Translating Food How To Translate Culture Specific-Books Pdf

Translating Food How to Translate Culture Specific
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Seven kinds of cookies was first published in 1945 and is today the best selling baking cookbook in. Sweden In 2005 the 90th edition was published which is the one I have used as the Swedish corpus. The English translation was published in 2010, I have used a few recipes from the original text which contain some of the translation challenges. mentioned in on Paradowski s and Epstein s articles on translation and cooking Those are provided. in the Background section of this essay In the Presentation section I will present the strategies used. to solve these problems in the English version of Sju sorters kakor. Background, According to Micha B Paradowski an educator at the Institute of Applied Linguistics at the. University of Warsaw translating specialised and technical texts requires two kinds of knowledge. First familiarity with the minilect restricted form of practically oriented technolects used by a. limited circle of specialists and or linked to a limited field Nordman 1996 556 The second type. of requisite knowledge is what could be called encyclopaedic knowledge and experience. Paradowski 2010 He further exemplifies some of the challenges posed in translating cooking. terminology one being the numerous false friends appearing in what he refers to as the culinary. lingo For instance minced meat rarely contains any animal products at all but instead often. consists of finely chopped raisins or other dried fruits as filling in pies and pastries. A different challenge is the occurrence of semantic splits and in this example he makes the. comparison between his mother tongue Polish and English Whereas a homonym in Polish has two. different equivalents in English it is necessary to be careful of which to use on which occasion for. instance trufle which could mean truffle or praline depending on the context where it is used But. the confusion is not only limited to ingredients but also concerns to what degree something belongs. to a category Paradowski uses citrus fruits to exemplify the difficulties caused by the various uses. and parts of these fruits, Depending on whether or not you remove the albedo you end up with either orange. segments or orange sections Likewise lemon rind is what you typically discard after. peeling the fruit but lemon zest is the colourful outer part of the skin which you may. want to grate beforehand to use in a lemon meringue pie or ossobuco alla milanese. Paradowski 2010, As shown in the examples above there are several issues to be aware of when translating cooking. terminology In another article on translating food called What s Cooking Translating Food 2009. Brett Jocelyn Epstein identifies four main issues when translating culinary lingo availability cuts of. meat measurements and implements pots and pans, Availability.
The availability issue refers to the cases where access to ingredients listed in the original recipe is. limited or more expensive in the target language culture and therefore cannot be used to the same. extent as is stated in the recipe She further explains that this problem cannot be solved by simply. exchanging lobster for shrimp without further explanation and that if suggestions or changes are. made to the original recipe it should be clearly stated in the translation what has been changed and. why Ideally if ingredients are switched both the original version and the altered one should be. tested by the translator or someone related to the project to make sure the taste smell. measurements and other features are preserved, Cuts of Meat. The cuts of meat problem derives from the fact that different countries have different definitions of. cuts of meat i e from which part of the animal s body the meat is taken and what it is called Even if. finding a sufficient translation for the terminology is relatively easy it might not always refer to the. same body part of the animal in both languages Epstein s solution to this problem is to either find a. country specific chart over the cuts of meat or to ask a professional for help. Measurements, The problem that different measurement systems provide is probably the most systematic since its. fixed nature makes it possible to convert a measure into another system with the help of a. conversion table Epstein provides two possible solutions to how to adapt the different measurement. to the target language The first one is to keep the original measurements and in the back of the. book provide a conversion table This will provide a more accurate recipe but might be quite. irritating if the cookbook is frequently used for cooking Nevertheless Epstein points out that if the. cookbook is more of the coffee table type of book used for looking at more than cooking from this. solution is fine, The other solution is to change the measurements into the system used in the target language and. this can be done in two different ways complete replacement or replacement and retention The. former works in the way that if the recipe states 2 US cups which corresponds to 4 73176473 dl the. translator or someone else tests the recipes and shifts the measurement to more even numbers in. this case probably 5 dl It is important here that all the measurements are changed and that they. work equally well as the original Another strategy for replacement the one called replacement and. retention is to provide the shifted measurements in the recipe but to keep the original in. parenthesis Epstein 2009, Implements Pots and Pans. Implements pots and pans refer to different cooking tools and kitchen utensils which might or might. not be country specific Sometimes similar tools have very different names and definitions and. sometimes an equivalent instrument in the target language might not exist It is important to make. sure if a tool exists and what it is called before rewriting the sentence and also in this case it is a. good idea to ask an expert when in doubt, In addition to these issues I have added another point to the list which is Culture Specific Names In.
