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Towards CMOS compatible nanophotonics Ultra compact
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13 T Nikolajsen K Leosson and S I Bozhevolnyi In line extinction modulator based on long range surface. plasmon polaritons Opt Commun 244 1 6 455 459 2005. 14 J A Dionne K Diest L A Sweatlock and H A Atwater PlasMOStor a metal oxide Si field effect. plasmonic modulator Nano Lett 9 2 897 902 2009, 15 W Cai J S White and M L Brongersma Compact high speed and power efficient electrooptic plasmonic. modulators Nano Lett 9 12 4403 4411 2009, 16 K F MacDonald and N I Zheludev Active plasmonics current status Laser Photon Rev 4 4 562 567. 17 A Melikyan N Lindenmann S Walheim P M Leufke S Ulrich J Ye P Vincze H Hahn T Schimmel C. Koos W Freude and J Leuthold Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator Opt Express 19 9. 8855 8869 2011, 18 A V Krasavin and A V Zayats Photonic signal processing on electronic scales electro optical field effect. nanoplasmonic modulator Phys Rev Lett 109 5 053901 2012. 19 V J Sorger N D Lanzillotti Kimura R M Ma and X Zhang Ultra compact silicon nanophotonic. modulator with broadband response Nanophotonics 1 1 1 6 2012. 20 C Huang R J Lamond S K Pickus Z R Li and V J Sorger A sub size modulator beyond the. efficiency loss limit IEEE Photon J 5 4 2202411 2013. 21 V E Babicheva I V Kulkova R Malureanu K Yvind and A V Lavrinenko Plasmonic modulator based on. gain assisted metal semiconductor metal waveguide Photon Nanostructures 10 4 389 399 2012. 22 A Melikyan L Alloatti A Muslija D Hillerkuss P Schindler J Li R Palmer D Korn S Muehlbrandt D. Van Thourhout B Chen R Dinu M Sommer C Koos M Kohl W Freude and J Leuthold Surface. plasmon polariton high speed modulator CLEO 2013 OSA Technical Digest paper CTh5D 2 2013. 23 R Thomas Z Ikonic and R W Kelsall Electro optic metal insulator semiconductor insulator metal Mach. Zehnder plasmonic modulator Photon Nanostructures 10 1 183 189 2012. 24 A Boltasseva and H A Atwater Low loss plasmonic metamaterials Science 331 6015 290 291 2011. 25 P R West S Ishii G V Naik N K Emani V M Shalaev and A Boltasseva Searching for better plasmonic. materials Laser Photon Rev 4 6 795 808 2010, 26 C Rhodes S Franzen J P Maria M Losego D N Leonard B Laughlin G Duscher and S Weibel. Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides J Appl Phys 100 5 054905 2006. 27 G V Naik and A Boltasseva Semiconductors for plasmonics and metamaterials Phys Status Solidi RRL. 4 10 295 297 2010, 28 G V Naik and A Boltasseva A comparative study of semiconductor based plasmonic metamaterials.
Metamaterials Amst 5 1 1 7 2011, 29 G Naik J Kim and A Boltasseva Oxides and nitrides as alternative plasmonic materials in the optical range. Opt Mater Express 4 6 1090 1099 2011, 30 G Naik J L Schroeder X Ni A V Kildishev T D Sands and A Boltasseva Titanium nitride as a. plasmonic material for visible and near infrared wavelengths Opt Mater Express 2 4 478 489 2012. 31 G V Naik J Liu A V Kildishev V M Shalaev and A Boltasseva Demonstration of Al ZnO as a. plasmonic component for near infrared metamaterials Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 23 8834 8838. 32 J B Khurgin and A Boltasseva Reflecting upon the losses in plasmonics and metamaterials MRS Bull. 37 08 768 779 2012, 33 G V Naik V M Shalaev and A Boltasseva Alternative plasmonic materials beyond gold and silver Adv. Mater 25 24 3264 3294 2013, 34 J Narayan P Tiwari X Chen J Singh R Chowdhury and T Zheleva Epitaxial growth of TiN films on. 100 silicon substrates by laser physical vapor deposition Appl Phys Lett 61 11 1290 1292 1992. 35 E Feigenbaum K Diest and H A Atwater Unity order index change in transparent conducting oxides at. visible frequencies Nano Lett 10 6 2111 2116 2010, 36 Z Lu W Zhao and K Shi Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon near zero slot.
waveguides IEEE Photon J 4 3 735 740 2012, 37 V Babicheva and A Lavrinenko Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning. permittivity Opt Commun 285 24 5500 5507 2012, 38 A Kerber and E A Cartier Reliability challenges for CMOS technology qualifications with Hafnium. Oxide Titanium Nitride gate stacks IEEE Trans Device Mater Reliab 9 2 147 162 2009. 39 R Chau M Doczy B Doyle and J Kavalieros Metal gate electrode for CMOS transistor applications US. Patent 6 696 345 Feb 24 2004, 40 J K Brask T E Glassman M L Doczy and M V Metz Method for making a semiconductor device having. a high k gate dielectric US Patent 6 716 707 Sept 30 2004. 41 A Emboras R M Briggs A Najar S Nambiar C Delacour P Grosse E Augendre J M Fedeli B de. Salvo H A Atwater and R Espiau de Lamaestre Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal. insulator silicon metal plasmonic waveguides Appl Phys Lett 101 25 251117 2012. 42 B Little A VLSI photonics platform in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Optical Society of. America 2003 paper ThD1, 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27327. 43 M Ferrera L Razzari D Duchesne R Morandotti Z Yang M Liscidini J E Sipe S Chu B E Little and. D J Moss Low power continuous wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide. structures Nat Photonics 2 12 737 740 2008, 44 M S Kwon J S Shin S Y Shin and W G Lee Characterizations of realized metal insulator silicon.
