3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 1 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. DTR TSGR 0036932vc10,650 Route des Lucioles,F 06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex FRANCE. Tel 33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax 33 4 93 65 47 16,Siret N 348 623 562 00017 NAF 742 C. Association but non lucratif enregistr e la,Sous Pr fecture de Grasse 06 N 7803 88. Important notice,The present document can be downloaded from. http www etsi org, The present document may be made available in electronic versions and or in print The content of any electronic and or. print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI In case of any. existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and or in print the only prevailing document is the. print of the Portable Document Format PDF version kept on a specific network drive within ETSI Secretariat. Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status. Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at. http portal etsi org tb status status asp, If you find errors in the present document please send your comment to one of the following services. http portal etsi org chaircor ETSI support asp,Copyright Notification. No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying. and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI. The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI. The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media. European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2014. All rights reserved, DECT PLUGTESTS UMTS and the ETSI logo are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members. 3GPP and LTE are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and. of the 3GPP Organizational Partners, GSM and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 2 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. Intellectual Property Rights, IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI The information. pertaining to these essential IPRs if any is publicly available for ETSI members and non members and can be found. in ETSI SR 000 314 Intellectual Property Rights IPRs Essential or potentially Essential IPRs notified to ETSI in. respect of ETSI standards which is available from the ETSI Secretariat Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web. server http ipr etsi org, Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy no investigation including IPR searches has been carried out by ETSI No guarantee. can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 or the updates on the ETSI Web. server which are or may be or may become essential to the present document. This Technical Report TR has been produced by ETSI 3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP. The present document may refer to technical specifications or reports using their 3GPP identities UMTS identities or. GSM identities These should be interpreted as being references to the corresponding ETSI deliverables. The cross reference between GSM UMTS 3GPP and ETSI identities can be found under. http webapp etsi org key queryform asp,Modal verbs terminology. In the present document shall shall not should should not may may not need need not will. will not can and cannot are to be interpreted as described in clause 3 2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules Verbal forms. for the expression of provisions, must and must not are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 3 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. Intellectual Property Rights 2,Foreword 2,Modal verbs terminology 2. Foreword 4,2 References 5,3 Definitions symbols and abbreviations 5. 3 1 Definitions 5,3 2 Symbols 5,3 3 Abbreviations 5. 4 Introduction 6,5 Objective 6,6 Target scenarios 7. 6 1 Deployment 7,6 1 1 With and without macro coverage 7. 6 1 2 Outdoor and indoor 7,6 1 3 Ideal and non ideal backhaul 8. 6 1 4 Sparse and dense 8,6 1 5 Synchronization 8,6 2 Spectrum 9. 6 3 Traffic 9,6 4 Backward compatibility 9,7 Deployment related requirements 10. 7 1 Deployment use cases 10,7 2 Co existence and interworking 10. 7 3 Core network aspects 10,8 Capability and performance requirements 11. 8 1 System performance 11,8 2 Mobility performance 11. 8 3 Coverage performance 12,9 Operational Requirements 13. 9 1 Architecture 13,9 2 Cost and complexity 13,9 3 Energy efficiency 13. 9 4 Security 13,Annex A Change history 14,History 15. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 4 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. This Technical Report has been produced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP. The contents of the present document are subject to continuing work within the TSG and may change following formal. TSG approval Should the TSG modify the contents of the present document it will be re released by the TSG with an. identifying change of release date and an increase in version number as follows. Version x y z,x the first digit,1 presented to TSG for information. 2 presented to TSG for approval, 3 or greater indicates TSG approved document under change control. y the second digit is incremented for all changes of substance i e technical enhancements corrections. updates etc, z the third digit is incremented when editorial only changes have been incorporated in the document. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 5 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. The present document contains scenarios and requirements for the small cell enhancement for E UTRA and E UTRAN. 