Towards The Creation Of Healthier City Neighbourhoods For-Books Pdf

Towards the Creation of Healthier City Neighbourhoods for
23 Sep 2020 | 0 views | 0 downloads | 13 Pages | 205.02 KB

Share Pdf : Towards The Creation Of Healthier City Neighbourhoods For

Download and Preview : Towards The Creation Of Healthier City Neighbourhoods For

Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Towards The Creation Of Healthier City Neighbourhoods For



Transcription

344 A A Adebayo et al, through promoting industrial and economic efficiency This goal of promoting econom. ic growth and the creation of jobs in the 1970s led to the location of industry to the South. of the Durban Bay the integration of railways shipping and industry in this location the. creation of African and Indian Housing schemes in the south in Lamontville and. Merebank as sources of labour for industry and the necessity of undertaking reclama. tion dredging and canalization to provide usable industrial land Scott 2003 This. spatial order meant that residential areas located next to polluting petrochemical. industries face problems of environmental pollution Petrochemical and chemical. industries are concentrated in the SDB area but at the same time the area is home. to approximately 100 000 people some of them located dangerously close to chem. ical industries Groundwork 2002a b Consequently the main problem facing. residential communities in the SDB is atmospheric pollution due to chemicals such. as sulphur dioxide SO2 being emitted by petrochemical industries Thus in the area. high prevalence of asthma has been reported Ever since the 1970s when the SDB. was founded people living in the SDB have been fighting for a cleaner and healthier. SDB This fight however gained momentum with the advent of democracy in South. Africa in 1994 This paper maps the progress to date in the quest for a healthier and livable. SDB focusing on the relations and interactions among the main stakeholders in the quest. of the marginalised community for a more livable and healthier environment. Healthier Cities the International Context, Internationally concerns with the creation of livable healthier city neighbourhoods. can be traced way back to the time of the early industrial city Early industrial cities in. Europe provided economic opportunities but the majority of economic migrants from. rural areas were unable to meet their needs for shelter and basic public services like. water and waste disposal and treatment Hall 2002 These early cities were charac. terised by sewerage contaminated water supplies lack of proper arrangements for. sewage disposal and overcrowded residential arrangements located next to polluting. factories that were using carboniferous fuels As a result nineteenth century industrial. cities such as Manchester and Liverpool in England were susceptible to outbreaks of. waterborne and other communicable diseases Not surprisingly cholera and typhoid. epidemics were rife especially among the poor city neighbourhoods for example. killing 5 000 and 2 800 London and Glasgow residents respectively in 1832. Pacione 2005 This led to concerted efforts focusing on ameliorating the spatial. arrangements of the industrial city that had negative health consequences. As the nineteenth century progressed to its end two factors were important in. shaping the structure of the city namely the growth of urban reform movements and. the rising affluence created by the new capitalist industrial economy Thorns 2002. According to Thorns 2002 the rise of both the public health movement and. epidemiology were central to drawing attention to the links between the occurrence. of disease and spatial factors which in turn led to the realisation that diseases were. related to such things as sanitation clean water supply and proper drainage systems. Thus the growth of medical knowledge understanding that overcrowded insanitary. urban areas had economic costs and the fear of social unrest the importance of. controlling market forces and private property rights in the interest of social well. Towards the Creation of Healthier City Neighbourhoods 345. being began to be appreciated Cullingworth 1979 p 15 Of significance according. to Thorns 2002 is the work of Booth on poverty which linked it to income. deprivation occupation residence and overcrowding This assisted in the creation. of a reformist agenda emphasising more regulation of urban development and. improved physical and social conditions Therefore in the second half of the. nineteenth century a series of legislations were passed with the aim of promoting. public health, Efforts towards the creation of healthier cities did not end with the above. mentioned nineteenth century health reforms They were