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112 Misnawi et al IFRJ 21 1 111 118, that able to act as antioxidant through its reaction Total phenolic content. with free radicals and chelate the metal ions which Total phenolic in polyphenol extract was. could trigger the oxidation process Bravo 1998 determined according the method of Szydlowska. Unfermented cocoa beans are reported to contain Czerniak 2008 with slight modifications Finely. high concentration of polyphenol in which its weighted polyphenol extract 0 2 g was transferred. concentration was then reduced during cocoa bean into test tube and added with 1 mL ethanol 4 8 mL. fermentation and drying Misnawi 2003 Flavan distilled water and 0 5 mL Follin Ciocalteau 50. 3 ol anthocyanin and procyanidine were identified reagent The mixture was then vortexed and rested. as major polyphenol compound in cocoa where for 5 minutes To the extract 1 mL of saturated. catechins and epicatechins are the main component sodium carbonate Na2CO3 was added and the. of procyanidine Weisburger 2005 In the lipid solution was made up to 10 mL with distilled water. body these phenolic compounds are able to retard After rested for 1 hour in dark room the absorbances. the lipid oxidation by donating a hydrogen atom or of the solutions were measured using a UV 160A. an electron to chain initiating free radicals such as the spectrophotometer Shimadzu Corp Nagakyo Ku. hydroxyl and superoxide radicals Cao et al 1997 Kyoto Japan measured at 725 nm against a reagent. Prior and Cao 2000 Shahidi and Wanasundara blank Epicathecin 0 200 mg L was used as. 2008 They also neutralize the substrate derived standard in calibration curve preparation. free radicals such as the fatty acid free radicals and. alkoxy radicals Cao et al 1997 Incorporation Experiment condition. of such extract in human foods not only preserves The experiment was conducted according the. their wholesomeness but also reduces the risk of design suggested by Design Expert software version. developing artherosclerosis and cancer Ames 1983 7 0 Stat Ease Minneapolis MN USA using face. Namiki 1990 Ramarathnarn et al 1995 centered central composite design CCD The. The application of natural antioxidant in cooking independent variable were the frequency of frying. oil has been previously reported Suja et al 2004 ranged from 0 no frying to 20 times of frying and. Merrill et al 2008 However the application of polyphenol concentration added into the BFO ranged. polyphenol extracted from unfermented cocoa bean has from 0 no addition to 0 04 Frying treatment was. not been published Previous research has mentioned carried out using 2 L of polyphenol fortified BFO to. that polyphenol from cocoa beans relatively resistant fry 10 local tofus in fryers with total capacity of 4 L. to heat Misnawi et al 2002 Thus it is suitable to The frying method was divided into open frying OF. be applied as additive for BFO This research aimed and deep frying DF. to study the effect of cocoa polyphenol in retardation. of the oxidation in bulk frying oil Free fatty acid. FFA was determined using the method of AOCS, Material and Methods Ca 5a 40 AOCS 1998 Approximately 2 mL oil. was transferred into a flask followed with neutralized. Polyphenol extract 95 ethanol and 2 mL of phenolphthalein indicator. Polyphenol extract was prepared according to 1 The solution was then mixed using magnetic. the method of Misnawi 2003 Unfermented cocoa stirrer The mixture was then titrated with sodium. beans were dried to reach moisture content of 7 5 hydroxide solution 0 1 M until a permanent pink. The beans were then deshelled and the cotyledons color persisted for at least 30 s Concentration of FFA. obtained were powdered before defatted with was calculated as oleic acid basis. petroleum benzene solvent in soxhlet apparatus, Defatted cocoa powder was then mixed with ethanol Peroxide value. distilled water mixture 1 3 and incubated for 24 The peroxide value PV was determined using. hours at room temperature The mixture was then the official method of AOAC 965 33 AOAC 2000. filtered using filter paper The polyphenol extract Thirty milliliters of chloroform