9 5 3 Soil cover 209, 9 6 Erosion Rates in Agroforestry Systems 210. 9 7 Windbreaks for Erosion Control 211, 9 8 Anticipated Costs and Benefits of Windbreaks. for Soil Conservation 214, Bibliography 214, xii Table of Contents. 10 Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 217. 10 1 Introduction 217, 10 2 The Potential for C Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 218. 10 3 Agroforestry and REDD 222, Bibliography 224, 11 Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation.
in Tropical Landscapes 227, 11 1 Introduction 227, 11 2 The Agroforestry and Deforestation Hypothesis 228. 11 3 The Agroforestry Habitat Hypothesis 229, 11 4 The Agroforestry Matrix Hypothesis 231. Bibliography 232, 12 Integrated Pest Management in Tropical Agroforestry 233. 12 1 Pests in Tropical Agroforestry Systems 233, 12 2 Agroforestry Practices for Pest Management 237. 12 3 Research Areas on Pest Management Using Agrofor. estry Techniques 238, Bibliography 240, Part III Research Methods in Agroforestry.
13 Diagnosis and Design D D Approach and Participatory. Rural Appraisal PRA 243, 13 1 Introduction 243, 13 2 The D D method 244. 13 3 Main Concepts and Procedures of the D D Method 246. 13 4 Scales of D D 246, 13 5 Participatory Rural Appraisal in Agroforestry 249. 13 6 Evaluating Agroforestry Technologies 251, Bibliography 255. 14 Experimental Design in Agroforestry 259, 14 1 Agroforestry Research 259. 14 2 Experimentation in the Field 262, 14 3 Particularities of Agroforestry Experiments 263.
14 3 1 Size and Arrangement of the Plot 264, 14 3 2 Experimental Designs 264. 14 4 On going Field Agroforestry Experiments in the Tropics 270. 14 4 1 Screening and MPTS Selection Tests 271, 14 4 2 Experiments on Management of Systems and. Components 272, Table of Contents xiii, 14 4 3 Studies on the Interaction of Components 272. 14 4 4 Prototype Evaluations 273, 14 4 5 Testing and Evaluation of Germplasm and Provenances 273. information on tropical agroforestry and thus to provide educational material spe cific to the tropical context This textbook is intended for agroforestry students teachers and practitioners This textbook is divided into five main parts Part I describes the tropical biomes and the traditional land use systems practiced in the tropics It

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