insulator metal waveguides and nanochannel fabrication via insulator removal Opt Express 20 20 21875. 21887 2012, 45 C Delacour S Blaize P Grosse J M Fedeli A Bruyant R Salas Montiel G Lerondel and A Chelnokov. Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides toward metal oxide. silicon nanophotonics Nano Lett 10 8 2922 2926 2010. 46 A Emboras A Najar S Nambiar P Grosse E Augendre C Leroux B de Salvo and R E de Lamaestre. MNOS stack for reliable low optical loss Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices Opt Express 20 13 13612. 13621 2012, 47 S Zhu G Q Lo and D L Kwong Electro absorption modulation in horizontal metal insulator silicon. insulator metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides Appl Phys Lett 99 15 151114 2011. 48 S Zhu G Q Lo and D L Kwong Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits on horizontal Cu SiO2 Si. SiO2 Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides Opt Express 20 1896 1898 2012. 49 R Geffken and S Luce Method of forming a self aligned copper diffusion barrier in vias US Patent 5 985. 762 Nov 16 1999, 50 K Noguchi O Mitomi and H Miyazawa Millimeter wave Ti LiNbO3 optical modulators J Lightwave. Technol 16 4 615 619 1998, 51 T Fujiwara A Watanabe and H Mori Measurement of uniformity of driving voltage in Ti LiNbO3. waveguides using Mach Zehnder interferometers IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2 4 260 261 1990. 52 J Kim G Naik N Emani U Guler and A Boltasseva Plasmonic resonances in nanostructured transparent. conducting oxide films IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron 19 4601907 2012. 53 M Bass C DeCusatis G Li V N Mahajan and E V Stryland Handbook of Optics Volume II Design. Fabrication and Testing Sources and Detectors Radiometry and Photometry McGraw Hill 1994. 54 Sopra data sheet http www sspectra com sopra html. 55 D C Look T C Droubay and S A Chambers Stable highly conductive ZnO via reduction of Zn vacancies. Appl Phys Lett 101 10 102101 2012, 56 M A Noginov L Gu J Livenere G Zhu A K Pradhan R Mundle M Bahoura Y A Barnakov and V A.
Podolskiy Transparent conductive oxides plasmonic materials for telecom wavelengths Appl Phys Lett. 99 2 021101 2011, 57 H Kim M Osofsky S M Prokes O J Glembocki and A Piqu Optimization of Al doped ZnO films for. low loss plasmonic materials at telecommunication wavelengths Appl Phys Lett 102 17 171103 2013. 58 B Lamprecht J R Krenn G Schider H Ditlbacher M Salerno N Felidj A Leitner F R Aussenegg and J. C Weeber Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes Appl Phys Lett 79 1 51 53 2001. 59 S Kang and Y Leblebici CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis Designs McGraw Hill 2003. 1 Introduction, Plasmonics enables the merging of two major technologies nanometer scale electronics and. ultra fast photonics 1 Metal dielectric interfaces can support the waves known as surface. plasmon polaritons SPPs that are tightly coupled to the interface which allow for the. manipulation of light at the nanoscale overcoming the diffraction limit Plasmonic. technologies can lead to a new generation of fast on chip nanoscale devices with unique. capabilities 2 3 To provide basic nanophotonic circuit functionalities elementary. plasmonic devices such as waveguides modulators sources amplifiers and photodetectors. are required Various designs of plasmonic waveguides have been proposed to achieve the. highest mode localization and the lowest propagation losses 3 In addition to waveguides. modulators are the most fundamental component for digital signal encoding and are. paramount to the development of nanophotonic circuits In this regard opto electronic. modulators can be designed to achieve operational speeds on the order of a few 10 s of GHz. Many plasmonic waveguide and modulator structures have been proposed and experimentally. verified but most of these structures use metals such as gold or silver which are not CMOS. compatible limiting their applicability in realistic consumer devices 4 23. Similar to the advances in silicon technologies that led to the information revolution. worldwide the development of new CMOS compatible plasmonic materials with. adjustable tunable optical properties could revolutionize the field of hybrid. photonic electronic devices Pioneering works in the search for new plasmonic materials 24. 25 have suggested new intermediate carrier density materials such as transition metal nitrides. 