Tp02 Manual V1209 Hukseflux Com-Books Pdf

TP02 manual v1209 hukseflux com
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Hukseflux Thermal Sensors, Warnings , Putting more than 3 volts across any. part of TP02 may result in permanent, damage to the sensor . The user is responsible to take care, that TP02 is not overheated during. operation , The TP02 needle is vulnerable In case, of doubt if it can penetrate the sample . the sample should be pre drilled or use, of guiding tubes GT series should be.
considered , The TP02 needle is vulnerable When, not being used it is recommended to. have the protective cover over the, needle , TP02 manual v1209 page 2 64. Hukseflux Thermal Sensors, Contents, List of symbols 4. Introduction 5, 1 Theory 7, 1 1 General Non Steady State Probe NSSP Theory 7. 1 2 TP02 theory 10, 1 3 TP02 design considerations 12.
1 4 Directions for performing a correct measurement 13. 2 Specifications of TP02 16, 3 Short user guide 18. 3 1 Installation of TP02 18, 3 2 Putting TP02 into operation 19. 3 3 Performing a normal measurement and calculating the end. result 22, 3 4 Quality assurance 25, 4 Electrical connection of TP02 26. 5 Requirements for Measurement and Control 29, 6 Programming for TP02 30. 7 Maintenance of TP02 32, 8 Delivery and spare parts 33.
9 Appendices 34, 9 1 Appendix on modelling TP02 behaviour 34. 9 2 Appendix on the accuracy of TP02 over its entire. temperature range 36, 9 3 Appendix on thermal diffusivity and heat capacity. measurement 38, 9 4 Appendix on the use of TP02 in fluids 39. 9 5 Appendix on soil thermal conductivity versus water content. 40, 9 6 Appendix on insertion of the needle into hard media 41. 9 7 Appendix on guiding tubes 43, 9 8 Appendix on ASTM and IEEE standards 46.
9 9 Appendix on typical thermal properties 49, 9 10 Appendix on TP02 calibration 51. 9 11 Appendix on CRC series calibration reference cylinders 52. 9 12 Appendix on agar gel reference medium 54, 9 13 Appendix on glycerol reference medium 54. 9 14 Appendix on cable extension and connectors for TP02 55. 9 15 Appendix on comparing 1 needle to 2 needle techniques 57. 9 16 Appendix on trouble shooting 58, 9 17 Appendix with measurement form test report 61. 9 18 Appendix on literature references 63, 9 19 CE declaration of conformity 64. TP02 manual v1209 page 3 64, Hukseflux Thermal Sensors.
List of symbols, Thermal diffusivity a m2 s, Distance from the heater r m. Heating cycle time h s, Thermal conductivity W mK, Voltage output U V. Sensitivity E V K, Time t s, Response time s, Temperature T K. Differential temperature main sensor signal T K, Electrical resistance Re . Electrical resistance per meter Rem m, Thermal resistance Rt m2K W.
Thickness H m, Diameter D m, Length L m, Area A m2. Volumetric heat capacity Cv J Km3, Heat capacity C J kg. Density kg m3, Heat flux W m2, Current I A, Mass M kg. Volume V m3, Power P W, Power per meter Q W m, Intermediate variables x w z . Error in a variable , Subscripts, Property of thermopile sensor sen.
Property of the current sensing resistor current, Property of the heater heat. Property of the medium med, Property of the needle needle. Property of the cold junction cold, Property of the Pt1000 pt1000. Property at t 0 at t 180 t h seconds 0 180 h, TP02 manual v1209 page 4 64. Hukseflux Thermal Sensors, Introduction, TP02 is a probe that offers the possibility to perform a practical.