reinforced by the rise to. prominence of Ebenezer Howard s garden city movement which dominated the. British and global planning at large until around the mid twentieth century The. garden city concept is based on the premise of a neighbourhood that provides sound. environmental quality through green belts surrounding residences workplaces parks. and boulevards Hall 2002 In Britain the concept was highly influential in city. planning as it culminated in the creation of garden cities such as Letchworth and. Welwyn garden cities It also influenced the planning of cities in the world in general. The philosophy spread across the world to other developed countries such as Canada. the USA and developing countries such as Argentina and America The USA Canada. and Argentina for instance also followed the British style garden city as they established. garden cities such as Forest Hills Gardens Krefeld Gartenstadt and Ciudad Jardin. Lomas del Palomar respectively In South Africa a country that was a colony of the. British Empire legislation such as the Public Health Act of 1917 were passed amid. health scares caused by influenza outbreaks Furthermore a Garden Cities Trust was. established in 1919 with the aim of providing housing with better social environ. ments consequently leading to the establishment of the Pinelands Garden city in. Cape Town Van der Merwe n d, As such concerns with livable city neighbourhoods can be traced to the early. industrial city These efforts however did not end with the public health reforms that. were made to the industrial city at the end of the nineteenth century In fact with the. emergence of the sustainable development discourse in the twentieth century the. concern gained momentum Sustainable development is conceptualised as develop. ment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future. generations to meet their needs World Commission on Environment and Develop. ment 1987 p 8 Sustainability is about the maintenance of health of the biosphere. and the husbanding of key resources of air water land and mineral Barton 1995. Local governments have been placed at the forefront of championing sustainable. development globally They have vast influence on how urban environment relation. ships develop and on how their cities interact with their hinterlands and with the wider. global community since effective local governance can make cities more competitive. more efficient and more attractive to investors and workers by promoting the sustainable. development of the urban environment The Cities Alliance 2007. It is in this world policy context where focus is by and large on promoting sustainable. development that the livable cities movement was formalised in the developed. countries The movement started in the mid 1980s as a brain child of Drs Len Duhl. and Trevor Hancock and was originally implemented through the Healthy Cities. initiative spearheaded by the World Health Organization Norris and Pittman 2000. According to Norris and Pittman ibid the aim initially was to improve the quality of life. 346 A A Adebayo et al, in 34 European cities but has ever since spread to more than 3 000 communities in more.
than 50 countries on every continent At the heart of the healthy cities movement is the. need to address community health problems such as unemployment shortage of shelter. overcrowding pollution and the diseases that might emanate there from such as. cardiovascular diseases and Human Immuno Deficiency Virus HIV Therefore healthy. livable cities entail neighbourhoods where people can live play and work in harmony. As such initiatives seek to balance economic health environmental quality and social. equity Norris and Pittman 2000 Thus for healthy neighbourhoods to materialise they. are supposed to be a shared goal among all the stakeholders of urban governance such as. architects city planners and community based organisations the business sector and local. and central government and the inhabitants or people of varying social economic level for. the development of healthier neighbourhoods within cities. However regardless of the environmental and quality of life emphasis of both the. sustainable development discourse and the healthy cities movement the creation of. livable healthier neighbourhoods has seldom been met with success in the face of. development that is biassed towards economic goals especially in the developing. countries In most cases the economic goals of transnational companies in collusion. with African central governments have been espoused at the expense of social and. environmental needs of mostly poor city residents A classic case in Africa where. there has been colossal failure in the creation of livable communities due the. superimposition of