acetic acid 3 2 v v. 310 mL was obtained by evaporating the 6700 mL of was used to dissolve a known weight of oil sample 2. supernatant by using rotary evaporator 30 mL of the g Approximately 0 5 mL freshly prepared saturated. liquid polyphenol extract was then stored to vacuum KI solution was then added to the mixture and then. dessicator resulted in 15 43 g of polyphenol extract vortexed for exactly 1 min Distilled water 30 mL. powder and starch indicator 0 5 mL 1 were added and. Misnawi et al IFRJ 21 1 111 118 113, Table 1 Face centered experimental design in coded a and b and actual level A and B of variables. Expt Frequency times Concentration Open Frying Deep Frying. No Coded Level a Actual Level A Coded Level b Actual Level B FFA PV Clarity DPPH FFA PV Clarity DPPH. 1 0 10 0 0 02 0 0999 12 000 70 400 16 370 0 1044 5 000 61 300 36 190. 2 1 20 0 0 02 0 1339 16 233 55 050 8 420 0 1146 5 991 52 275 7 360. 3 0 10 0 0 02 0 0999 12 000 69 800 16 500 0 0998 4 000 63 100 18 390. 4 0 10 1 0 00 0 1407 18 722 60 600 0 000 0 1339 7 250 56 500 0 000. 5 1 0 1 0 00 0 1248 1 997 96 200 0 000 0 1021 2 249 98 975 0 000. 6 0 10 1 0 04 0 0953 10 740 70 900 25 190 0 0953 3 244 65 850 44 260. 7 1 20 1 0 04 0 1112 13 237 55 750 17 270 0 1066 4 239 46 700 28 030. 8 0 10 0 0 02 0 0999 12 974 70 200 16 250 0 1089 5 988 60 000 29 910. 9 0 10 0 0 02 0 1089 13 972 69 700 15 720 0 1089 4 000 61 000 26 040. 10 1 0 1 0 04 0 0851 1 997 85 900 39 430 0 0907 1 995 94 825 60 060. 11 1 20 1 0 00 0 1690 21 489 51 375 0 000 0 1492 9 245 42 600 0 000. 12 0 10 0 0 02 0 1021 12 737 70 025 16 210 0 1055 4 747 61 350 27 630. 13 1 0 0 0 02 0 0976 2 000 90 575 23 780 0 0919 1 996 96 950 38 820. FFA mg KOH g fat,PV MeqO2 kg fat,Clarity Percentage of transmittance.
then titrated with sodium thiosulfate 0 1 M until the Ease Inc Minneapolis MN USA The model was. blue color was disappeared performed at 5 significance level in which p 0 05. was considered as significant parameters and non, Oil clarity significant parameters p 0 05 were excluded The. Oil clarity was analyzed employing a UV 160A response function Y for all responses was fitted to a. spectrophotometer Shimadzu Corp Nagakyo Ku second degree polynomial using below equation. Kyoto Japan measured at 583 nm The clarity was, determined according the percentage of transmittance Y b0 b1A b2B b12AB b11A2 b22B2. detected by the spectrophotometer,The linear quadratic and interaction effects was. DPPH radical scavenging activity represented along with the coefficient b0 by b1 b2. Radical scavenging activity RSA analysis was linear effects b12 interaction effects thus b11. performed based on the activity of the 2 2 diphenyl and b22 for quadratic effects The optimum condition. 1 picrylhydrazyl DPPH This analysis was carried for the chosen desired goal is decided using Myers. out using the method of Gadow 1996 with some and Montgomery desirability method contained in. modification Approximately 0 2 g of sample was the software in purpose to obtain minimum FFA and. dissolve in 20 mL of ethanol and stirred for 10 PV and maximize the Clarity and DPPH RSA. minutes The solution was then centrifuged for 3, min at 5 000 rpm Approximately 1 mL of the filtrate Result and Discussion. placed into a test tube and mixed with 0 5 mL DPPH. reagent and then shaken vigorously The solution was Preliminary analysis on total phenolic content. then placed in a dark condition for 20 min After that TPC of polyphenol extract from cocoa bean in. the solution was fixed up to 5 mL using ethanol The comparison with epicathecin standard resulted. absorbance of the sample mixture was then measured in the TPC of polyphenol extract found 172 75 g eq. at 517 nm using a UV 160A spectrophotometer epicathecin kg bean This result was in agreement. Shimadzu Corp Nagakyo Ku Kyoto Japan with previous research carried out by Misnawi. Antioxidant activity was presented as scavenging 2003 which found that polyphenol concentration in. activity according the following formula defatted unfermented cocoa bean was in range of 120. 180 g eq epicathecin kg, RSA Abs blank Abs sample Abs sample x 100 The results of dependent variable those were.