2 References, The following documents contain provisions which through reference in this text constitute provisions of the present. References are either specific identified by date of publication edition number version number etc or. non specific, For a specific reference subsequent revisions do not apply. For a non specific reference the latest version applies In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document. including a GSM document a non specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in. the same Release as the present document, 1 3GPP TR 21 905 Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications. 2 3GPP TS 36 839 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access E UTRA Mobility. enhancements in heterogeneous networks, 3 3GPP TR 36 913 Requirements for further advancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial. Radio Access E UTRA LTE Advanced,3 Definitions symbols and abbreviations. 3 1 Definitions, For the purposes of the present document the terms and definitions given in TR 21 905 1 and the following apply A. term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term if any in TR 21 905 1. 3 2 Symbols, For the purposes of the present document the following symbols apply. symbol Explanation,3 3 Abbreviations, For the purposes of the present document the abbreviations given in TR 21 905 1 and the following apply An. abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation if any in. TR 21 905 1,CDF Cumulative Distribution Function,VoLTE Voice over LTE. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 6 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 4 Introduction, Small cells using low power nodes are considered promising to cope with mobile traffic explosion especially for. hotspot deployments in indoor and outdoor scenarios A low power node generally means a node whose Tx power is. lower than macro node and BS classes for example Pico and Femto eNB are both applicable Small cell enhancements. for E UTRA and E UTRAN will focus on additional functionalities for enhanced performance in hotspot areas for. indoor and outdoor using low power nodes, This document captures the scenarios and requirements for small cell enhancements 3GPP TR 36 913 3 should be. used as reference whenever applicable in order to avoid duplication of the requirements. 5 Objective,The objectives of this document are as follows. A Define target scenarios for small cell enhancement considering. Deployment scenarios of small cell nodes,Spectrum usage for small cell scenarios. Traffic characteristics in small cell scenarios, B Define requirements for small cell enhancement scenarios considering. System mobility and coverage performance,Core network related aspects. Cost and energy efficiency aspects,Security aspects. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 7 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 6 Target scenarios,6 1 Deployment, Small cell enhancement should target both with and without macro coverage both outdoor and indoor small cell. deployments and both ideal and non ideal backhaul Both sparse and dense small cell deployments should be. considered See Fig 6 1 1, NOTE 1 F1 and F2 are the carrier frequency for macro layer and local node layer respectively. Figure 6 1 1 Deployment scenarios of small cell with without macro coverage. 6 1 1 With and without macro coverage, As shown in Fig 6 1 1 small cell enhancement should target the deployment scenario in which small cell nodes are. deployed under the coverage of one or more than one overlaid E UTRAN macro cell layer s in order to boost the. capacity of already deployed cellular network Two scenarios can be considered. 1 Where the UE is in coverage of both the macro cell and the small cell simultaneously. 2 Where the UE is not in coverage of both the macro cell and the small cell simultaneously. Figure 6 1 1 also shows the scenario where small cell nodes are not deployed under the coverage of one or more. overlaid E UTRAN macro cell layer s This scenario is also the target of the small cell enhancement Study Item. 6 1 2 Outdoor and indoor, Small cell enhancement should target both outdoor and indoor small cell deployments The small cell nodes could be. deployed indoors or outdoors and in either case could provide service to indoor or outdoor UEs. For indoor UE only low UE speed 0 3 km h is targeted For outdoor not only low UE speed but also medium UE. speed up to 30km h and potentially higher speeds is targeted. Both throughput and mobility connectivity shall be used as performance metric for both low and medium mobility Cell. edge performance e g 5 tile CDF point for user throughput and power efficiency of both network and UE are also. used as metrics for further study, 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 8 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 6 1 3 Ideal and non ideal backhaul, Both ideal backhaul i e very high throughput and very low latency backhaul such as dedicated point to point. connection using optical fiber and non ideal backhaul i e typical backhaul widely used in the market such as xDSL. microwave and other backhauls like relaying should be studied The performance cost trade off should be taken into. A categorization of non ideal backhaul based on operator inputs is listed in Table 6 1 1. Table 6 1 1 Categorization of non ideal backhaul, Backhaul Technology Latency One way Throughput Priority 1 is the highest. Fiber Access 1 10 30ms 10M 10Gbps 1,Fiber Access 2 5 10ms 100 1000Mbps 2. Fiber Access 