and fast measurement of the thermal conductivity or thermal. resistivity of the medium in which it is inserted at the highest. accuracy level It works in compliance with the ASTM D5334 14 . D5930 97 and IEEE 442 1981 standards The standard TP02. probe has proven suitability in soils thermal backfill materials . sediments foodstuff powders sludges paints glues and various. other materials The Non Steady State Probe NSSP , measurement method also known as transient line source . thermal needle hot needle heat pulse and hot wire technique . has the fundamental advantages that it is fast and absolute while. the sample size is not critical , Hukseflux is specialised in NSSP design Special models have. been developed for in situ field experiments For permanent. installation in soils a dedicated model TP01 is available TP02. has been designed and tested in collaboration with the Applied. Physics Group of Wageningen University , The TP08 is a small version of type TP02 made for situations. where the length of TP02 poses a problem , Chapter 1 contains information about theory and design of the. NSSP chapter 2 summarises the instrument specifications The. remaining chapters contain information about installation . connection programming and maintenance , For performing a measurement TP02 has to be combined with a.
Measurement and Control Unit MCU The required specifications. are treated in the appendix on MCU specifications . One of the most cost effective solutions to the problem of. measurement and control is to use the data loggers of Campbell. Scientific type CR10X or CR1000 More detailed information on. this programs and wiring diagrams can be obtained at. Hukseflux , Turn key systems are offered for sale see TPSYS separate. brochure and manual , TP02 manual v1209 page 5 64, Hukseflux Thermal Sensors. The end result of the measurement is preferably calculated by. analysis of the measured data in a spreadsheet like MS Excel . or a mathematical program Alternatively but not recommended. because it is less reliable automatic calculation of the end result. in the MCU is possible , Example Excel sheets can be obtained at Hukseflux . For high accuracy calibration CRC Calibration Reference Cylinders. are available See appendix , For insertion into hard soils GT Series Guiding tubes can be. applied See appendix , In soil energy balance studies it is also useful that a very.
accurate differential temperature measurement is done before. the heating cycle starts between the tip and the hot joint This. difference in temperature across 100 mm can be determined. within 0 01 degrees C This might be useful for determining the. surface energy balance Response time is very fast because the. probe is very thin , TP02 and TP08 can be used if the right gasket is used in. pressurised or vacuum environments The bower end of the base. must then be clamped , In the appendices several more specialised subjects are treated . 1 2 3 4, 10, T , 5 6 T, Figure 0 1 TP02 Non Steady State Probe consists of a needle. with 2 thermocouple junctions the hot joint 3 and the cold. joint 4 the cold joint at the tip remains at a stable. temperature A heating wire 2 runs across 2 3 of the needle. length The needle is inserted into the medium that is. investigated In the base 6 a reference temperature sensor. pt1000 1 is mounted Advantages of this design an optimal. accuracy independent of the medium temperature a minimal. sensitivity to thermal gradients a high sensor stability and the. possibility to use normal cables and connectors Needle length. 150 mm All dimensions are in mm , TP02 manual v1209 page 6 64. Hukseflux Thermal Sensors, 1 Theory, 1 1 General Non Steady State Probe NSSP Theory.
For determining the thermal conductivity of materials various. types of measurement equipment can be used In general one. can make a distinction between steady state techniques in which. the investigated sample is supposed to reach a perfect thermal. equilibrium and non steady state techniques In non steady . state techniques the material properties are determined while. the sample temperature still changes , The main advantage of steady state techniques is the simplicity. of the analysis of stabilised constant sensor signals The main. advantages of non steady state techniques are the short. measurement time and the fact that the sample dimensions do. not necessarily enter the equation , The only Non Steady State technique that has officially been. standardised is the one using a single needle probe like TP02 . The standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. IEEE describe proven methods for determining the thermal. conductivity of materials , ASTM D5334 14 and D5930 97 and IEEE Std 442 1981 . Standard Test Methods specify the use of Non Steady State. Probes NSSP in various applications In particular use in. plastics soil and soft rock are mentioned but the method is not. restricted to these materials More information about these. standards can be found in the appendices , TP02 manual v1209 page 7 64. Hukseflux Thermal Sensors, In general a NSSP consists of a heating wire representing a.