carried out according the design of CCD are presented. Statistical analysis and optimization in Table 1 in which the RSM analysis was done. The experiment was carried out by two variables separately between the responses in open frying and. three levels of each variable face centered central deep frying Table 2 shows the summarized analysis. composite design with five replications at the center of variance ANOVA regarding the model fitting. points The levels of variable were coded at 1 0 model lack of fit R2 and adjusted R2 the model. 1 The independent variables were frequency A equation and significant factors for each responses. and polyphenol concentration B The experiment All of the responses showed that the quadratic model. design is shown in Table 1 Statistical analysis was is significant mean that the additions of quadratic. carried out using Design Expert version 7 0 0 Stat terms were significantly improved the model. 114 Misnawi et al IFRJ 21 1 111 118, Table 2 Summarized ANOVA of the variables according central composite design CCD. FFA PV Clarity DPPH RSA,Parameters,OF DF OF DF OF DF OF DF. Model Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic. significant significant significant significant significant significant significant significant. Lack of fit not significant not significant not significant not significant significant significant Significant not significant. R2 0 981 0 961 0 979 0 936 0 969 0 985 0 992 0 938. Adjusted R2 0 968 0 933 0 965 0 890 0 946 0 974 0 987 0 894. Equation Y 0 126 0 0004A Y 0 11 0 0027A Y 3 075 1 82A 162 5B Y 2 59 0 5A 64 85B Y 93 01 Y 96 78 Y 0 95 0 213A 1239 3B Y 1 77 0 223A. Actual levels 2 11B 1 28B 0 04AB 10 32AB 3249 1B2 5 94AB 3 123A 0 05A2 4 99A 0 115A2 27 7AB 6997 8B2 1839 4B 0 038AB. 0 00009A2 28 68B2 22 51B2, Significant factor A B A2 B2 A B AB B2 A B AB A2 A B AB A A2 A A2 A B AB B2 A B AB. Figure 1 Left Response surface for the effect of PE Figure 2 Left Response surface for the effect of PE. concentration and frying frequency on the FFA of open concentration and frying frequency on the PV of open. frying oil Right Response surface for the effect of PE frying oil Right Response surface for the effect of PE. concentration and frying frequency on the FFA of deep concentration and frying frequency on the PV of deep. frying oil frying oil, adequacy Herpandi et al 2013 Even though the in open frying oil were in range of 0 0851 to 0 1690. model were significant several responses resulted in As shown in Figure 1 the addition of polyphenol. significant value of lack of fit Clarity OF and DF and extract to BFO could retard the formation of FFA in. DPPH RSA OF which represent that the quadratic bulk frying oil used in open frying The addition of. model was not suitable for the respective responses 0 04 polyphenol extract resulted in significantly. The entire quadratic models suggested resulted in lower concentration of FFA 0 1135 even though. high R2 and adjusted R2 adj R2 that were more the oil had been used for 20 times In comparison. than 0 89 Little Hills 1978 and Koochecki et al with BFO without addition of polyphenol extract the. 2009 previously mentioned that the R2 should not FFA reached 0 169 after being used for 20 times. be less than 0 80 and must be followed by close value Melton et al 1994 and White 1991 previously. of adj R2 to make sure that non significant terms was mentioned that during frying process the FFA. excluded and the model is adequate Since the model concentration is increasing due to the oxidation and. of Clarity OF DF and DPPH RSA OF could not hydrolysis occurred in the lipid body This result. become good indicators these models were not used showed that the addition of polyphenol extract to. in optimization the BFO could effectively retard the formation of. FFA during frying process The polyphenol could, Effect of cocoa polyphenol in open frying scavenge the free radicals thus retard the formation.