economic goals is that of the Niger Delta in Nigeria According. to Ogunleye 2004 the environmental malaise in the Niger Delta is attributable to. industrialisation which saw huge refuse dumps next to residential areas resulting. from urban consumerism and pollutants from the petrochemical industries. When oil was discovered in the Niger Delta in 1958 there was a lot of excitement. among the local communities as the people thought that positive transformation. would be brought about with this discovery However as time progressed the. excitement turned into a nightmare as the prospection of oil by transnational com. panies transformed their livelihoods for the worse as it became the source of. socioeconomic and environmental woes This applies particularly to the two urban. centres of Port Harcourt and Warri which serve as the operational bases of most. multinational oil companies and indigenous service companies in the Niger Delta. producing about 75 of Nigeria s petroleum which translates to over 90 of. national government revenues Ajao and Anurigwo 2002. As a result of the persistence of these problems community based organisations have. mushroomed in the Niger Delta fighting for the social health and environmental. concerns of communities marginalised by economic development at their doorstep. However little has been achieved as the Nigerian state seems to be colluding with the. transnational companies in violating the people s socioeconomic and environmental. rights Jike 2004 argues that part of the reason has been the absence of appropriate. legislation to regulate specifically the operations of transnational companies in the. Niger Delta regardless of the broader national constitution which guarantees every. one environmental rights As such Moffat and Lind n 1995 argued that to achieve. sustainable development in the Niger Delta there is need for an appropriate policy. framework as well as specific projects and programmes to deal with the failure to. encourage markets to reflect the full social and environmental costs of goods and. services and lack of accountability and participation. Towards the Creation of Healthier City Neighbourhoods 347. The Niger Delta case in Nigeria demonstrates that without the cooperation of all. stakeholders of urban governance especially the state and the business sector the. creation of livable city neighbourhoods will never materialise in Africa This is also. the case elsewhere in Africa where transnational mining companies have violated. community environmental rights with African states playing a complicit role The. mining industry in Africa is little regulated which resulted in massive environmental. pollution as in the case of copper and cobalt in Zaire diamonds gold platinum and. chromium in South Africa uranium in Namibia and bauxite in Guinea where environ. mental pollution is a serious concern for mining towns Clay 1994 The following. section analyses the case of the South Durban Basin where residential communities were. located next to polluting petrochemical industries in the name of economic efficiency. during the apartheid era in South Africa Since the creation of the South Durban Basin. communities exposed to industrial pollution have been fighting for cleaner and healthier. neighbourhoods With the advent of the democratic dispensation in South Africa in 1994. this fight gained momentum In this empirical case study relations among industry the. people housing health and the neighbourhood built environment is scrutinised so as to. ascertain progress that has been made to date in the creation of livable neighbourhoods and. also the reasons that hinder or foster the creation of healthier neighbourhoods. Methodology, This paper uses the case study of the South Durban Industrial Basin in the city of. Durban to assess efforts towards the creation of healthier city neighbourhoods for. marginalised communities in South Africa The South Durban Basin SDB in the. city of Durban is a typical case where the superimposition of the economic agenda of. promoting industrial growth by the two main stakeholders of urban governance. namely the state and the private sector ignored the basic need for a clean and healthy. environment free from noxious gases emitted by chemical industries As such the. SDB presents the opportunity to scrutinise and learn instructively the factors that. livable cities entail neighbourhoods where people can live play and work in harmony As such initiatives seek to balance economic health environmental quality and social equity Norris and Pittman 2000 Thus for healthy neighbourhoods to materialise they are supposed to be a shared goal among all the stakeholders of urban governance such as architects city planners and com munity based

