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Third Edition Masaryk University
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Third Edition, Physics in Biology and Medicine, Complementary Science Series. ACADEMIC PRESS, 2008 To be published, Physics in the Arts Full Edition. P U P A Gilbert Willy Haeberli, Physics in Biology and Medicine Third Edition. Paul Davidovits, Crystallography Made Crystal Clear Third Edition. Gale Rhodes, Garry M McCracken Peter Stott, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics.
Sy M Blinder, Fundamentals of Quantum Chemistry Second Edition. James E House, Introduction to Relativity, John B Kogut. Earth Magnetism A Guided Tour through Magnetic Fields. Wallace H Campbell, The Physical Basis of Chemistry Second Edition. Warren S Warren, www books elsevier com, Third Edition. Physics in Biology, and Medicine, Paul Davidovits, AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON.
NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO, SAN FRANCISCO SYDNEY TOKYO. Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier ACADEMIC PRESS. Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier, 30 Corporate Drive Suite 400 Burlington MA 01803 USA. 525 B Street Suite 1900 San Diego California 92101 4495 USA. 84 Theobald s Road London WC1X 8RR UK, This book is printed on acid free paper. c 2008 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved, No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic or mechanical including photocopy recording or any information storage and. retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier s Science Technology Rights. Department in Oxford UK phone 44 1865 843830 fax 44 1865 853333. E mail permissions elsevier com You may also complete your request online. via the Elsevier homepage http elsevier com by selecting Support Contact. then Copyright and Permission and then Obtaining Permissions. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Davidovits Paul, Physics in biology and medicine Paul Davidovits 3rd ed.
p cm Complementary science series, Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 13 978 0 12 369411 9 pbk alk paper 1 Biophysics 2 Medical physics I Title. QH505 D36 2008, 571 4 dc22, 2007021167, British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 978 0 12 369411 9, For information on all Academic Press publications. visit our web site at www books elsevier com, Printed in the United States of America. 07 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1, Preface xiii, Abbreviations xvii.
1 Static Forces 1, 1 1 Equilibrium and Stability 2. 1 2 Equilibrium Considerations for the Human Body 3. 1 3 Stability of the Human Body under the Action of an. External Force 4, 1 4 Skeletal Muscles 7, 1 5 Levers 9. 1 6 The Elbow 11, 1 7 The Hip 15, 1 7 1 Limping 17. 1 8 The Back 17, 1 9 Standing Tip Toe on One Foot 19. 1 10 Dynamic Aspects of Posture 19, Exercises 21, 2 Friction 23.
2 1 Standing at an Incline 25, 2 2 Friction at the Hip Joint 26. vi Contents, 2 3 Spine Fin of a Cat sh 27, Exercises 29. 3 Translational Motion 30, 3 1 Vertical Jump 32, 3 2 E ect of Gravity on the Vertical Jump 35. 3 3 Running High Jump 36, 3 4 Range of a Projectile 37. 3 5 Standing Broad Jump 37, 3 6 Running Broad Jump Long Jump 39.
3 7 Motion through Air 40, 3 8 Energy Consumed in Physical Activity 42. Exercises 43, 4 Angular Motion 45, 4 1 Forces on a Curved Path 45. 4 2 A Runner on a Curved Track 47, 4 3 Pendulum 48. 4 4 Walking 50, 4 5 Physical Pendulum 51, 4 6 Speed of Walking and Running 52. 4 7 Energy Expended in Running 54, 4 8 Alternate Perspectives on Walking And Running 56.
4 9 Carrying Loads 58, Exercises 59, 5 Elasticity and Strength of Materials 61. 5 1 Longitudinal Stretch and Compression 61, 5 2 A Spring 62. 5 3 Bone Fracture Energy Considerations 64, 5 4 Impulsive Forces 66. 5 5 Fracture Due to a Fall Impulsive Force Considerations 67. 5 6 Airbags In ating Collision Protection Devices 68. 5 7 Whiplash Injury 69, 5 8 Falling from Great Height 70. 5 9 Osteoarthritis and Exercise 70, Exercises 71, Contents vii.
6 Insect Flight 73, 6 1 Hovering Flight 73, 6 2 Insect Wing Muscles 75. 6 3 Power Required for Hovering 76, 6 4 Kinetic Energy of Wings in Flight 78. 6 5 Elasticity of Wings 79, Exercises 80, 7 Fluids 82. 7 1 Force and Pressure in a Fluid 82, 7 2 Pascal s Principle 83. 7 3 Hydrostatic Skeleton 84, 7 4 Archimedes Principle 87.