this category dishes and ingredients such as Spotted Dick and Devil s Food Cake would create the. challenge of whether they should be translated and if yes how. With these problems and strategies as a background I will examine the challenges posed and the. solutions provided in the translation of Sju sorters kakor. Presentation, Availability, There were not many recipes where ingredients specific to Sweden were used most recipes contain. all purpose flour butter jams nuts and berries which could be found in English terminology and. food stores The distinction standing out was the differences between dairy products in the two. languages In Sweden there are products such as filmj lk gr ddfil and cr me fra che whereas in. English the equivalents of filmj lk and gr ddfil are not as common but instead they use yoghurt and. sour cream In the English translation gr ddfil is rendered as cultivated buttermilk and filmj lk as. sour cream Whereas the former is translated directly the latter is adapted into a more commonly. known product in English but which is not the same as the original The Swedish term describes a. product made from cultivated milk while the English describes cultivated cream. Cuts of Meat, Since a baking cookbook is used for this study and not many cakes and cookies contain animal. protein the whole issue with cuts of meat is non existent However there are issues related to this. problem in baking one of them being the definition and boundaries between the related categories. cookie cake and torte In Swedish the terms kex kaka and t rta cause some confusion since they are. overlapping in their usage where in some cases a pastry called a kaka cookie is more similar to. what would be defined as a kex cracker In my opinion there are two strategies available to deal. with this issue The first one would be to translate the Swedish terms so that the English definition of. what a cookie cake or torte is is met Thus if a pastry in England would be considered a cake it is. translated into cake even if the Swedish name would imply it is more of a cookie cracker or a torte. The other strategy is to consistently transfer the Swedish term kaka into the most similar English. term to create consistency and avoid confusion over what kind of pastry the recipe describes. A quick look at the headings in the index of both texts gives a good idea of the strategy used in Sju. sorters kakor, Swedish English, Mjuka kakor Cakes, Sm kakor Cookies. T rtor Cakes and Tortes, Sju sorters kakor 2005 7 9 Swedish Cakes and Cookies 2010 7 9. Here we can see that in the index the different types of pastries are categorised with a more. detailed explanation in Swedish whereas the English equivalents are more general Since the English. term cookie corresponds to both kex and kaka in Swedish the translation of both these terms in the. English version is reduced to cookie when the pastry is not a mjuk kaka meaning a more cake like. pastry In a similar way the English term cake could refer to either kaka or t rta in Swedish In this. case however the translator has chosen to add the less common term torte into the terminology to. make a distinction between certain cakes, Swedish English.
Marstrandskex Marstrand cookies, Ingef rspepparkakor Gingerbread cookies. Banankaka Banana cake, Ambrosiat rta Ambrosia cake. Princesst rta Princess torte, The strategy used here is not to consistently translate a term in Swedish into the same. term in English but instead there is a system where a t rta that consists of only one. layer it is translated into cake and when it is divided into layers with filling between. the layers it is defined as torte Concerning the distinction between kex and kaka in. Swedish in English all the small cookie like pastries are called cookie despite the split. semantics in Swedish, Measurements, In the English version of the recipes a variation of the replacement and retention strategy is used. where the original measurements are kept and the target language conversion is stated in. parenthesis This is not the case for decilitres and cups only but also grams converted into. tablespoons and degrees Celsius into Fahrenheit Thus the translation of the recipe for Almond. Pucks Swedish Mandelkubbar looks as follows, Oven temp 225 C 425 F convection 200 C 400 F.
100 g 7 tablespoons stick margarine or butter softened. 1 dl cup sugar, 2 dl 3 4 cup dairy sour cream, 2 teaspoons hornsalt baking ammonia or 4 teaspoons baking powder. 5 dl 2 cups all purpose flour, teaspoon almond extract. pearl sugar, chopped almonds optional, Swedish Cakes and Cookies 2010 21. Implements Pots and Pans, Since Sju sorters kakor only deals with baking and not cooking there is a limited set of tools used in. the recipes which are quite similar in both languages Nevertheless there are two instances where a. Swedish tool is used which is not as common in English and there are two different strategies used. to translate them, The first one can be found on page 53 in both editions where in the description on how to know.
when a soft cake is ready to take out of the oven a metal needle is used In Swedish it is described. as a rostfri n l stainless needle which is also called potatissticka potato stick when it is used to. see if the boiled potatoes are ready In the English translation the word skewer is used which is a. similar instrument a metal stick but thicker and used to hold food together when barbequing. In the other instance which can be found on page 122 in both editions a cheese planer is used to. make thin slices of chocolate as decoration Where in the Swedish description the verb hyvla slice. is used which corresponds to using the tool called osthyvel cheese planer in English where the. tool is not as common the description is re written as Using a cheese plane make thin slices. Culture Specific Names, The distinctions between cookies cakes and tortes could fit in under this heading also but I have. decided to dedicate this section to names rather than descriptions There are a few different. strategies to be observed in the English version of the book where the first one could be found on. the cover The Swedish title Sju sorters kakor is left un translated on the English cover and instead. a subtitle is added saying Swedish Cakes and Cookies Since Sju sorters kakor is a Swedish expression. going all the way back to the tea parties and housewives in the 1900s it would only cause confusion. to try and translate the idiom into English the book contains so many more than just seven recipes. The second strategy used is to transform a cultural specific name into a more descriptive name as is. the case with Snoddas Snoddas is a chocolate cake made in a roasting pan and covered in a. chocolate and coffee frosting In the English translation however the pastry is instead called Choco. Coco Squares, A third strategy is found in the translation of the Swedish cream filled bun associated with the. Shrove Tuesday the Semla In this case since the Semla is connected to a specific festival day it can. be used to form a new name related to the second strategy In this case the Semla is translated into. Lenten Buns which has a related but less commonly used name in Sweden Fastlagsbulle. Concluding Remarks, The strategies used in the translation of Sju sorters kakor can be said to be more culture oriented. than language oriented where recipes are named to fit t. Culture Specific Features in Recipes Introduction and Scope Over the past years food and cooking have gone from being associated mostly with a profession to becoming more about entertainment cooking personalities and do it yourself Well known names in the business such as Nigella Lawson Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay and shows such as River ottage Top hef and Jamies 30 Minute Meals have

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