Related Books

PERFORMANCE POLITICS AND IDENTITY IN AFRICAN DANCE

PERFORMANCE POLITICS AND IDENTITY IN AFRICAN DANCE

panels of saints onto the African and American drummers occupying the church s chancel Six men s and one woman s djembes and dunduns create a wall of sound to support Kabisko Kaba a Guinean American dancer who leads thirty odd dancers through Yankadi a social dance from Guinea Save David a wiry intense jawed 60 year old man in a sweatband and a ratty red t shirt with the sleeves

BLACK IS BLACK AIN T California Newsreel

BLACK IS BLACK AIN T California Newsreel

African or black so I knew why he was upset still I wanted him to see the new light Edward Lee you black Colored Nobody is colored any more colored is the white man s word You black and should be proud Take it back he said his voice low No I m not Take it back he repeated tense For what It s the truth Take it back or I ll beat your black ass Uh oh

10 IDEAS FOR TEACHING BLACK HISTORY MONTH

10 IDEAS FOR TEACHING BLACK HISTORY MONTH

10 IDEAS FOR TEACHING BLACK HISTORY MONTH As we celebrate and commemorate Black History Month it is important to engage students in activities that get them to think broadly and critically about the black experience in all of its complexity Instruction should incorporate history point of view politics struggle first person experience art literature and data Included in this Current

Black History Month Church of God

Black History Month Church of God

Black History Month A Celebration for All People 1 From the Ball Field to the Field of Souls 2 Black Heritage Inspires Unity for Church and Culture 3 My Experience at the North American Convention 4 Twice Thrown Away Twice Retrieved 5 2011 NIYC Equipping Youth for Evangelism 6 Church Restores Floor Lives 7 5 Principle Training Equips Leaders 9 For Leaven s Sake 10 celebrated

Ten Contemporary African American One Act Dramas

Ten Contemporary African American One Act Dramas

TEN CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN AMERICAN ONE ACT DRAMAS VOLUME 1 corner on floor of cell Exit is right AT RISE Cell is empty stark and silent for a few moments Loud jingle of keys can be heard offstage Sound of creaking metal door as it opens MARTIN appears in handcuffs being roughly shoved inside cell white JAILER appears removes

Responder HD LCD LED and 1 way directeddealers com

Responder HD LCD LED and 1 way directeddealers com

Responder HD LCD LED and 1 way Models 5906 5706 5806 and 5606 Security and Remote Start Installation Guide This product is intended for installation by a professional

Rear Differential Coupling Growl Noise

Rear Differential Coupling Growl Noise

Rear Differential Coupling Growl Noise Repair Procedure Continued Figure 10 Rear Differential Coupler Body Is Dark in Color 5 Replace the rear differential coupling assembly A Install the coupling shim use same shim from disassembly B Install the coupling conical spring washer to the rear differential carrier Figure 11 1

c B sicos DEL DErEcHo ParLaMEntario EL ParLaMEntario

c B sicos DEL DErEcHo ParLaMEntario EL ParLaMEntario

CONCEPTOS B SICOS DEL DERECHO PARLAMENTARIO 33 siva de todos lo elementos relacionados con el Parlamento pues indica que el derecho parlamentario es parte del derecho constitucional y su objeto de

COMUNICACI N GRUPAL Y TECNICAS PARLAMENTARIAS

 COMUNICACI N GRUPAL Y TECNICAS PARLAMENTARIAS

PARLAMENTARIAS Revisado por DRA KAREN FUNES RIVERA Moci n para que suspendan las reglas Moci n de reconsideraci n Mociones para rescindir revocar o anular alg n Acuerdo Moci n de clausura 6 Laboratorio de Habilidades y Destrezas Facultad de Medicina Universidad de El Salvador VI BIBLIOGRAFIA NGELA MAR A ESPA OL Y LITERATURA T CNICAS GRUPALES

Taller para Senadores LexJuris

Taller para Senadores LexJuris

Parlamentarias zActualmente el ROBERT S RULES OF ORDER NEWLY REVISED es el Manual m s usado por las organizaciones QU RUM zEl n mero m nimo de miembros que debe estar presente para conducir los asuntos leg timamente zEste n mero usualmente est especificado en el reglamento Sesi n y Reuni n z Sesi n Todo el per odo de reuniones del congreso convenci n o asamblea Se

Manual de Procedimiento Parlamentario

Manual de Procedimiento Parlamentario

Suspender las reglas Objetar a la consideraci n de una cuesti n Dividir una cuesti n MANUAL DE PROCEDIMIENTOS PARLAMENTARIOS FEDERACION ESPELEOLOGICA DE AMERICA LATINA Y DEL CARIBE HC 02 BOX 7429 CAMUY PUERTO RICO 00627 9115 Todos los Derechos Reservados a a 1 a