Toward Complex And Inclusive Studies Of Sex Scripts-Books Pdf

Toward Complex and Inclusive Studies of Sex Scripts
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MCS Masculinities and Social Change Vol 3 No 3 October 2014. pp 271 298, Toward Complex and Inclusive, Studies of Sex Scripts College. Students Sexual Behaviors and, Hookup Cultures on U S Campuses. Collin D Williams Shaun R Harper, University of Pennsylvania. Much attention has been devoted in recent years to students hooking up on college. and university campuses across the United States Hookups broadly entail sexual. behaviors that range from anal and vaginal intercourse to oral sex masturbation and. other physically pleasurable activities In this article we synthesize the literature on. college hookup cultures Specifically we use sexual scripting theory to analyze and. critique existing peer reviewed studies Ultimately we present five themes. pertaining to the study of hookup phenomena at U S colleges and universities This. article concludes with several recommendations for making future hookup studies. more inclusive of undergraduates from a range of racial ethnic groups sexual. orientations socioeconomic and religious backgrounds and postsecondary. institutional contexts something previous scholars have largely neglected to do in. their research, Keywords Hooking up college sexual behavior. 2014 Hipatia Press, ISSN 2014 3605, DOI 10 4471 MCS 55.
MCS Masculinities and Social Change Vol 3 No 3 October 2014. pp 271 298, Hacia Estudios Complejos e Inclusivos, sobre Scripts Sexuales Conductas. Sexuales de los Estudiantes y Culturas de, los Encuentros en los Campus de EUA. Collin D Williams Shaun R Harper, University of Pennsylvania. En los ltimos a os se ha dedicado mucha atenci n a los encuentros que los. estudiantes han establecido en los campus universitarios de Estados Unidos Dichos. encuentros implican comportamientos sexuales que van desde la relaci n sexual. anal y vaginal al sexo oral la masturbaci n y otras actividades f sicas placenteras. En este art culo se sintetiza la literatura sobre las culturas de los encuentros en la. universidad En concreto utilizamos la teor a del scripting sexual para analizar y. criticar los estudios previos sobre el tema En ltima instancia presentamos cinco. temas relacionados con el estudio del fen meno de los encuentros en las. universidades de los Estados Unidos Finalmente este art culo concluye con varias. recomendaciones para futuros estudios sobre encuentros m s inclusivos de los. estudiantes de grado considerando los diferentes grupos tnicos las orientaciones. sexuales situaciones socioecon micas y opciones religiosas y teniendo en cuenta. tambi n el contexto institucional de la educaci n superior algo que autores. anteriores han descuidado en gran medida, Palabras clave Encuentros universidades comportamiento sexual. 2014 Hipatia Press, ISSN 2014 3605, DOI 10 4471 MCS 55.
273 William Harper Sex scripts and hookups at U S colleges. n Unhooked How Young Women Pursue Sex Delay Love and. Lose at Both Laura Sessions Stepp an American journalist. explored sexual behaviors among students at U S colleges and. universities The book ignited a firestorm of media attention that. vilified undergraduates for what was characterized as promiscuous. irresponsible and detrimental sexual behaviors Kalish 2007. Surprisingly few readers questioned the generalizability of Stepp s claims. which were based on interviews with nine college women Comparatively. Kathleen A Bogle s 2008 book Hooking Up Sex Dating and. Relationships on Campus more deeply contextualizes the sexual behaviors. of over 70 women and men But like Stepp 2007 Bogle s findings are far. from generalizable her study is based on a 95 White 96 heterosexual. and majority middle to upper class sample Citing the lack of diversity in. her sample as a limitation Bogle urged scholars to develop the hookup. literature with intentional foci on unexamined groups particularly non. White and non heterosexual students, Hence the purpose of this article is to synthesize the extant literature on. college hookup cultures and commission scholars to diversify their. methodological approaches to this important work In the next section we. present the theoretical lens that guided our interpretations of materials. analyzed for this study Next we summarize our research methods and. present five themes pertaining to the study of hookup phenomena on. college campuses in the U S Finally we conclude this article with several. recommendations for complicating and making more inclusive future. studies of hooking up in college, Theoretical Framework. Sexual scripting theory suggests sexual behaviors are determined by. scripts that organize sexual encounters into understandable conventions. Simon Gagnon 1986 effectively dictating who will do what and when. in a particular context Context is of utmost importance here as this. perspective embraces social constructionism a set of sociological theories. that acknowledge how within context objects of consciousness and social. phenomena are constructed Arminio Hultgren 2002 A sociologist by. training Bogle 2008 not only cites classic sociologists Gagnon and. MCS Masculinities and Social Change 3 3 274, Simon s assertion that sexual behavior is socially learned and manifests. in sexual scripts but she also specifies the roles men and women play. are shaped by cultural influences in the context of both a specific social. setting such as the college campus as well as a specific historical time. period p 8 Simply sexual scripts can be understood as outlines for. appropriate behaviors in sexual encounters, The most salient sexual scripts are heterosexist and sexist assuming. heterosexuality and disproportionately emphasizing the roles of men Kim. et al 2007 Traditionally as sex is central to male identity men are. portrayed as active sexual agents who prefer and pursue non relational sex. while women are portrayed as passive sexual objects that must act as. gatekeepers Kim et al 2007 Also gendered sexual scripts underlying. messages for women and men are often starkly different Wiederman. 2005 Variety in sexual scripts is routinely interpreted as inconsistency. Consider the lyric a lady in the street and freak in the bed a prime. example of the Madonna whore dichotomy Welldon 1988 Messages that. simultaneously call for a lady and a freak are inherently contradictory. and make it difficult for women to navigate socially constructed sexual. expectations Stephens Phillips 2003 In addition ambiguity regarding. appropriate levels of casualness and emotional investments in hookups is a. source of considerable conflict, Though much research identifies media as the origin of gendered sexual.