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27328. and transparent conducting oxides TCOs as promising building blocks with low loss and. extraordinary tuning and modulation capabilities 26 33 Among these materials titanium. nitride TiN is one of the best candidates for plasmonics applications due to its many. intrinsic advantages 29 30 TiN is thermally stable melting point above of 2900 C bio. compatible mechanically hard one of the hardest ceramics can be grown epitaxially on. many substrates including 100 silicon and 0001 sapphire and chemically stable in. particular it does not oxidize like silver or copper 30 34 It was also shown that TiN. provides higher plasmonic mode confinement in comparison to gold 28 A final benefit of. transition metal nitrides is that they are nonstoichiometric materials Hence their optical. properties depend greatly on the preparation conditions and can be optimized based on the. desired application and performance These unique properties make TiN a very promising. material for telecommunication range plasmonic waveguides. TCOs can provide extraordinary tuning and modulation of their complex refractive. indices by changing the carrier concentration with the application of an electric field 17 20. 35 37 The resulting electric field causes a charge accumulation or depletion in the TCO. layer depending on the direction of electric field which in turn changes the plasma. frequency of the TCO and consequently its permittivity In particular an increase of. approximately one order of magnitude can be achieved in a 5 nm thick accumulation layer for. a metal insulator metal MIM structure using indium tin oxide ITO 35 A similar. decrease in the carrier concentration within a 10 nm thick film for metal oxide semiconductor. MOS stack was demonstrated for an ITO film 19 20 The modulating speed is only RC. limited and is expected to exceed 10 s of GHz TCO based modulators have been shown to. achieve extinction ratios on the order of 18 dB m 36 In addition TCO permittivity tuning. can provide further improvements and increase of propagation length 37 A small absolute. value of TCO permittivity can be utilized to achieve plasmonic resonances and consequently. high extinction ratio 17 36 Thus TCOs are promising candidates for adding electro optical. capabilities to plasmonic devices, In this paper we focus on developing active plasmonic devices using alternative. plasmonic materials which are CMOS compatible Section 2 We suggest a variety of. plasmonic modulator structures using transparent conducting oxides which may serve as both. the plasmonic material and as a dynamic element in Section 3 Next a definition of the. parameters used in the simulations is discussed in Section 4 Following we define our figure. of merit FoM and discuss results for the absorption coefficient and mode size as functions. of the carrier concentration in the TCO layer in Section 5 The performance analysis of the. modulators and previous works are shown in Section 6 Finally we investigate the integration. of the best performing modulator with plasmonic waveguides and analyze its performance in. terms of coupling losses and integration possibilities in Section 7. 2 Towards fully CMOS compatible plasmonics, For a device to be fully CMOS compatible both the material and the processing technique. used to synthesize this material should be compatible with the standards in CMOS production. lines Currently TiN is routinely used in CMOS processing but the optical properties of this. material are quite poor 38 41 This is because the primary consideration has been the. electrical properties of the material not the optical properties In this study we use. experimentally obtained optical properties of TiN films which have been optimized for. plasmonic applications 30 These films were deposited using a high temperature 800 C. reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique This high temperature sputtering process is not. utilized in the current semiconductor manufacturing processes for TiN deposition Thus we. claim devices based on CMOS compatible materials but acknowledge that the entire process. is not currently CMOS compatible However it has been shown that plasmonic TiN can also. be grown at lower temperatures 30 33 Thus through an optimization process of the low. temperature TiN less than 400 currently available in the CMOS industry TiN which. 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27329. possesses the required optical properties can be made available in future CMOS production. lines This is in stark contrast to the noble metals which are not allowed in the CMOS. process A similar situation was encountered for low loss doped silica glass which is normally. obtained through high temperature annealing Nevertheless in 2003 a new material platform. namely Hydex was synthesized to bring this glass into full CMOS compatibility where it. was subsequently used for integrated nonlinear optics experiments 42 43. Copper has also been investigated as a potential CMOS compatible plasmonic material. 41 44 48 However the use of copper first requires a TiN buffer layer to prevent its. diffusion into silicon 49 Thus if the low temperature TiN is optimized with competitive. optical properties the second deposition of copper is not necessary TiN in its own right also. has many advantages as was previous discussed over copper such as chemical and. mechanical stability high temperature stability and bio compatibility which are useful for. many applications beyond only CMOS chips, The TCOs discussed in this paper Tin doped Indium Oxide ITO Gallium doped Zinc.