3 2 5ms 50M 10Gbps 1,DSL Access 15 60ms 10 100 Mbps 1. Cable 25 35ms 10 100 Mbps 2,Wireless Backhaul 5 35ms 10Mbps 100Mbps typical 1. maybe up to Gbps range, A categorization of ideal backhaul based on operator inputs is listed in Table 6 1 2. Table 6 1 2 Categorization of ideal backhaul, Backhaul Technology Latency One way Throughput Priority 1 is the highest. Fiber Access 4 NOTE 1 less than 2 5 us NOTE2 Up to 10Gbps 1. NOTE 1 This can be applied between the eNB and the remote radio head. NOTE 2 propagation delay in the fiber cable is not included. For interfaces between macro and small cell as well as between small cells the studies should first identify which kind. of information is needed or beneficial to be exchanged between nodes in order to get the desired improvements before. the actual type of interface is determined And if direct interface should be assumed between macro and small cell as. well as between small cell and small cell X2 interface can be used as a starting point. 6 1 4 Sparse and dense, Small cell enhancement should consider sparse and dense small cell deployments In some scenarios e g hotspot. indoor outdoor places etc single or a few small cell node s are sparsely deployed e g to cover the hotspot s. Meanwhile in some scenarios e g dense urban large shopping mall etc a lot of small cell nodes are densely. deployed to support huge traffic over a relatively wide area covered by the small cell nodes The coverage of the small. cell layer is generally discontinuous between different hotspot areas Each hotspot area can be covered by a group of. small cells i e a small cell cluster, Furthermore smooth future extension scalability e g from sparse to dense from small area dense to large area dense. or from normal dense to super dense should be considered For mobility connectivity performance both sparse and. dense deployments should be considered with equal priority. 6 1 5 Synchronization, Both synchronized and un synchronized scenarios should be considered between small cells as well as between small. cells and macro cell s For specific operations e g interference coordination carrier aggregation and inter eNB COMP. small cell enhancement can benefit from synchronized deployments with respect to small cell search measurements and. interference resource management Therefore time synchronized deployments of small cell clusters are prioritized in the. study and new means to achieve such synchronization shall be considered. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 9 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 6 2 Spectrum, Small cell enhancement should address the deployment scenario in which different frequency bands are separately. assigned to macro layer and small cell layer respectively where F1 and F2 in Fig 6 1 1 correspond to different carriers. in different frequency bands, Small cell enhancement should be applicable to all existing and as well as future cellular bands with special focus on. higher frequency bands e g the 3 5 GHz band to enjoy the more available spectrum and wider bandwidth. Small cell enhancement should also take into account the possibility for frequency bands that at least locally are only. used for small cell deployments, Co channel deployment scenarios between macro layer and small cell layer should be considered as well. The duplication of activities with existing and coming 3GPP Study Items Work Items should be avoided. Some example spectrum configurations are, 1 Carrier aggregation on the macro layer with bands X and Y and only band X on the small cell layer. 2 Small cells supporting carrier aggregation bands that are co channel with the macro layer. 3 Small cells supporting carrier aggregation bands that are not co channel with the macro layer. One potential co channel deployment scenario is dense outdoor co channel small cells deployment considering low. mobility UEs and non ideal backhaul All small cells are under the Macro coverage. Small cell enhancement should be supported irrespective of duplex schemes FDD TDD for the frequency bands for. macro layer and small cell layer Air interface and solutions for small cell enhancement should be band independent. and aggregated bandwidth per small cell should be no more than 100 MHz at least for 3GPP Release 12. 6 3 Traffic, In a small cell deployment it is likely that the traffic is fluctuating greatly since the number of users per small cell node. is typically not so large due to small coverage, In a small cell deployment it is likely that the user distribution is very fluctuating between the small cell nodes It is. also expected that the traffic could be highly asymmetrical either downlink or uplink centric. Both uniform and non uniform traffic load distribution in time domain and spatial domain should be considered Non. full buffer and full buffer traffic are both included and non full buffer traffic is prioritized to verify the practical cases. More detailed evaluation methodologies should be studied at 3GPP Working Group level in subsequent physical layer. and high layers Study Items of small cell enhancement. CSG hybrid is an independent topic which can be treated in other WI SI Solutions agnostic to CSG hybrid or open. access can be also applied to CSG hybrid,6 4 Backward compatibility. Backward compatibility i e the possibility for legacy pre Release 12 UEs to access a small cell node carrier is. desirable for small cell deployments, The introduction of non backwards compatible features should be justified by sufficient gains. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 10 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 7 Deployment related requirements,7 1 Deployment use cases. Operator deployed scenario i e the operator performs cell planning and installs maintains small cell nodes should be. supported for small cell enhancement, User deployed scenarios for example small cell nodes deployed in office buildings by organizational users could be. supported for small cell enhancement with a lower priority. Automatic mechanisms such as plug and play provisioning to support flexible configuration and lower cost for. operation and maintenance could be considered for both operator and user deployed scenarios taking into account the. possible absence of radio planning on these deployments. Even in operator deployed scenario the reduction in cell planning efforts compared to Releases 10 11 should be. considered,7 2 Co existence and interworking, For small cell enhancement the same inter RAT interworking capabilities with at least the same performance as in. 3GPP Release 10 11 E UTRAN shall be supported assuming the small cells support the 3GPP Releases 10 11. mechanisms,7 3 Core network aspects, Small cell enhancement should minimize signalling load e g caused by mobility to the core network as well as. increase of backhaul traffic due to increasing number of small cell nodes. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 11 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 8 Capability and performance requirements, The enhancements shall focus on cell capacity i e achievable user throughput and system throughput in typical. coverage situations and with typical terminal configurations including terminals with 2 RX antennas and supporting a. single component carrier,8 1 System performance, Small cell enhancement should support significantly increased user throughput for both downlink and uplink with main. focus on typical user throughput e g 50 and for coverage limited scenarios 5 point of CDF of the user. throughput given a reasonable system complexity Actual quantitative requirements can be determined in succeeding. study items on physical and higher layer enhancements. Consistent user experience over the coverage area is highly desirable Small cell enhancement should keep the fairness. of the user throughput for both downlink and uplink in a scenario where user distribution is dynamically changing. Small cell enhancement should target the capacity per unit area e g bps km2 to be as high as possible for a given user. and small cell distribution typical traffic types and considering a reasonable system complexity. The small cell enhancements should evaluate the impact of the actual backhaul delays and provide solutions with the. aim of improved system performance Other aspects for example service quality of VoLTE e g MOS score and. delay jitter impacts on services video streaming video calls etc could also be addressed in follow on studies. 8 2 Mobility performance, Small cell enhancement should support mobility which is required for the deployment scenarios described in clause 6 1. Small cell enhancement should support mobility which is required for the future spectrum use in higher frequency. bands e g more available spectrum and wider bandwidth. Small cell enhancement should support mobility for flexible coverage conditions described in clause 8 3. For UEs being served on a macro layer and for the targeted mobile speeds up to 30 km h small cell nodes need to be. discovered and potential mobility to small cell node performed in a timely manner and with low UE power. consumption in a situation when the UE moves into the coverage area of the small cell layer. Mobility across densely deployed small cell nodes and between macro and small cell on the same frequency layer. should be targeted with good performance for mobile speeds up to 30 km h. Mobility enhancements for higher speeds e g 50 80 km h in small cell enhancements e g for offload from vehicular. UEs in outdoor small cells can be studied in succeeding study items Solutions for excluding very high mobility users. should be considered, The benefits of allowing high speed UE in small cells should be evaluated e g UE throughput gain improved. robustness of mobility improved UE power efficiency and up to which speed offloading is beneficial Other topics e g. how UE speed can be estimated in small cells can also be treated in succeeding study items of small cell enhancements. Real time services should be supported in small cell enhancement The impact of mobility between small cell nodes and. between small cell and overlaid macro nodes on quality e g interruption time packet loss should be less than or equal. to that provided by 3GPP Release 10 11 E UTRA E UTRAN. Small cell enhancement should consider techniques and mechanisms to reduce C plane U plane latency and packet loss. during mobility between macro cell nodes and small cell nodes as well as between small cell nodes compared to 3GPP. Release 10 11 E UTRA E UTRAN, Mobility enhancements considered under the future technical Study Item should be relevant to the deployment scenarios. described in clause 6 1 Further enhancements which are not covered by other Study Items Work Items e g HetNet. Mobility should be considered and duplicated work should be avoided. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 12 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 8 3 Coverage performance, Small cell enhancement coverage should be sufficiently flexible for both uplink and downlink to support a variety of. deployment scenarios described in clause 6 1, 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 13 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. 