perfect line source and a temperature sensor capable of. measuring the temperature at this source The probe is inserted. in the medium that is investigated The NSSP principle relies on a. unique property of a line source after a short transient period. the temperature rise T only depends on heater power Q and. medium thermal conductivity , T Q 4 ln t B 1 1 1, With T in K the rise of temperature relative to the moment that. the heating starts at t 0 Q in W m in W mK t the time in s. and B a constant By measuring the heater power and tracing. the temperature in time for TP02 typically heating for 100s . can be calculated The sample size is not critical as long as a. radius around needle is covered that is roughly 15 times the. needle radius in case of TP02 20 mm , The measurements of Q t and T are all direct measurements of. power time and temperature respectively These are done. without need of reference materials The measurement with. TP02 is absolute , The thermal conductivity can be calculated from two. measurements at t1 and t2 For TP02 both t1 and t2 are higher. than 60 s and typically 100 s apart , Q 4 T ln t2 t1 1 1 2. With T the rise in temperature between the measurements at. times t1 and t2 , TP02 manual v1209 page 8 64, Hukseflux Thermal Sensors.
Figure 1 1 1 The signal of TP02 as a function of the natural. logarithm of time After a transient period the graphs show linear. behaviour In this phase the slope of the graph is inversely. proportional to the thermal conductivity , The formula 1 1 2 is a first order approximation that is only valid. under certain conditions , The most important ones are that the medium has reasonable. thermal contact with the probe and that the sample is thermally. stable More details can be found in the specifications and the. directions for performing a correct measurement later in this. chapter More details on the mathematics and literature. references can be found in the appendix , Whether TP02 has passed the transient period is usually checked. by visual examination of the graph , The measurements of Q t and T are all direct measurements of. power time and temperature and are done without need of. reference materials The measurement with TP02 is absolute . The main requirement is that the heater resistance per meter is. accurately determined before production , TP02 manual v1209 page 9 64.
Hukseflux Thermal Sensors, 1 2 TP02 theory, What everyone should know about TP02 operation . TP02 incorporates 2 thermocouple junctions in the needle They. are connected in anti series producing a voltage output U that. is proportional to T the differential temperature of the two. joints The junction in the tip is not heated , The main TP02 signal is this differential temperature signal The. hot joint is located at 1 3 of the needle length seen from the. base and the cold joint at the tip The heating wire runs across. 2 3 of the needle length , In this configuration the voltage U before starting the. measurement is always small independent of the medium. temperature In designs with only one thermocouple joint in the. needle the signal U will appear on top of a larger signal . The two junction design has a superior accuracy when measuring. at high and low temperatures , In addition by having both the cold and the hot junction in the. needle the sensitivity to changing temperature of the medium is. minimised , TP02 has a reference temperature sensor in the base The.
sensor in the base Pt1000 serves as a cold junction . measurement for establishing the absolute medium temperature. T This is required by ASTM The medium temperature before. starting the measurement is used for temperature correction of. the thermocouple sensitivity again offering superior accuracy. across the temperature range , TP02 has a cable with copper cores and not thermocouple alloy. cores Putting the Pt1000 temperature sensor in the base allows. the use of normal copper core cables and connectors for cable. extension of TP02 , TP02 manual v1209 page 10 64, Hukseflux Thermal Sensors. To measure the absolute temperature of the medium the. procedure is to measure the base temperature with the. Pt1000 and use this as a cold junction compensation. temperature for the cold thermocouple junction at the tip . Most dataloggers can accept such an external cold junction. measurement If not the cold junction temperature can be. calculated by, 1 measuring the cold junction microvolt signal and dividing this. by 40 35 V K to get the temperature of the cold joint relative. to the Pt1000 This value can be added to the Pt1000. TP02 manual v1209 page 9 64 Figure 1 1 1 The signal of TP02 as a function of the natural logarithm of time After a transient period the graphs show linear behaviour In this phase the slope of the graph is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity The formula 1 1 2 is a first order approximation that is only valid

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