On the lipid body free fatty acids occurred mainly of FFA by limiting the oil oxidation Cao et al 1997. due to the hydrolysis process in the presence of water Shahidi and Wanasundara 2008. This hydrolysis process breakdown the triglycerides Peroxide values PV also showed similar trend. into glycerol and free fatty acids Ketaren 1986 to that of FFA PV was found to range from 2 to. Wiyati 1992 Melton et al 1994 Fellows 2000 21 489 MeqO2 kg oil that is much higher than that of. previously stated that the oil decomposition could lead CODEX limit 10 MeqO2 kg oil High degradation. to the potential toxic material and nutritional changes rate of oil in open frying condition could be affected by. Indonesian National Standard SNI 1 3741 1995 higher food oil contact surface ratio higher exposure. BSN 1995 allows the FFA content of commercial to atmospheric oxygen and lower temperature control. frying oil up to 0 3 This standard is similar with under processing Andrikopoulos et al 2002b. those of CODEX CODEX STAN 210 1999 which Shahidi and Warasundara 2008 mentioned that. limits the FFA content up to 0 3 and peroxide value the formation of lipid peroxide complex could be. up to 10 meqO2 kg oil Result of FFA analyses in this initiated by singlet triplet oxygen radicals or by free. experiment resulted in lower concentration of FFA radicals generated from previous propagation steps of. compared to aforementioned The FFA concentrations oxidation Antioxidant is able to retard the oxidation. Misnawi et al IFRJ 21 1 111 118 115, Figure 3 Left Graph for the relation between PE Figure 4 Left Graph for the relation between PE. concentration and frying frequency on the Clarity of concentration and frying frequency times on the DPPH. open frying oil Right Graph for the relation between PE RSA of open frying oil Right Response surface for the. concentration and frying frequency on the Clarity of deep relation between PE concentration and frying frequency. frying oil on the DPPH RSA of deep frying oil, process by forming a stable phenoxy radical complex to the lower active antioxidant compound left in. with propagation steps product With the absence the oil This result was in agreement with the report. of radicals the hydroperoxides were forced to of Andrikopoulos et al 2002a who found that. process into the termination steps resulting in stable the deterioration of phenolic compound happened. compound which minimize further propagation of during successive frying of virgin olive oil Quiles. oxidation Bravo 1998 As shown in Figure 2 the et al 2002 also mentioned that as the frying time. additions of polyphenol extract significantly reduced increased the antioxidant potential of rich phenolic. the oxidation rate of BFO during frying The frying oil virgin olive oil was also decreased However BFO. without the addition of polyphenol extract exhibited with the addition of 0 02 and 0 04 PE still exhibited. high increase in PV up to 21 489 MeqO2 kg oil as the relatively high RSA even though already processed. frying frequency increased to 20 times In contrast up to 20 times frying i e at 8 42 and 17 07 RSA. the increase of the polyphenol concentration added respectively representing their potential to retard the. to the oil the more resistant the oil to the oxidation oil oxidation process in further frying process. resulting in lower PV up to 12 65 MeqO2 kg oil, Das and Pereira 1990 mentioned that the Effect of cocoa polyphenol in deep frying. development of brown color in frying oil is normally The FFA concentration of BFO used in deep. associated with oxidation and polymerization Figure frying were slightly lower compared to those of open. 3 shows the clarity of BFO was decreased as the frying ranged from 0 919 to 0 1492 On the other. increase in frequency of frying in which the steeper hand the PV of BFO used in deep frying shows. decrease rate was observed in the BFO without the different result with that of open frying The PV of. addition of polyphenol BFO added with polyphenol DF ranged from 1 996 to 9 245 MeqO2 kg oil much. extract after 20 times of frying showed higher clarity lower than that of open frying 2 21 489 MeqO2 kg. compared to non added BFO without polyphenol oil Andrikopoulos et al 2002a previously found. addition i e at 55 75 and 51 375 respectively This that deep frying method resulted in better recoveries. oil exhibited less intense in the decreasing rate of oxidative deterioration product