The Urban Cloud The Feasibility Of Using A Cloud -Books Pdf

The Urban Cloud The feasibility of using a Cloud
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Declaration, I the undersigned declare that this work has not previously been submitted as an exercise. for a degree at this or any other University and that unless otherwise stated is my own work. Colin Lyons,September 10 2009,Permission to Lend and or Copy. I the undersigned agree that Trinity College Library may lend or copy this thesis upon. Colin Lyons,September 10 2009,Acknowledgments, Firstly I wish to thank my supervisor Vinny Cahill for his advice and guidance Secondly I. wish to thank Meghanne Flynn for her encouragement and support throughout the past year. I wish to thank Niall Bolger of Dublin City Corporation Traffic Division for answering all my. questions I wish to thank Niall O Hara a summer intern in DSG who was always there to help. with any queries I had Finally on a less serious note I wish to thank the Pepsi Corporation for. keeping me awake during the late nights and early mornings spent at my computer. Colin Lyons,University of Dublin Trinity College,September 2009. The Urban Cloud,The feasibility of using a Cloud Computing.
infrastructure for Urban Traffic Control Systems,Colin Lyons M Sc. University of Dublin Trinity College 2009,Supervisor Prof Vinny Cahill. Emerging Cloud Computing technologies allow for an inexpensive use of mass quantities of. storage bandwidth and computing resources using the pay per use model on which it thrives. 6 The adoption of broadband insfrastructure in various forms such as ADSL 3G and Fibre. across cities allow for high bandwidth low latency high reliability connections to the internet. Traditional adaptive Urban Traffic Control Systems were designed back in a time when the only. form of data transfer were the high latency low bandwidth DS0 lines. Combining these ideas and focussing on the more fine grained Infrastructure as a Service. IaaS 5 through the use of the Amazon Web Services AWS platform 21 this dissertation. intends to make the case that the implementation of Urban Traffic Control Systems on the. cloud is a feasible venture, More specifically the design and implementation of a reference architecture dubbed the. Urban Cloud Framework along with the placement of SCATS 46 atop this framework demon. strates this feasibility,Acknowledgments iv,Abstract v. List of Figures ix,Chapter 1 Introduction 1,1 1 Motivation 1.
1 2 Road map 1,1 2 1 Background 2, 1 2 2 Urban Traffic Control Systems and Cloud Technologies 2. 1 2 3 Design 2,1 2 4 Implementation 3,1 2 5 Evaluation 3. 1 2 6 Conclusion 3,Chapter 2 Background 4,2 1 Urban Traffic Monitoring and Control 4. 2 1 1 Signal Phasing 5,2 1 2 Modelling Traffic 5,2 2 Cloud Computing 7. 2 2 1 History 9,2 2 2 Architecture 10, Chapter 3 Urban Traffic Control Systems and Cloud Technologies 13.
3 1 SCATS 13,3 1 1 Sensors 13,3 1 2 SCATS Operation 14. 3 1 3 The SCATS Architecture 15,3 1 4 Sensing SCATS Data 16. 3 1 5 The SCATS Algorithms 17,3 1 6 Smoothing SCATS Data 18. 3 1 7 Phase Split Offset and Group Linking 18,3 2 Other UTC Systems 19. 3 2 1 SCOOT 19,3 3 Amazon Web Services AWS 20,3 3 1 Elastic Computing Cloud EC2 20.
3 3 2 Simple Storage Service S3 22,3 3 3 Simple DB 23. 3 3 4 Simple Queue Service SQS 24,3 3 5 Elastic Map Reduce 25. 3 3 6 Security 26,3 4 Other Cloud Technologies 27,3 4 1 Google AppEngine 27. 3 4 2 Microsoft Azure 27,Chapter 4 Design 28,4 1 UCF Requirements 29. 4 1 1 VISSIM Requirements 29,4 1 2 JC Requirements 29.
4 1 3 MC Requirements 30,4 2 UCF Architecture 30,4 2 1 UCF System wide Functional Architecture 31. 4 2 2 System wide Technical Architecture 32,Chapter 5 Implementation 35. 5 1 The Urban Cloud Framework 35,5 1 1 UTC UTCElements 35. 5 1 2 UTC Controller 37, 5 1 3 Sample UTCController and UTCJunctionController skeletons 41. 5 2 VISSIM Component 42,5 2 1 PhaseDataBuilder 43,5 2 2 JunctionDataBuilder 43.
5 2 3 The VissimWrapper 44, 5 2 4 Controlling Traffic using only VISSIM COMServerlib 44. 5 3 SCATS on the Urban Cloud Framework 45,5 3 1 SCATS Main Controller SMC 45. 5 3 2 SCATS Junction Controller SJC 47,Chapter 6 Evaluation 49. 6 1 Feasibility 49,6 1 1 Scalability 49,6 1 2 Reliability 50. 6 1 3 Real Time Performance 51,6 1 4 Fault Tolerance 52.
