The Syntax Of Adjuncts By Clas Users College Of-Books Pdf

The syntax of adjuncts By CLAS Users College of
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REVIEWS 595, adverbplacementwill need to address It is thus of interestto those with a wide rangeof theoretical. and descriptive concerns For those who like clearly laid out ideas interesting predictions and. deft argumentation this book is also a must The analytical proposals are consistently argued. for ratherthan simply asserted and E attemptsto show how his proposals make sense within. currentsyntactic theory In what follows I briefly review the contents of the nine chapters in. an effort to give a flavor for his overall approachas well as a few of the particulars. Ch 1 provides a bird s eye view of the work and outlines the main theses within the context. of earlierwork E s theoryis largely semantic and there are four modules that interactto account. for adverbialdistribution 1 the lexicosemantics of individual adverbs lexical specifications. for individual adverbs indicating the type of semantic object s speech act proposition fact. event specified event etc that the adverbtakes in its scope 2 a compositional semanticsrule. system a set of rules which takes the basic event and builds layers of event types and. propositiontypes until the representationof the propositionfor the whole sentence is completed. 35 3 weight theory preferences or dispreferencesfor certain constituent orders based on. the weight of constituentsin a sentence and 4 directionalityprinciples syntactic principles. governing the direction of phrase structureconstruction including a head initial head finalpa. rameter In E s system adverbialsare simply syntactic adjunctsand their distributionis deter. mined largely by their lexical semantics and a compositional semantic interpretationsystem. Adverbs adjoin to syntacticprojectionsthat correspondto the semantic objects specified in their. lexical entries Various illicit adverbialpositions are filtered out by the four modules. Ch 2 illustratesthe system by providing an in depth semantic analysis of nonquantificational. predicationaladverbs modal adverbs subject orientedadverbs speaker orientedadverbs and. exocomparativessuch as similarly or likewise Such adverbshave semantic selectional require. ments taking speech acts facts propositions events or specified events as arguments. 1 a Frankly why would he do such a thing speech act. b Unfortunately she lay down on a scorpion s nest fact. c Sam probably has made an appointment proposition. d Kim intelligently bought the tickets event, A main goal of the chapteris to account for the well known clausal mannerambiguity of such. adverbswithout resortingto homophony, In Ch 3 E shows how his semantic theory of adverblicensing accounts for a wide range of. traditionallysyntacticfacts adverbpositioning and orderingrestrictionswith which most theories. are concerned The crucial ingredients are the lexical semantics and compositional rule system. modules 1 and 2 above To illustrate an evaluative adverb like probably must occur above a. subject orientedadverblike unfortunately because the formertakes a fact as its argumentwhile. the lattertakes an event and an event may be converted into a fact by the rule system 2a In. the reverse ordering unfortunatelyselects a fact but the rule system cannot then convert this. fact back into an event requiredby probably 2b, 2 a Someone unfortunately FACT probably EVENT asked to stay behind. b Someone probably FACT EVENT unfortunately FACTasked to stay behind. E specifically arguesagainst syntactic featurelicensing analysis of adverbdistributionin which. adverbs are licensed in the specifiers of syntactic projections ordered by Universal Grammar. UG Alexiadou 1997 Cinque 1999 E draws togethernumerousargumentsagainst the Cinque. approach both empiricaland theory internalin nature He makes a strong case that despite what. one commonly reads his scope based theory is overall more restrictive once the entire grammar. is taken into account The argumentationto my mind is compelling and sets up real challenges. for the universal orderingapproach, Ch 4 turnsto linearizationprinciples whose goal is to capturecrosslinguisticpatternsof head.