compared to. Hence it proved that the addition of polyphenol open frying These differences are suspected to. could maintain the clarity of BFO due to its activity be contributed by the different cooking style and. towards oxidation equipment during experiment This experiment used. DPPH RSA analysis showed that the polyphenol large shallow pan type fryer which allowed wider. addition into BFO suppressed the formation of contact area with air whereas in deep frying treatment. radicals during frying The decrease percentage it used deeper smaller pan This was in agreement. of antioxidant activity were 64 59 after 20 times with Kalogeropoulos et al 2007 who mentioned. of frying i e 23 78 to 8 42 DPPH RSA at 0 02 that the pan frying caused higher oxidized fatty acid. PE whereas the decrease percentage of antioxidant and polymerized triacylglycerol compared to deep. activity of BFO added with 0 04 PE were 56 2 frying due to higher surface area which contacted. after 20 times of frying i e from 39 43 to 17 27 with air Moreover open frying required a stirring. DPPH RSA Figure 4 This decrease proved that the process which intensified the contact between oil and. polyphenol in BFO was actively used to retard the air resulted in higher oxidation rate compared to deep. oil breakdown during frying process As the increase frying which only need minimum stirring Santos et. in frying frequency more of antioxidant was used al 2013. thus resulted in the decrease of the DPPH RSA due The addition of PE into the BFO effectively retard. 116 Misnawi et al IFRJ 21 1 111 118, the formation of free fatty acids and lipid peroxide of frying. complex resulting lower FFA and PV compared to On the other hand the additions of 0 01. that without the addition of polyphenol As shown polyphenol extract was sufficient to prolong the oil. in Figure 1 the addition of polyphenol extract into usage in deep frying method up to 20 times without. BFO could retard the formation of FFA up to 0 114 exceeding the limitation of the CODEX STAN 210. 0 04 PE 20 times frying compared to those 1999 or 0 04 was needed if measured against AOCS. without the addition of polyphenol 0 1492 20 standard PV 5 MeqO2 kg oil In contrast without. times frying On the longest frying frequency 20 the addition of polyphenol the reusability of BFO in. times 0 04 polyphenol could limit the formation deep frying treatment was limited for only five times. of lipid peroxide complex as low as 3 916 MeqO2 of frying measured against AOCS standard PV 5. kg oil Without the addition of polyphenol the PV of MeqO2 kg oil. BFO could reach 9 245 MeqO2 kg oil Figure 2 As CODEX STAN 210 1999 has limited the usage. the decrease in oxidation rate the polyphenol added of antioxidant in frying oil on different proportion. BFO also possessed higher clarity 52 275 for 0 04 The usage of synthetic antioxidant such as TBHQ. PE and 46 7 for 0 02 PE compared to BFO without BHA and BHT is limited up to 120 175 and 75 mg. polyphenol 42 6 Figure 3 kg of frying oil whereas the use of naturals such as. DPPH RSA of BFO added with cocoa polyphenol ascorbyl palmitate is up to 500 mg kg However the. exhibited decrease trend as the increase of frying usage of other natural antioxidant such as tocopherol. frequency Figure 4 After 20 times successive was not limited It is relevant to the regulations known. frying antioxidant activity of BFO added with 0 02 as Good Manufacturing Practices GMP which. of polyphenol decreased 31 46 units from 38 820 to allows the manufactures to use the amount of additive. 7 360 DPPH RSA On the other hand the loss as necessary to achieve the desired results In this study. much as 32 03 unit from 60 06 to 28 03 DPPH the addition of polyphenol was ranged from 0 01. RSA was exhibited by BFO added with 0 04 to 0 04 which were equivalent to 100 to 400 mg. cocoa polyphenol relatively higher compared to kg Thus the usage of polyphenols is still acceptable. that of open frying 15 36 and 22 16 units for 0 02 since 0 01 of polyphenol 100 mg kg had already. PE and 0 04 PE respectively These different resulted the desired effect The usage on this value. losses were reflected on the oxidative retardation of in frying oil product is much lower compared to the. BFO on respective treatment in which deep frying limitation of antioxidant usage as aforementioned. treatment resulted in higher oxidative stability, compared to open frying These results also indicated Conclusion.