Oxide GZO Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide AZO and others may be deposited at. relatively low temperatures less than 300 C which makes it possible to integrate them as a. final stage in the standard silicon process 31 Due to their low temperature deposition they. will not impact the CMOS produced structures below Similar nondestructive methods of. integration with CMOS circuitry have been utilized to include lithium niobate crystals and. electro optic polymers on CMOS produced photonic chips 50 51 Such methods also. consider these techniques to be CMOS compatible,3 Multilayer structures. We consider the use of the above mentioned CMOS compatible materials in several. modulator configurations Stripe waveguides have low propagation loss and are relatively. simple to fabricate using the planar process 6 7 Therefore we propose several modulator. geometries which are based on stripe waveguides This also allows for the modulator to be. easily integrated with long range SPP LR SPP stripe waveguides 6 to decrease both. propagation and coupling losses leading to a fully plasmonic integrated modulator design A. schematic showing the basic outline of the modulator integration with LR SPP stripe. waveguides is shown in Fig 1, Fig 1 General scheme of a compact modulator integrated with low loss plasmonic. waveguides In this geometry a stripe waveguide grey is used to bring a long ranging SPP. mode to and from the modulator structure where an applied voltage modulates the SPP wave. Within the modulator structure three options are possible for the guiding layer First. since TCOs possess plasmonic properties in the near infrared range 25 33 a thin layer of. TCO can be used to simultaneously support SPP propagation and control the attenuation of. the signal TCOs such as ITO GZO and AZO have very similar optical properties and allow. for efficient control of the carrier concentration We select GZO for all structures as it. possesses the highest plasma frequency 52 Secondly a thick layer of TiN can be used to. 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27330. support a single interface SPP inside the waveguide while an upper TCO layer is used to. control the attenuation Lastly a thin TiN layer identical to the input output waveguide can. be used to support the SPP inside the modulator while an additional upper TCO layer is used. to control the attenuation The final two approaches simplify the fabrication of the structure. while providing tighter modal confinement and a second electrode However it is not readily. clear which solution will provide the best FoM In the paper several structures which utilize. these configurations will be investigated, To further reduce the mode size of the three alternatives and increase the modulating. capability we consider including high index claddings However due to the increased. propagation losses in the modulator it is unclear whether structures with a high index. cladding will outperform the low index equivalents For this reason we consider two sub. groups of devices one with low index claddings Figs 2 a 2 c and another with high index. claddings Figs 2 d 2 f In all structures thin plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. PE CVD nonstoichiometric silicon nitride SiN or thin low pressure chemical vapor. deposition LP CVD Si3N4 layers are used for electrical isolation between the contacts to. allow for modulation, Fig 2 Illustration of the low index a b c and high index d e f multilayer modulator. designs considered in this work They are vertically divided by their configuration The first. column GZO only structures a and d uses the GZO as both the plasmonic layer and the. dynamic layer The second column single interface structures b and e introduces a thick. TiN layer which supports single interface SPPs and use the GZO layer to perform modulation. Finally the third column of thin TiN structures c and f uses a thin stripe of TiN to support. the long ranging SPP mode and the GZO layer to modulate the signal. 4 Defining performance metrics, With these considerations six basic geometries were chosen as templates for modulator.