6 1 5 Security 52,6 1 6 Cost 53,Chapter 7 Conclusion 54. 7 1 Achievements 54,7 2 Potential Usage 55,7 3 Future Work 55. 7 3 1 Loosen the coupling between UCF and VISSIM 55. 7 3 2 Dynamic Loading of Controller DLL s 56,7 3 3 A Simulation Queue 56. Appendix A Abbreviations 57,Appendices 57,Bibliography 59. List of Figures,2 1 How a cycle is made up 5, 2 2 An example of the A Phase at the South O Connell St Bridge Intersection 6.
3 1 An induction loop left and traffic camera right 14. 3 2 The SCATS Architecture 15,3 3 The Elastic Load Balancer Architecture 22. 3 4 The Elastic MapReduce Process 32 26,4 1 UCF System wide Functional Architecture 31. 4 2 System wide Technical Architecture 33, 5 1 An example of a EndOfPhaseSimEvent after being run through the GenericXMLSe. rializer 39, 5 2 The UTCController skeleton for writing new controllers 41. 5 3 The UTCJunctionController skeleton for writing new controllers 42. 5 4 An example PhaseData XML file for a junction 43. 5 5 An example Config XML file for running simulations with the Vissim Wrapper 44. 5 6 The log4net configuration file 46, 6 1 The set of configuration data for a simple junction 51.
Introduction,1 1 Motivation, With the emergence of Cloud Computing technologies providing access to cheap storage band. width and computing resources as a service there is a new platform in which applications can be. built to maintain an online presence The adoption of broadband infrastructure in various forms. such as ADSL 3G and Fibre across cities allow for high bandwidth low latency high reliability. connections to the internet Traditional adaptive Urban Traffic Control Systems were designed. back in a time when the only form of data transfer were the high latency low bandwidth DS0. Combining these ideas the question arises as to whether implementation of a control infras. tructure on the cloud is possible and feasible While several interesting hurdles exist potential. adaptations are readily visible The successful implementation of such a system would lend itself. to all the cities in a country such as Ireland pooling their traffic control resources together. into the cloud allowing for large amounts of data to be aggregated at one source online This. could prove very helpful to Urban Traffic Control Reasearchers as they will have access to large. amounts of archived and live traffic data which they can in turn use. As well having a more unified model of Urban Traffic Control Systems would allow for. cities to be controlled by a varying set of algorithms which would most suit the current traffic. conditions In an attempt to move towards this idea the implementation of a generic framework. for Urban Traffic Control Systems on the cloud is necessary as well as testing the feasibility of. one of the most widely used adaptive systems on top of it to make a move towards this idea. 1 2 Road map, This dissertation consists of six additional chapters beyond this one The following is a brief. outline of each one,1 2 1 Background, Chapter 2 begins with a brief introduction as to how Urban Traffic Control Systems are broken. up into their smallest components and will find the relationships between them By having an. understanding of them we can begin to figure out how these components should be modelled. and their potential use for the monitoring and control of UTCs The second section looks into. the definition of Cloud Computing details some of the history on how the phrase was coined. and the definition s evolution in both an academic and commercial sense This is followed by a. look at the architecture of Cloud Computing detailing its split into three tiers Infrastructure. as a Service IaaS Platform as a Service PaaS and Software as a Service SaaS These allow. us to formulate an idea of which tier is the most useful for design and implementation. 1 2 2 Urban Traffic Control Systems and Cloud Technologies. Chapter 3 focuses mainly on two systems SCATS and AWS The first section examines the con. struction of the Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System or SCATS for short then moves. on to the ways in which SCATS gets data from the street the operation of the SCATS algorithm. and a look at its three tier architecture and the challenges it poses to implementation After. which this section looks at the SCATS algorithms themselves namely Original Volume OV. Degree of Saturation DS and Reconstituted Volume VK detailing how they are smoothed. This section ends with the comparision of another popular adaptive traffic system SCOOT. The second section looks into how Amazon Web Services AWS work It examines each of. its components such as the processing array known as Elastic Computing Cloud EC2 how. storage is done via the Simple Storage Service S3 how applications can be designed to be. functionally scalable using the distributed SimpleDB how Amazon offers an Event Queue with. their Simple Queue Service SQS and lastly a look at how seriously Amazon take the security. of their cloud This section will end with a comparison of AWS with other technologies such as. Google s App Engine and Microsoft s Azure platform. 1 2 3 Design, Chapter 4 is split into three sub sections The first is an introduction which attempts to. establish feasible evaluation criteria for this context Following this it briefly states why the. VISSIM multi model simulator and Amazon Web Services AWS were chosen over others. The second section details a list of requirements whereby an implementation of the Urban. Cloud Framework architecture can be made by gathering Functional and Technical requirements. for each of the three components These components are the Vissim Component the Junction. Controller JC and the Main Controller MC, The third section deals with planning out exactly what the architecture will look like for.