that the oxidation rate in open frying was higher than. polyphenol scavenging capacity mainly caused by This study proved that the utilization of. the wider contact area of BFO with air resulting in polyphenol extract obtained from unfermented. intense oxidation process However BFO added with cocoa bean could substitute the synthetic antioxidant. 0 04 still showed high antioxidant activity after compounds to preserve the BFO The additions. successive 20 times frying 20 83 DPPH RSA of polyphenol extract significantly improved the. which indicated the possibilities to be used for more oxidative stability of BFO The polyphenol extract. frying of 0 04 could prolong the usage of oil up to eight. times when utilized in open frying On the other, Optimization study hand only 0 01 of the polyphenol extract is needed. Numerical optimization was done based on to prolong the oil usage up to 20 times in deep frying. the purpose of minimizing the FFA and the PV for This information could be used by households and. possible longest frying frequency while utilized food industry to find an alternative of cheaper and. minimum amount of polyphenol extract The more efficient frying oil preservation. CODEX Standard CODEX STAN 210 1999 was, used as limiter for oil quality FFA 0 3 and PV References. 10 MeqO2 kg oil Optimization on open frying, treatment resulted in optimum condition of 0 04 Ames B N 1983 Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens. of polyphenol extract which able to prolong the oil Oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases Science. 221 1256 1264, reusability up to eight times without exceeding the. Andrikopoulos N K Dedoussis G V Z Falirea A, CODEX STAN 210 1999 quality limitation Without Kalogeropoulos N and Hatinikola H S 2002a.
the addition of polyphenol the reusability of BFO in Deterioration of natural antioxidant species of. open frying treatment was limited for only five times vegetable edible oils during the domesticdeep frying. Misnawi et al IFRJ 21 1 111 118 117, and pan frying of potatoes International Journal of and emulsion stability of mucilage extracted from. Food Science and Nutrition 53 351 363 Lepiduine perfoliatum seeds Food Hydrocolloids 23. Andrikopoulos N K Kalogeropoulos N Falirea A 2369 2379. and Barbagianni M N 2002b Performance of virgin Little T M and Hills F J 1978 Agricultural. olive oil and vegetable shortening during domestic experimentation design and analysis John Wiley and. deep frying and pan frying of potatoes International Sons New York. Journal of Food Science and Technology 32 177 190 Maillard M N Soum W H Boivin P and Berset. AOAC 2000 Official Methods of Analysis of the C 1996 Antioxidant activity of barley and malt. Association of Agricultural Chemist 17th edition relationship with phenolic content Food Science and. A O A C Washington DC Technology 29 238 244, AOCS 1998 Free fatty acids In official methods and Melton S L Jafar S Sykes D and Trigiano M K. recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists 1994 Review of stability measurements for frying. Society Vol 5a 5th edition AOCS Press Champaign oils and fried food flavor Journal of the American Oil. Bravo L 1998 Polyphenols chemistry dietary sources Chemists Society 71 1301 1308. metabolism and nutritional significance Nutrition Merill L I Pike O A Ogden L V and Dunn M L. Review 56 317 333 2008 Oxidative stability of conventional and high. BSN 1991 SNI 1 3741 1995 Minyak goreng Badan oleic vegetable oil with added antioxidants Journal of. Standarisasi Nasional American Oil Chemists Society 85 771 776. Cao G Sofic E and Prior R L 1997 Antioxidant and Misnawi Jinap S Jamilah B and Nazamid S 2002. prooxidant behaviour of flavonoids Structure activity Oxidation of polyphenols in unfermented and partly. relationships Free Radical Biology and Medicine fermented cocoa beans by cocoa polyphenol oxidase. 