designs operating at the telecom wavelength of 1 55 m We consider zinc oxide ZnO. LP CVD Si3N4 and PE CVD silicon nitride denoted in by SiN as low index materials The. refractive indices used in the calculations are the following nZnO 1 93 53 nSiN 1 76 and. nSi3N4 1 97 value retrieved from in loco ellipsometry measurements of PE CVD and LP. CVD films respectively at 1 55 m It should be mentioned that LP CVD Si3N4 requires. high temperature deposition which may degrade the properties of TCO layer Hence only PE. CVD SiN can be deposited after the TCO layer We consider silicon as a high index cladding. nSi 3 48 at 1 55 m for both crystalline and amorphous 54 In all cases we neglect. optical losses in the silicon as they are much lower than losses associated with plasmonic. structures, The dispersion equation was solved for the multilayer structures with varying carrier. concentrations in the TCO The permittivity of the GZO layer was taken from experimentally. grown films 52 and a carrier concentration in the GZO was determined using a Drude. Lorentz model fitting N0 9 426 1020 cm 3 For this work we consider a range of carrier. 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27331. concentrations between N 0 5N0 2N0 The upper limit of 2N0 1 88 1021 cm 3 is shown. to be achievable by the recently reported film which obtained a carrier concentration of 1 46. 1021 cm 3 for GZO 55 In addition numerous studies have focused on increasing the carrier. concentration of TCO films which is further proof that the parameters used in our analysis are. realistic 33 52 55 57 The calculated permittivity of GZO for these carrier concentrations. is shown in Fig 3 a, The permittivity of TiN is taken as experimentally measured TiN 83 3 21 3i at. 1 55 m Fig 3 b The TiN film was deposited at 800 C and the optical properties of the 20. nm thick film was measured using spectroscopic ellipsometer J A Woollam Co The high. deposition temperature poses some fabrication and integration restrictions similar to LP. CVD Si3N4 The materials beneath the TiN layer must withstand the TiN deposition and etch. conditions without degradation Since the properties of the TCO degrade at high. temperatures the TCO layer must be deposited only after the deposition and patterning of the. Fig 3 a GZO permittivity versus its carrier concentration 1 55 m The permittivity of. the GZO layer was taken from 52 and a carrier concentration in the GZO was determined. using a Drude Lorentz model fitting N0 9 426 1020 cm 3 black dotted line b TiN. permittivity extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. In all cases we consider the one dimensional structure as an approximation to the two. dimensional stripe waveguide This assumption does not substantially affect the theoretical. performance of the devices 5 58 The thickness of the internal GZO TiN SiN Si3N4 layers. is 10 nm The top and bottom cladding layers are assumed to be infinitely thick. 5 Defining the figure of merit, Before defining the FoM used in our analysis a few fundamental parameters should be. discussed First of these is the mode size Due to the complex field profiles of the multilayer. structures we define the mode size such that 86 of electrical energy is localized within the. region as shown in Fig 4 This is similar to the case of a single interface where the 1 e point. of the electric field corresponds to an 86 localization of electrical energy. The second parameter is the attenuation of the signal in decibels which is calculated from. the absorption coefficient as 8 68 Im eff 17 where eff is the complex propagation. constant of plasmonic wave in the multilayer structures Therefore the extinction ratio ER. of the modulator is defined as,ER max min 1, 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27332. where min is propagation loss in the off state and max is the maximum of the propagation loss. in the on state Here we define the on state as the carrier concentration which results in the. maximum absorption in each modulator design, Fig 4 Depiction of the mode profile illustrating the definition of the mode size Due to the.
complexity of the structure and high concentration of electrical energy in the GZO layer the. traditional definition of the mode size cannot be utilized Here we define the mode size as the. distance range which encompasses 86 of the electric field energy a condition similar to that. of the 1 e definition for a single interface waveguide. We define the off state as the minimum in the absorption However two solutions are. possible For this discussion we consult Fig 5 which illustrates the absorption coefficient and. mode size as a function of carrier concentration for each of the six structures Note that the. final structure Fig 2 f supports both a symmetric and asymmetric mode As shown in Figs. 5 a and 5 c a reduction in the absorption can be achieved either by increasing or decreasing. the carrier concentration from the on state max However as shown in Figs 5 b and 5 d. for N N max the plasmonic mode becomes delocalized from the waveguide resulting in. a drastic increase in the mode size This scenario is highly undesirable because 1 the. delocalized