adjunct and complementordering E proposes a set of relatively simple directionalityprinciples. and syntactic features that get the gross word order differences between head initial and head. final languages For head finallanguages adjunctsare uniformlyleft adjoined and complements. 596 VOLUME80 NUMBER1 2003, and specifiers are uniformlyleftward The system thus capturesthe typically stricthead finality. of such languages For head initiallanguages adverbialsmay be left or right adjoined comple. ments to lexical heads appear in left specifiers i e direct objects originate in spec VP and. complements to nonlexical heads occur as right sister to the head For English type languages. the results are summarizedby the tree in 3 E s example 4 43. AdvP IP AdvP, AdvP PredP AdvP, Vi VP AdvP, In proposinganddefendingrightadjunctionof some adverbials E also arguesagainstan antisym. metricanalysis as in Kayne 1994 involving only left adjunctionwith multipleleftwardmovements. intrapositions to achieve the correct surface word order The argumentationseems thorough. the main point is that intrapositionanalyses can be made empirically adequate but they are. theoretically more complex and less motivated than the traditionalright adjunctionalternative. Although E s own linearizationprinciples remain somewhat ad hoc they representa spelled. out alternativeand establish a clear startingpoint for futureresearch. Ch 5 turns to adverbialsthat are interspersedamong argumentswithin the verb phrase. 4 a Tim gave the money immediatelyto Ray, b They read eagerly both Warand Peace and the whole HarryPotter series. E argues that such dataare derived by rightwardmovementof the argumentover a right adjoined. adverbial and he develops a generalanalysis of rightwardmovement buildingon earlierworkon. heavy XP shift The analysis appealsto a partiallydeveloped weight theory a set of linearization. principles referringto grammaticalweight that determinesthe relative orderingof adjunctsand. moved heavy elements Although weight relatedsyntactic and prosodic principles seem neces. sary for a full understandingof rightwardmovements more workis clearly neededin this domain. as E acknowledges The theory extends to head final languages where the parallelmovementof. heavy elements is to the left Despite the partiallydeveloped natureof weight theory E argues. that such an accountis neverthelesssuperiorto a Kayne styleanalysis that does not countenance. rightwardmovement at all As before E claims that the antisymmetricanalysis requiresad hoc. derivations and unnecessarycomplexity, Chs 6 through 8 provide detailed analyses of particularadverbialranges They illustratethe. theoretical machinery developed in earlier chapters flesh out specific proposals and provide. evidence for earlierassumptions Ch 6 analyzes event internalmodificationby manner domain. and measure adverbs participantPPs and restitutiveagain Such lower adverbialsadjointo VP. REVIEWS 597, or PredPin English projectionswhich correspondto internalevents but do not adjoin to higher.
projections which correspondto inappropriatesemantictypes This illustratesthe semanticnature. of the proposal Here and elsewhere the data illustrate the basic expectations from the theory. though there are interestingcomplexities, Ch 7 analyzes adverbialsin the middle range between the subject and the main verb Such. adverbshave received the most attentionin the literaturebecause of their interactionwith head. movement negation and subject position s They also seem to provide the strongest evidence. for syntacticapproachesto adverborderingsuch as Cinque 1999 E accountsfor these well known. orderingfacts semantically making limited use of verb movement Representativeexamples as. in 5 are acceptable or not depending upon whether the selectional restrictions of the higher. adverbcan be satisfied, 5 a They now have already moved the statue. b They already have now moved the statue, c The club still is willingly accepting new members. d The club is willingly still accepting new members. Ch 8 analyzes topicalized elements in clause initial position as in Obviouslythis is going to. bother you The majordebate concerningsuch adverbialsis whetherthey are base generatedin. or moved to that position E claims that both options are permitted and this follows from his. system Building on the work of others he proposes that topicalized argumentsand adjunctsare. in different structuralpositions, In this chapterE also addressesthe crosslinguistic variationin the availabilityof the immedi. ately post subject adverbposition It is possible in English but not French for example. 6 Jean Pierrecertainementa parl6 i Marie, Jean Pierrecertainly has spoken to Marie.