22 749 760 and tyrosinase Journal of the Science of Food and. Che Man Y B Haryati T Ghazali H M and Asbi B A Agriculture 82 559 566. 1999 Composition and thermal profile of crude palm Misnawi 2003 Influence of cocoa polyphenols and. oil and its products Journal of the American Oil enzyme reactivation on the flavor development of. Chemists Society 76 237 242 underfermented cocoa beans Thesis Universiti Putra. Das N P and Pereira T A Effects of flavonoids on Malaysia Malaysia. thermal autoxidation of palm oil structure activity Moktan B Saha J and Sarkar P K 2008 Antioxidant. relationship Journal of the American Oil Chemists activities of soybean as affected by Bacillus. Society 67 255 258 fermentation to kinema Food Research International. Fan H Y Sharifudin M S Hasmadi M and Chew 41 586 593. H M Frying stability of rice bran oil and palm olein Nallusamy S 2006 The role of palm oil in the snack. International Food Research Journal 20 403 407 food industry International Palm Oil Trade Fair and. Fellows P 2000 Food Processing Technology Principle Seminar November 21 24 2006 Kuala Lumpur. and Practice 2nd edition Woodhead Publishing Namiki M 1990 Antioxidants antimutagens in food. Limited Cambridge England Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition 29. Gadow A 1996 Comparison of the antioxidant activity of 273 300. aspalahtin with that of other plant phenols of rooibos Prior R L and Cao G 2000 Flavonoids diet and health. ten Aspalathus linearis Journal of Agriculture and relationships Nutrition in Clinical Care 3 279 288. Food Chemistry 45 832 838 Quiles J L Ram res Tortosa M C G mez J A Huertas. Herpandi Huda N Rosma A and Wan Nadiah W A J R and Mataix J 2002 Role of vitamin E and phenolic. 2013 Optimizing the enzymatic hydrolysis of skipjack compounds in the antioxidant capacity measured by. tuna Katsuwonus pelamis dark flesh using Alcalase ESR of virgin olive oil olive and sunflower oils after. enzyme a response surface approach Journal of frying Food Chemistry 76 461 468. Fisheries and Aquatic Science online first Ramarathnam N Osawa T Ochi H and Kawakishi S. Hettiarachchy N S Glenn K C Gnanasambandam R 1995 The contribution of plant food antioxidants to. and Johnson M G 1996 Natural antioxidant extracts human health Trends in Food Science and Technology. from fenugreek Trigonella foenumgraecum for 6 75 82. ground beef patties Journal of Food Science 61 516 Santos C S Cruz R Cunha S C and Casal S 2013. 519 Effect of cooking on olive oil quality attributes. Kalogeropoulos N Salta F N Chiou A and Food Research International 2013 http dx doi. Andrikopoulos N K 2007 Formation and distribution org 10 1016 j foodres 2013 04 014. of oxidized fatty acids during deep and pan frying Shahidi F and Wanasundara U N 2008a Methods for. of potatoes European Journal of Lipid Science and Measuring Oxidative Rancidity in Fats and Oils In. Technology 109 1111 1123 Food Lipids Chemistry Nutrition and Biotechnology. Ketaren S 1986 Pengantar Teknologi Minyak dan Lemak Akoh C C and Min D B eds Boca Raton CRC. Pangan Universitas Indonesia Press Jakarta Press, Koochecki A Thaerian A R Ravazi S M A and Shahidi F and Zhong Y 2005 Antioxidant Regulatory. Bostan A 2009 Response surface methodology Status In Shahidi F ed Bailey s Industrial Oil and. for optimization of extraction yield viscosity hue Fat Products Sixth Edition John Wiley Sons Inc. 118 Misnawi et al IFRJ 21 1 111 118,Shahidi F and Wanasundara P K J P D 1992 Phenolic. antioxidants Critical Review in Food Science and,Nutrition 32 67 103.
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