9 Operational Requirements,9 1 Architecture, The E UTRAN architecture should be able to achieve the system and mobility performance targeted for small cell. enhancement described in clause 8 1 The studies for architecture should first identify which kind of information is. needed or beneficial to be exchanged between nodes in order to get the desired improvements before the actual type of. interface is determined,9 2 Cost and complexity, Small cell enhancement shall satisfy the required performance Additionally cost and complexity shall be minimized in. order to support small cell enhancement deployments described in clause 6 1. Small cell enhancement should allow for low network cost by. allowing for solutions aiming at different backhauls as listed in clause 6 1 3. allowing for low cost deployment low operation and maintenance tasks e g by means of SON functionality. minimization of drive tests etc, allowing for reduced base station implementation cost considering e g relaxation of RF requirements in small. cell scenarios, o NOTE All the interfaces specified shall be open for multi vendor equipment interoperability. Small cell enhancement should be possible to implement with low incremental complexity of UE and allow for long UE. battery life standby and active, Different UE capabilities should be considered for small cell enhancements especially with respect to features related. to UE RF complexity such as the possibility for simultaneous transmission to and reception from the macro and small. cell layers, System complexity shall be minimized in order to stabilize the system inter operability in earlier stage and decrease. the cost of terminal network For these requirements the following shall be taken into account. a Minimize the number of options,b No redundant mandatory features. c Limit the number of necessary test cases e g by limiting the number of states of protocols and the. number of procedures with appropriate parameter range and granularity. 9 3 Energy efficiency, Small cell enhancement should target the network energy efficiency to be as high as possible given a reasonable system. complexity with considering the traffic characteristics of small cell enhancement described in clause 6 3 Furthermore. placing small cells in a dormant mode could be supported considering the increased likelihood of small cells not serving. any active users The trade off between user throughput capacity per unit area and network energy efficiency should be. considered, High UE energy efficiency should be targeted taking into account the small cell s short range transmission path This. means balancing effort in terms of UE energy efficiency e g reducing required energy bit for the UL UE mobility. measurements cell identification and small cell discovery end user experience and system performance. 9 4 Security, The small cell enhancement area architecture should have a comparable level of security as Release 10 11 E UTRA and. E UTRAN for the deployment scenarios of small cell enhancement described in clause 6 1. 3GPP TR 36 932 version 12 1 0 Release 12 14 ETSI TR 136 932 V12 1 0 2014 10. Change history,Change history,Date TSG TSG Doc CR Rev Subject Comment Old New. 2012 10 RP 58 RP 121463 TR 36 932 v0 1 0 agreed by the first round of email discussions 0 1 0. between RAN 57 and RAN 58 focussing on clauses 1 to 6. 2012 11 RP 58 RP 121465 TR 36 932 v0 1 1 agreed by the second round of email discussions 0 1 0 0 1 1. between RAN 57 and RAN 58 focussing on clauses 7 to 9. 2012 11 RP 58 RP 121466 TR 36 932 v0 1 2 agreed by the second round of email discussions 0 1 1 0 1 2. between RAN 57 and RAN 58 with revision marks, 2012 11 RP 58 RP 121467 TR 36 932 v0 2 0 agreed by the second round of email discussions 0 1 2 0 2 0. between RAN 57 and RAN 58 clean version, 2012 12 RP 58 RP 121468 TR 36 932 v1 0 0 MCC clean up submitted to RAN 58 for Information 0 2 0 1 0 0. and Approval, 2012 12 TR 36 932 v12 0 0 RAN 58 approved 1 0 0 12 0 0. 2013 03 RP 59 RP 130419 0001 3 Correction on Ideal backhaul latency 12 0 0 12 1 0.
- Engineers want to identify worst-case scenarios of Simulink controllers to gain confidence about what risks can be expected in practice. - Engineers are interested in exploring controller input spaces to identify conditions under which the risk of violating requirements is higher. - The overhead of applying our approach is small since it is
In the FM 7-100 series, the TRADOC Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ODCSINT) has created a flexible baseline for an OPFOR that can be adapted to meet a variety of different training requirements in a number of different scenarios that reflect the COE. The OPFOR operational doctrine outlined in FM 7-100.1 represents a realistic
established by the TSPs and will not impact the reactive power requirements determined in the study. CREZ Transmission Loading Scenarios . In order to ensure that the CREZ reactive compensation plan is robust and adequate for a broad range of system conditions, multiple system loading scenarios must be considered. The
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Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura (1977): Lou (2013) opined that Bandura proposed the concept of social cognitive theory. A general contention is that much of the development in human cognition is explained by the interplay of internal personal factors in the form of