light can result in significant cross talk between devices and 2 the light may. recouple to the plasmonic waveguide resulting in reduced modulation capability Thus we. refer to the off state as Noff 2N0 1 88 1021 cm 3 This definition is valid for all the. proposed structures apart from Si3N4 GZO SiN ZnO in Fig 2 a due to its small range. containing a bound mode see Fig 5 b Thus for this layout min N 8 1020 cm 3 is. Finally we define a FoM for such multilayer modulator structures as. ER eff off, where ER is the extinction ratio min is the off state absorption coefficient. eff off 2 Re eff is the effective wavelength in the modulator in the off state and woff is. the off state mode size This FoM reflects the trade off between the modulation depth and the. loss of the signal in the off state min while giving additional weight to devices which can. fulfill the promise of plasmonics compactness,6 Modulator performance. A summary of the performance parameters for the investigated structures are shown in Table. 1 The highest FoM is obtained by the high index thin TiN structure in Fig 2 f This. modulator can outperform previously proposed designs whose performance is shown in Table. 2 The increase in the FoM for our devices largely stems from the increase in the ER Of the. top three performing devices discussed here all high index cladded structures the ERs are. 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27333. up to twice the highest ER obtained in previous works This is largely due to the fully. plasmonic nature of the devices In this case the dynamic layer is able to be placed very near. the field maximum or may in fact support the SPP This greatly increases the effect of the. permittivity modulation on the SPP wave However because these devices are able to detune. from the plasmonic resonance the absorption coefficient in the off state can be relatively low. while maintaining a mode size on the order of eff, Fig 5 Multilayer structures along with graphs of the absorption coefficient a c and mode. size b d versus GZO carrier concentration Structures with high index cladding lower show. much higher absorption than structures with a low index cladding upper The absorption. maximum is accompanied by the highest mode localization which occurs at the plasmon. resonance for the structure At lower carrier concentrations in the GZO modes are increased. due to smaller magnitude of its real permittivity, 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27334. The high index structure shown in Fig 2 f achieves off state losses of 0 29 dB m while. maintaining a large ER of 46 dB m This structure obtained the largest FoM 51. approximately twice the FoM of all other structures shown here This large ER requires only a. 65 nm of modulator length to achieve a 3 dB signal modulation This is the only structure. considered in the subsequent integration analysis, Table 1 Performance comparison for planar modulator designs In the following table all.
of the fundamental parameters for the device characterization are listed Among them we. have Non which is the on state carrier concentration max which is the maximum. absorption in the on state min which is the minimum absorption in the off state ER is. the extinction ratio as defined in Eq 1 woff is the off state mode size neff is the effective. index of the mode and FoM is the figure of merit as defined in Eq 2. Structure max min ER woff,1020 neff FoM,layers bottom to top dB m dB m dB m m. Si3N4 GZO SiN ZnO Fig 2 a 6 1 1 95 0 11 1 8 10 1 96 1. TiN Si3N4 GZO SiN Fig 2 b 6 1 8 4 0 50 8 1 0 1 83 13. Si3N4 TiN Si3N4 GZO SiN Fig 2 c 6 4 28 12 2 16 0 3 2 7 3. Si Si3N4 GZO Si Fig 2 d 6 8 24 0 06 24 6 3 5 30,TiN Si3N4 GZO Si Fig 2 e 7 8 60 4 2 56 0 2 3 7 24. Si TiN Si3N4 GZO Si Fig 2 f asym 9 0 132 46 86 0 09 6 8 5. Si TiN Si3N4 GZO Si Fig 2 f sym 6 6 46 0 29 46 1 3 3 6 51. Table 2 Summary of the performance of previous works in TCO based modulator. structures This is for means of comparison with the structures presented in this paper. Device nm woff m neff FoM,Lu Shi 36 18 1 0 1310 0 3 2 0 39. Sorger Zhang 19 1 0 04 1310 0 35 3 0 32,Huang Sorger 20 6 0 7 1310 0 2 3 0 19. 7 Waveguide modulator integration and losses, To achieve the highest performance of the integrated structure the ability to efficiently couple.