the UCF its functional and technical architecture include a look the tools that will be used to. 1 2 4 Implementation, Chapter 5 is split into three sub sections The first deals with the Urban Cloud Framework. itself Each of its elements such as UTCElements and UTCController will give the process by. which they were written, The second section deals with the implementation of the Vissim Component each of its. elements and how they work together This shows that the control of traffic using only the COM. interface is possible over the more traditional method of having to write a C controller DLL. which is then embedded later on, The third section is the implementation of SCATS on top of the Urban Cloud Framework. UCF It details challenges of doing so how exactly it is situated on the cloud what services. it uses and how easy it can be used to implement any controller on the UCF. 1 2 5 Evaluation, Chapter 6 looks at some of the tests that were done to answer the question of whether UTCs. are feasible to run from a Cloud Computing infrastructure based on the criteria in the Design. section and commenting on each of the results,1 2 6 Conclusion.
Chapter 7 is split into three sections The first deals with what this dissertation has achieved. the second section looks into who could possibly benefit from this research and the last section. looks into what future work could be done to continue this project. Background,2 1 Urban Traffic Monitoring and Control. As there can be quite a steep learning curve in the UTC field it would be best to take the time. to clearly define the terminology used in traffic systems In Figure 2 1 you will see a concise. diagram of how a traffic cycle is split up into its components namely approaches phases and. clearance intervals for a standard right angle junction The definitions of these terms 1 are as. Cycle Length This is the time needed to complete one full running of all the active phases. Approach Is a single road where traffic comes from it into an intersection. Phase This is the movement of a set of approaches during a cycle There is normally at. least two three if there is a pedestrian crossing in a cycle. Interval A discrete portion of the signal cycle during which the signal indications pedes. trian or vehicle remain unchanged, Split This is the percentage of time of the full cycle length that is dedicated to a particular. phase All splits added together will make up the cycle length. Clearance Interval This is the time alloted between phases to allow the junction to clear. before starting the next phase, Offset This is the relationship between the start or finish of the green phases in successive. sets of signals within a coordinated system, As you can see Figure 2 1 is an example of a junction comprised of two phases which will. allow the flow of traffic from two opposite approaches The clearance interval is defined to give. the first approach time to clear the junction before allowing the flow of traffic from the second. approach The splitting of the cycle into phases allows for the Time Division Multiplexed flow. of traffic from all approaches into the junction while minimising the possiblilty of collision. Obviously great attention must be given to the generation of phases in order to avoid causing. traffic accidents,Figure 2 1 How a cycle is made up.
2 1 1 Signal Phasing, Taking an analogy from the wireless communications world to view the vehicles as data the. approaches to a junction being data transmission points and the junction itself being a medium. then phasing can been seen as the medium access control to the system Phasing allows for the. movement transmission of vehicles data across the junction medium while removing the. possbility of crashes interference This can become very complex as the number of approaches. and lanes contained therein increase, The A Phase on O Connell Street shown in Figure 2 2 is an example of how more complex. junctions inherently produce a more complex phase set This phase allows for the movement of. vehicle traffic from both the O Connell Street Bridge and Westmorland Street approaches As. well it allows for the flow of pedestrian traffic along Burgh Quay and from the centre of the. O Connell Bridge to Westmorland and D Olier Street The left filter from Westmorland Street. around to Aston Quay is active in the A phase but not in any other phase as time has to be. given to the pedestrian crossing Aston Quay The arrows shown in blue are inactive paths which. will be active in another phase There are five different phases in this junction A E which. allow for all other paths to get their turn such as the adjacent approach on Burgh Quay to run. while allowing all other pedestrian traffic to be active. 2 1 2 Modelling Traffic, There are two common ways in which traffic can be modelled in simulations These are in. the domain of the microscopic in which individual agents and their behaviours are modelled. explicitly and the macropscopic in which the modelling is done at a higher level that does not. involve single agents but rather the flows which they would exhibit. Figure 2 2 An example of the A Phase at the South O Connell St Bridge Intersection. Macroscopic Simulation, One of the first such uses of the macropscopic model came from M J Lighthill et al 4 In. this paper they likened the behaviour of traffic to that of gas kinetics The model they used. was in the domain of fluid dynamics in which the goal was to reach equilibrium which occurs. through the interaction process Using this concept with some alterations it resulted in a traffic. model which relied on the fluctuation of velocity to achieve this same equilibrium Although. the equations for this can be altered to accommodate different driver behaviours it lacks the. flexibility that microscopic simulation provides,Microscopic Simulation.
Contrasting the macroscopic model the microscopic model simulates on a per vehicle basis. which allows for a number of driver behaviors This is because the vehicle interacts with the. world under its own rules which are defined before the simulation There are two ways in which. the grouping of these agents exhibit certain interactions. Cellular Automata The use of Cellular Automata is one technique for the design and simu. lation of simple driving rules for vehicles CAs use discrete partially connected cells which can. be in a set of states for example a road cell can contain a vehicle and so on. In the Nagel et al model 2 at each time step vehicles in the system will increase their speed.

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