scripts Kim et al 2007 Stephens Phillips 2003 few scholars are. certain why Saad 2007 suggests that consumer behavior is predicated on. products like love and sex that are both most producible and most salient to. human survival and reproduction Garcia and Reiber 2008 describe media. as a reflection of our evolutionary penchants magnified by popularity and. conclude popular sexual scripts are exaggerated examples of behaviors. that are taken to an extreme for the purposes of media sensationalism and. activation of core guttural interests that are often problematic p 167. Media proliferations of these contradictory inconsistent and problematic. gendered sexual scripts provide a backdrop with which to more deeply. understand the roles sexual hookups play in undergraduate students lives. 275 William Harper Sex scripts and hookups at U S colleges. Method and data sources, This article synthesizes studies about hookup culture on college and. university campuses in the U S Using electronic retrieval databases e g. Project Muse SpringerLink EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier and. Google Scholar we searched the words hookup hook up hooking. up and hooked up As our aim was to locate scholarship on college. hookups our criteria for selecting the research were as follows some. version of the word hookup must appear in the title the manuscript must be. a peer reviewed study and finally the research has to primarily engage. young adults between the ages of 18 and 24 Only research based journal. articles not magazines newspapers blogs etc on college students were. included Documents not fitting our criteria e g book chapters movies. and non scholarly books and articles were occasionally consulted but only. for supplemental details We ultimately found 33 peer reviewed journal. articles and one book Of the journal articles four were literature reviews. 25 were quantitative studies three were based on qualitative research. methods and one used a combination of statistical and qualitative methods. Five themes from the hookup literature, Presented in this section are five major themes from previous studies about. students hooking up sexually on U S college campuses Findings presented. herein are not necessarily reflective of our beliefs nor do we endorse them. In fact the impetus for our writing this article was the lack of generalizable. and widely applicable research on college hookups Hence we do not. present the five themes as truth per se but merely as a synthesis of claims. previous authors have made, Un Common Definitions of Hooking Up. For both the students who engage in it and the scholars who investigate it. defining hooking up has not been an easy task Armstrong et al 2009. England et al 2008 Flack et al 2007 Paul Hayes 2002 Glenn. Marquardt 2001 Paul et al 2000 When Bogle 2008 asked students to. define a hookup she got a multitude of responses the most salient. difference among them was the range of the sexual acts committed While. MCS Masculinities and Social Change 3 3 276, some students felt that a hookup entailed having sex others believed that. it did not involve vaginal or anal intercourse but rather just kissing or. making out Because it is difficult to know exactly what another person. meant when they said they hooked up with someone the details of an. encounter are often left up to the listener s imagination Bogle observed. The best available definitions of hookups are comprehensive Stinson. 2010 defines a hookup as a casual no strings attached sexual. encounter p 98 While this definition does not seem to limit the scope of. a hookup the finding that many students engage in hookups with some sort. of expectations contradicts the no strings attached caveat Furthermore. most scholars have demystified this notion of no strings attached finding. that women and men tend to have expectations for hookups Eshbaugh. Gute 2008 Townsend Wasserman 2011 although expressing their. expectations are taboo according to the dominant hookup script Bogle. 2008 Epstein et al 2009 cite three themes that are central to the. definitional script 1 the absence of a committed relationship 2 a short. term encounter and 3 the presence of a variety of sexual behaviors. Bogle 2008 found that students could readily describe the dominant. hookup script and provide great detail on what hookups typically entail. Hookups are usually initiated at a college party or social event alongside. alcohol consumption and after two individuals have an exchange of verbal. or non verbal cues that connote mutual sexual interest Depending on the. desired level of privacy the individuals involved can engage in varying. forms of sexual contact either in the party or in a dorm room off campus. apartment etc To avoid the walk of shame returning home in the. morning wearing the same disheveled clothing from the prior evening the. visitor usually undergraduate women rarely stays the night If the. encounter is not interrupted the hookup ends when one person leaves. passes out or climaxes Paul Hayes 2002 and rarely results in a long. term monogamous relationship Paul et al 2000, Hookups follow several scripts Bogle 2008 England et al 2008 Flack.
et al 2007 Paul et al 2000 Manifestations of them include random. one time encounters regular encounters that usually occur on the. weekends infrequent and sporadic sexual late night encounters known as. booty calls and regularly occurring sexual encounters with a friend. without the structure of a relationship referred to as friends with benefits. 277 William Harper Sex scripts and hookups at U S colleges. or fuck buddies Except for friends with benefits a lack of regular. communication is common among these archetypes Bogle 2008. Dating and hooking up are not the same Because college students do. not mean the same thing when they use these terms they cannot be used. interchangeably Stinson 2010 When students describe dating they know. what the concept is but they are explaining something in which they do not. often engage Bogle 2008 According to them it either refers to someone. who attends an event like a formal with a date or to two people who are. already in a monogamous relationship Glenn Marquardt 2001. Presently traditional dating is rarely the pathway through which college. students get together Hookup culture is the dominant pathway to intimacy. and students engage in it quite regularly Bogle 2008 Glenn Marquardt. The rates and frequencies with which college students engage in hookup. behavior are also of import particularly when distinguishing between. hooking up and a hookup culture Heldman Wade 2010 Garcia and. Reiber 2008 surveyed over 500 students at Binghamton University to. assess the prevalence of and motivation for hooking up finding. approximately two thirds of students hooked up at some point during. n Unhooked How Young Women Pursue Sex Delay Love and Lose at Both Laura Sessions Stepp an American journalist explored sexual behaviors among students at U S colleges and universities The book ignited a firestorm of media attention that vilified undergraduates for what was characterized as promiscuous

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