into the device is critical Ease of integration and coupling losses were considered from the. beginning of the design evident by our use of the low loss stripe waveguide geometry as a. template Because of this very efficient coupling can be achieved both into and out of the. modulator A schematic of the high index thin TiN modulator structure integrated with. high index cladded TiN stripe interconnects is shown in Fig 6 To achieve a similar mode. size between the high index modulator and interconnects silicon was also used as the. cladding for the waveguides However to prevent electrical shorting of the modulator. structure p n junctions must be formed through doping of the silicon 59 Despite this. doping losses in the silicon are still several orders of magnitude below plasmonic losses and. are neglected in this analysis, 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27335. Fig 6 Schematic of plasmonic modulators integrated with TiN stripe waveguides providing. long range SPP propagation to and from the modulator side view To create the electrical. isolation and prevent shorting of the modulator structure the silicon layers are doped as. shown However even with large doping required in the n region the losses associated with. silicon are several orders of magnitude below the plasmonic losses and are neglected in this. Similar to the previous sections we perform calculations for one dimensional structures. as their properties are close to those of finite width The coupling loss for a single interface. was calculated by following equation,E1z E2 z dz,1 2 E1z E1 z dz E2 z E2 z dz. where 1 E1 and 2 E2 are the mode indices electric field in the waveguide and. modulator respectively Equation 3 takes into account both the mode overlap integral and. the Fresnel coefficients at the boundary region, We calculated the coupling losses for the design shown in Fig 6 and the results are. shown on Fig 7 For the off state N 1 88 1021 cm 3 coupling losses are shown to be. approximately 0 7 dB for each interface This along with the low propagation loss in the. modulator structure ensures high signal throughput in the off state As the carrier. concentration is reduced the coupling loss monotonically increases towards the maximum in. the modulator absorption The increase in coupling loss is a result of the highly localized field. at the plasmon resonance maximum absorption In this situation the field is almost entirely. located within the GZO layer leading to a small mode overlap integral and high coupling. losses Fig 8 This effect can be beneficial for modulator performance in specific. applications as it provides additional losses in the on state and fewer losses in the off state. Fig 7 Single interface coupling loss between the high index waveguide and high index thin. TiN modulator sections versus carrier concentration in the GZO layer. 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27336. Fig 8 Example mode profiles in the integrated modulator geometry high index thin TiN. Note that the field decay outside the stripe waveguide is slow and therefore appears constant in. this graph The carrier concentration in the GZO layer used for the calculations corresponds to. the maximum absorption in the modulator i e plasmonic resonance condition N Non Under. these conditions the majority of the field is localized within the GZO layer. 8 Conclusion, In this paper we have analyzed several multilayer structures with alternative plasmonic. materials to be utilized in ultra compact CMOS compatible plasmonic modulators Various. materials were studied as constituent building blocks of the investigated geometries including. different dielectrics silicon nitride silicon zinc oxide and plasmonic materials such as. transparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride Applying an electric field across the TCO. layer allows for the permittivity to be tuned resulting in a change of the absorption. coefficient of the waveguide Therefore active modulation is achieved Numerous modulator. layouts are investigated and the typical trade off between compactness and propagation loss is. analyzed Amongst all the reported structures one stands out with a remarkable FoM even in. comparison with the best state of the art devices This FoM takes into account the. modulation depth ER 46 dB m propagation losses in the off state 0 29 dB m and. off state mode size woff 1 3 m The corresponding geometry may allow for ultra compact. modulation with effective length much less than 1 m The proposed approach based on the. cost effective planar fabrication processes and the ability to easily integrate with existing. semiconductor systems could enable new devices for applications in on chip optics sensing. optoelectronics data storage and information processing. Acknowledgments, We thank Jieran Fang Jongbum Kim and Naresh K Emani for helpful discussions V E B.
acknowledges financial support from 2012 SPIE Optics and Photonics Education Scholarship. Otto M nsteds and Thomas B Thriges foundations M F wishes to acknowledge the Marie. Curie Outgoing International Fellowship contract no 329346 A V L acknowledges partial. financial support from the Danish Research Council for Technology and Production Sciences. via the THz COW project We acknowledge support from the following grants ARO grant. 57981 PH W911NF 11 1 0359 NSF MRSEC grant DMR 1120923 and NSF PREM DRM. 194460 15 00 USD Received 26 Jul 2013 revised 17 Oct 2013 accepted 18 Oct 2013 published 4 Nov 2013. C 2013 OSA 4 November 2013 Vol 21 No 22 DOI 10 1364 OE 21 027326 OPTICS EXPRESS 27337.