Jean Pierrecertainly has spoken to Marie, Others have tied this variation to the availability of preposing Belletti 1990 the landing site. of verb movement Pollock 1997 or multiple subjectpositions Cinque 1999 E argues persua. sively against these alternativesand proposes instead that the T adjoined position illustratedis. parametricallyavailable based on the semantic properties of TP in a given language whether. or not regularrules for semantic interpretationapply there 399. Ch 9 closes with a complete summaryof the proposal s pieces a relatively small number of. general principles few of which are adverb specific The syntactic picture E arrives at is rather. conservative and in some ways traditional UG allows iterative left and right adjunction and. leftwardand rightwardmovement Functionalprojectionsand unmotivatedmovementsare highly. restricted Most of the work in getting adverbialdistributionis done by the semantics. As E notes his proposalshave consequences for some significant linguistic issues the number. and identity of functional projections adverb placement as a diagnostic on syntactic structure. antisymmetricclause structure the natureof the syntax to semanticsmapping and the role of. precedencein the grammar to name a few That the book has implications in so many domains. andfor so many languagetypes is a testamentto its coherence andthoroughness While individual. analyses may not stand the test of time few do no future work on adverbials should ignore. E s contribution, REFERENCES, ALEXIADOU ARTEMIS 1997 Adverbplacement Amsterdam John Benjamins. BELLETTI ADRIANA 1990 Generalized verb movement Turin Rosenberg and Sellier. CINQUE GUGLIELMO 1999 Adverbs and functional heads A cross linguistic perspective Oxford Oxford. University Press, JACKENDOFF RAYS 1972 Semantic interpretationin generative grammar Cambridge MA MIT Press. KAYNE RICHARD 1994 The antisymmetryof syntax Cambridge MA MIT Press. POLLOCK JEAN YvES 1997 Notes on clause structure Elements of grammar ed by Liliane Haegeman. 237 79 Dordrecht Kluwer, 598 VOLUME80 NUMBER1 2003. Programin Linguistics, P O Box 115454, Universityof Florida.
Gainesville FL 32611 5454, potsdam ufl edu, English in Europe Ed by MANFRED GORLACH Oxford OxfordUniversityPress 2002. Pp viii 339 ISBN 0198237146 85 Hb, Reviewed by EDGAR W SCHNEIDER Universityof Regensburg. Words travel easily as we all know and the vocabularyof English in particularis known to. have encroachedstrongly upon many other languages globally In contrast structuraleffects of. one language upon anotherare less common and typically associatedwith heavy contact Thom. ason 2001 The book under review documents and analyzes the lexical influence that English. has exerted on sixteen Europeanlanguages listing and discussing not only lexical loans as such. but also processes of structuraladaptationon the levels of phonology and morphology While. it can be read used and appreciatedindependently it is not really a stand alonepublicationbut. rather one out of three volumes closely related to each other because of their shared project. design and histories developed and monitoredby G6rlach the mastermindbehind the entire. project and editor of the three books resulting from it In a sense it is a spin off of and a. companion to the editor s Dictionary of European anglicisms DEA Gorlach 2001 In turn it. is accompanied by a book length annotatedbibliographyof publications on anglicisms in the. languages of Europe Gorlach 2002, The book investigates the importationof anglicisms into sixteen Europeanlanguages four. Germanic four Romance four Slavic and four others thus ensuringa well balancedandrepre. sentative coverage of Europe s languages and nations The chapters are written by linguists. mostly from the respective countries who had contributedto the DEA The listing of languages. and contributorsincludes the following German 13 36 by ULRICH BUSSEand MANFRED GOR. LACH Dutch 37 56 by AMANDBERTELOOT and NICOLINE VANDERSIJS Norwegian 57 81. by ANNE LINE GRAEDLER Icelandic 82 107 by GUDRON KVARAN and ASTA SVAVARSD6TTIR. French 108 27 by JOHNHUMBLEY Spanish 128 50 by FILIXRODRIGUEZ GONZALES Italian. 151 67 by VIRGINIAPULCINI Romanian 168 94 by ILINCACONSTANTINESCU VICTORIA Po. POVicI and ARIADNASTEFANESCU Russian 195 212 by TAMARAMAXIMOVA Polish 213 28. by EL2BIETAMANiCZAK WOHLFELD Croatian 229 40 by the late RUDOLFFILIPOVIC Bulgarian. 241 60 by NEVENAALEXIEVA Finnish 261 76 by KEITHBATTARBEE Hungarian 277 90. by JUDITFARKAS and VERONIKA KNIEZSA Albanian 291 300 by ROLFKODDERITZSCH and. ManfredGdrlach and Modern Greek 301 30 by EKATERINI STATHI The book has been flaw. theoretically more complex and less motivated than the traditional right adjunction alternative Although E s own linearization principles remain somewhat ad hoc they represent a spelled out alternative and establish a clear starting point for future research Ch 5 turns to adverbials that are interspersed among arguments within the verb phrase

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