7 5 Power Required to Remain A oat 87, 7 6 Buoyancy of Fish 88. 7 7 Surface Tension 89, 7 8 Soil Water 92, 7 9 Insect Locomotion on Water 93. 7 10 Contraction of Muscles 95, 7 11 Surfactants 97. Exercises 99, 8 The Motion of Fluids 101, 8 1 Bernoulli s Equation 101. 8 2 Viscosity and Poiseuille s Law 103, 8 3 Turbulent Flow 104.
8 4 Circulation of the Blood 105, 8 5 Blood Pressure 107. 8 6 Control of Blood Flow 109, 8 7 Energetics of Blood Flow 110. 8 8 Turbulence in the Blood 110, 8 9 Arteriosclerosis and Blood Flow 111. 8 10 Power Produced by the Heart 112, 8 11 Measurement of Blood Pressure 113. Exercises 114, viii Contents, 9 Heat and Kinetic Theory 116.
9 1 Heat and Hotness 116, 9 2 Kinetic Theory of Matter 116. 9 3 De nitions 119, 9 3 1 Unit of Heat 119, 9 3 2 Speci c Heat 119. 9 3 3 Latent Heats 120, 9 4 Transfer of Heat 120, 9 4 1 Conduction 120. 9 4 2 Convection 121, 9 4 3 Radiation 122, 9 4 4 Di usion 123. 9 5 Transport of Molecules by Di usion 126, 9 6 Di usion through Membranes 128.
9 7 The Respiratory System 129, 9 8 Surfactants and Breathing 132. 9 9 Di usion and Contact Lenses 133, Exercises 133. 10 Thermodynamics 135, 10 1 First Law of Thermodynamics 135. 10 2 Second Law of Thermodynamics 137, 10 3 Di erence between Heat and Other Forms of. Energy 138, 10 4 Thermodynamics of Living Systems 140.
10 5 Information and the Second Law 143, Exercises 144. 11 Heat and Life 145, 11 1 Energy Requirements of People 146. 11 2 Energy from Food 147, 11 3 Regulation of Body Temperature 149. 11 4 Control of Skin Temperature 151, 11 5 Convection 151. 11 6 Radiation 153, 11 7 Radiative Heating by the Sun 153.
Contents ix, 11 8 Evaporation 155, 11 9 Resistance to Cold 156. 11 10 Heat and Soil 158, Exercises 159, 12 Waves and Sound 162. 12 1 Properties of Sound 162, 12 2 Some Properties of Waves 165. 12 2 1 Re ection and Refraction 165, 12 2 2 Interference 166. 12 2 3 Di raction 168, 12 3 Hearing and the Ear 168.
12 3 1 Performance of the Ear 171, 12 3 2 Frequency and Pitch 172. 12 3 3 Intensity and Loudness 173, 12 4 Bats and Echoes 175. 12 5 Sounds Produced by Animals 176, 12 6 Acoustic Traps 176. 12 7 Clinical Uses of Sound 177, 12 8 Ultrasonic Waves 177. Exercises 178, 13 Electricity 180, 13 1 The Nervous System 180.
13 1 1 The Neuron 181, 13 1 2 Electrical Potentials in the Axon 183. 13 1 3 Action Potential 184, 13 1 4 Axon as an Electric Cable 186. 13 1 5 Propagation of the Action Potential 188, 13 1 6 An Analysis of the Axon Circuit 190. 13 1 7 Synaptic Transmission 193, 13 1 8 Action Potentials in Muscles 194. 13 1 9 Surface Potentials 194, 13 2 Electricity in Plants 196.
13 3 Electricity in the Bone 196, x Contents, 13 4 Electric Fish 197. Exercises 198, 14 Electrical Technology 200, 14 1 Electrical Technology in Biological Research 200. 14 2 Diagnostic Equipment 202, 14 2 1 The Electrocardiograph 202. 14 2 2 The Electroencephalograph 203, 14 3 Physiological E ects of Electricity 204. 14 4 Control Systems 206, 14 5 Feedback 208, 14 6 Sensory Aids 211.
14 6 1 Hearing Aids 211, 14 6 2 Cochlear Implant 211. Exercises 213, 15 Optics 214, 15 1 Vision 214, 15 2 Nature of Light 215. 15 3 Structure of the Eye 215, 15 4 Accommodation 216. 15 5 Eye and the Camera 217, 15 5 1 Aperture and Depth of Field 218. 15 6 Lens System of the Eye 219, 15 7 Reduced Eye 220.
15 8 Retina 222, 15 9 Resolving Power of the Eye 223. 15 10 Threshold of Vision 225, 15 11 Vision and the Nervous System 226. 15 12 Defects in Vision 227, 15 13 Lens for Myopia 229. 15 14 Lens for Presbyopia and Hyperopia 229, 15 15 Extension of Vision 229. 15 15 1 Telescope 230, 15 15 2 Microscope 231, 15 15 3 Confocal Microscopy 232.