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Apply work ethics, values and quality principles 7. Work effectively in vocational education and training 8. Foster and promote a learning culture 9. Ensure a healthy and safe learning environment 10. Maintain and enhance professional practice 11. Appreciate cost-benefits of technical training 12. Understand and analyze global labor markets Core Competency Requirements 1. Plan Training ...

Poule 1 (40 kg) Tapis 1 - FFJUDO

Poule 1 40 kg Tapis 1 FFJUDO

cm schreiber alice jc saulxures - 54 cv challal manon j.c foug - 54 cm pelamatti emma us des cheminot - 08 1d barato perrine ajbd 21 25 - 21 pinarci elise scam l hopital - 57 1d bresson maelys jsc pam - 54 cm berthod garance acs peugeot mul - 68 1d caudron emeline us tardenoise - 51 1d zitte payet orlane dojo dionysien - 97 cabaret n. varoquier a. 10 -0 / 01-h varoquier a. 10 -0 / 00-0 ...

Progress in Materials Science - UCSB

Progress in Materials Science UCSB

aDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK ... Indentation is one of the main techniques for probing mechanical properties of engineering materials. Compared with the tension/ compression tests, an indentation test is ultra-local and less invasive, in which the indenter is pushed into the surface of the sample. Distinguished by the indentation load L and ...

HIV-1 p24 Antigen ELISA 2 - ZeptoMetrix Corporation

HIV 1 p24 Antigen ELISA 2 ZeptoMetrix Corporation

HIV-1 p24 Antigen ELISA 2.0 Catalog Number: 0801008 This product was manufactured in a facility which has a Quality Management System that is ISO 13485 certified. Catalog Number ZeptoMetrix Temperature Limitation Lot Number Expiration Date For Research Use Only 800 Biological Risk Corporation 878 Main Street Buffalo, NY 14202 -274 5487 www.zeptometrix.com PI0801008 Revision: 04 PCA# 19-030 ...

OECD/INFE HIGH-LEVEL PRINCIPLES ON NATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR ...

OECD INFE HIGH LEVEL PRINCIPLES ON NATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR

national strategies for financial education2 in June 2010. The work began by a wide and comprehensive stock-take of existing practices amongst INFE members between July 2010 and March 2012. This exercise formed the basis of a first comparative analytical report3 and of these High-level Principles. The development of the High-level Principles followed an iterative and thorough discussion and ...

The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration

The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration

The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration John Schmitt, Kris Warner, and Sarika Gupta June 2010 Center for Economic and Policy Research 1611 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 400 Washington, D.C. 20009 202-293-5380 www.cepr.net

THE GENESIS OF THE HOUSEHOLD GODDESS - CNR

THE GENESIS OF THE HOUSEHOLD GODDESS CNR

THE GENESIS OF THE HOUSEHOLD GODDESS by KEITH BRANIGAN Perhaps the most popular and persistant cult in Minoan Crete was that of the Snake or Household Godqess. Her shrines are numerous from MM.I! onwards and persist into the sub-Minoan period I and around her she gathered many of the commonest elements in Minoan religion. She has received a great deal of attention from Minoan archaeologists 2 ...

3ZDIMPTQPKLZ - Hydroflex

3ZDIMPTQPKLZ Hydroflex

" &7w6f 279>+" )$ " " &7w6f 279>+" )$ " " &7w6f 279>+" )$ " " &7w6f 279>+ " )$ " " &7w6f 279>+

HR530 Technical Topics in HR HR530 - knowasap

HR530 Technical Topics in HR HR530 knowasap

HR350 5 days Technical topics in Human Resources HR530 3 days CATS The Cross Application Time Sheet CA500 2 days Benefits Administration HR325 3 days SAP AG 1999 Human Resources 4.6 (2) Level 2 Level 3 Human Resources Essentials I HR051 1 day Human Resources Essentials II HR052 2 days Human Resources Essentials III HR053 2 days Please note our country specific curriculum and our curriculum for ...