Contents xi, 15 15 4 Fiber Optics 235, Exercises 237. 16 Atomic Physics 239, 16 1 The Atom 239, 16 2 Spectroscopy 244. 16 3 Quantum Mechanics 246, 16 4 Electron Microscope 247. 16 5 X rays 249, 16 6 X ray Computerized Tomography 250. 16 7 Lasers 252, 16 7 1 Lasers Surgery 253, Exercises 255.
17 Nuclear Physics 256, 17 1 The Nucleus 256, 17 2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 257. 17 2 1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 258, 17 2 2 Imaging with NMR 262. 17 2 3 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 17 3 Radiation Therapy 266. 17 4 Food Preservation by Radiation 267, 17 5 Isotopic Tracers 268. 17 6 Laws of Physics and Life 269, Exercises 271, Appendix A Basic Concepts in Mechanics 272.
Appendix B Review of Electricity 287, Appendix C Review of Optics 293. Bibliography 302, Answers to Numerical Exercises 310. Companion Web Site Information, Instructor support materials for Physics in Biology and Medicine. Third Edition can be found at, www textbooks elsevier com 9780123694119. Until the mid 1800s it was not clear to what extent the laws of physics and. chemistry which were formulated from the observed behavior of inanimate. matter could be applied to living matter It was certainly evident that on the. large scale the laws were applicable Animals are clearly subject to the same. laws of motion as inanimate objects The question of applicability arose on. a more basic level Living organisms are very complex Even a virus which. is one of the simplest biological organisms consists of millions of interacting. atoms A cell which is the basic building block of tissue contains on the aver. age 1014 atoms Living organisms exhibit properties not found in inanimate. objects They grow reproduce and decay These phenomena are so di er. ent from the predictable properties of inanimate matter that many scientists in. the early 19th century believed that di erent laws governed the structure and. organization molecules in living matter Even the physical origin of organic. molecules was in question These molecules tend to be larger and more com. plex than molecules obtained from inorganic sources It was thought that the. large molecules found in living matter could be produced only by living organ. isms through a vital force that could not be explained by the existing laws of. physics This concept was disproved in 1828 when Friedrich Wo hler synthe. sized an organic substance urea from inorganic chemicals Soon thereafter. many other organic molecules were synthesized without the intervention of. biological organisms Today most scientists believe that there is no special. vital force residing in organic substances Living organisms are governed by. the laws of physics on all levels, xiv Preface, Much of the biological research during the past hundred years has been.
directed toward understanding living systems in terms of basic physical laws. This e ort has yielded some signi cant successes The atomic structure of. many complex biological molecules has now been determined and the role of. these molecules within living systems has been described It is now possible to. explain the functioning of cells and many of their interactions with each other. Yet the work is far from complete Even when the structure of a complex. molecule is known it is not possible at present to predict its function from its. atomic structure The mechanisms of cell nourishment growth reproduction. and communication are still understood only qualitatively Many of the basic. questions in biology remain unanswered However biological research has. so far not revealed any areas where physical laws do not apply The amazing. properties of life seem to be achieved by the enormously complex organization. in living systems, The aim of this book is to relate some of the concepts in physics to living. systems In general the text follows topics found in basic college physics. texts The discussion is organized into the following areas solid mechanics. uid mechanics thermodynamics sound electricity optics and atomic and. nuclear physics, Each chapter contains a brief review of the background physics but most. of the text is devoted to the applications of physics to biology and medicine. No previous knowledge of biology is assumed The biological systems to. be discussed are described in as much detail as is necessary for the physical. analysis Whenever possible the analysis is quantitative requiring only basic. algebra and trigonometry, Many biological systems can be analyzed quantitatively A few examples. will illustrate the approach Under the topic of mechanics we calculate the. forces exerted by muscles We examine the maximum impact a body can. sustain without injury We calculate the height to which a person can jump. and we discuss the e ect of an animal s size on the speed at which it can run. In our study of uids we examine quantitatively the circulation of blood in. the body The theory of uids allows us also to calculate the role of di usion. in the functioning of cells and the e ect of surface tension on the growth of. Complementary Science Series ACADEMIC PRESS 2008 To be published Physics in the Arts Full Edition P U P A Gilbert Willy Haeberli 2003 2007 Physics in Biology and Medicine Third Edition Paul Davidovits Crystallography Made Crystal Clear Third Edition Gale Rhodes Fusion Garry M McCracken Peter Stott Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Sy M Blinder Fundamentals of Quantum Chemistry

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