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In the second paragraph the narrator is frank and ironic in confessing that he mistrusts all frank and. simple people He goes on at length about Robert before he introduces himself setting up the contrasts. between Robert and Jake that ultimately spoil their friendship In a confidential tone Jake suspects that. Robert may be a fraud until he gets a verification from his former boxing coach Robert had never faced. anti Semitism another form of bull until he reached Princeton It made him bitter He graduated with. painful self consciousness and the flattened nose and was married by the first girl who was nice to him. Robert proceeded to lose most of his inheritance then his rich wife establishing the pattern of a loser He. is taken in hand like a child by an ambitious lady named Frances and moves to Europe to become a. writer In Paris he has only one other friend besides Jake Robert is restless and wants to get out of the. City but Frances is so jealous she kicks Jake under the table when he suggests I know a girl in Strasbourg. who can show us the town, Robert and Jake play tennis and banter back and forth about where to get out of the City and what. Frances will allow Robert to do and whether Jake is sore Their dialogue conveys the restless insecurity of. Robert his unhappiness with Frances and the sympathy of Jake I rather liked him and evidently she led. him quite a life The jealous Frances sets up a contrast with Brett who leads Jake quite a life When. Robert cautions Jake not to mention any girl at all around Frances the contrast between the two men is. dramatic If I know an American girl that lives in Strasbourg what the hell is it to Frances Though he. has a strong independent character Jake never does introduce himself He is an objective reporter by. profession and suppresses his ego We learn his first name from Robert. Robert has a bullish ego He gets his novel accepted and it rather went to his head Feeling like a. champion again he finds his success makes him attractive to women and this changed him so that he was. not so pleasant to have around After all as we are to learn Jake is impotent He cannot enjoy the. company of a man who is always boasting about his sex appeal On top of that Robert boasts about his. bridge game an ironic metaphor since he is so inept at human bridges Most sinister of all Robert had. read and reread The Purple Land by W H Hudson set in an intensely romantic land Robert takes this. amorous romance as a guide book to what life holds as literally as though it had been an R G Dun. report on the whole the book to him was sound This is explicit ridicule of Romance the ongoing project. of the Realist movement since the late 19th century Robert s spectacled perception is superficial He. accepts appearance as reality in the form of the fake South Americans in Paris even after Jake the objective. reporter informs him they are not real They look awfully real to me. Robert is like one of the rootless and aimless rich hedonists in the opening of T S Eliot s The Waste. Land 1922 the most influential poem of the 20th century The Sun Also Rises is Hemingway s rebuttal. to Eliot just as his epigraph from the Bible is a rebuttal to Gertrude Stein s reductive generalization that he. and others after World War I were all part of a lost generation His story Big Two Hearted River. 1925 also is a rejoinder to The Waste Land Robert wants to run away from Frances to the romantic. South America he imagines for more fun but he is too insecure to go alone Jake again is the voice of. Realism Don t be a fool Ironically Robert feels desperate to really live before it is too late like a. character in Henry James But I felt sorry for him, Jake would go to Africa with Robert the dark continent the primal Wilderness But the sensitive. Robert is not interested in challenging activities like hunting or bullfighting That s because you never. read a book about it Jake has learned that You can t get away from yourself by moving from one place. to another When he says I ve tried that his own unhappiness is evident giving him something in. common with Robert besides tennis Different though they are Robert represents to Jake the romantic bull. he feels in himself his own attraction to Brett Ashley At the end of the chapter Jake awakens Robert from. a nightmare probably that he married Frances, At his caf table Jake invites the prostitute Georgette to have a drink with him He has not yet revealed. to the reader that he is impotent but it becomes increasingly evident that something is wrong with him. The first hint is his ordering Pernod or imitation absinthe Like an impotent man consorting with a. prostitute Pernod has a good uplift but it drops you just as far Jake is imitating a man who wants a. prostitute for the usual reason but taking her for a ride in a romantic horse cab through the Tuilerie. Gardens suggests that what he really wants is more than sex I had picked her up because of a vague. sentimental idea that it would be nice to eat with some one But then She touched me with one hand and. I put her hand away Jake speaks for all those who were sickened and wounded by the war Everybody s. sick I m sick too As he faces his sentimental bull We came out of the Tuileries into the light In the. light he confesses to his impotence I got hurt in the war. In the Left Bank restaurant his friend Braddocks modeled on the novelist Ford Madox Ford calls him. Jake Barnes Barns evoke the pastoralism of the country and the traditional values of the heart Jake has. lost but later recovers when he goes fishing at Burguete He comes from Kansas City from the heartland. like Harold Krebs in Soldier s Home 1925 Both are veterans of WWI but Jake is older and too. alienated to return home In the cafes on the Left Bank in Paris the name Barnes was identified with the. lesbians Djuna Barnes and Natalie Barney Having lost his potency as a man Barnes s frustration in. relation to Brett is comparable to that of a lesbian in love with a heterosexual He is an androgynous. figure in a sense In his very first novel Hemingway transcended his masculinity and identified his male. protagonist with lesbians and though he continued to contradict the simplistic popular impression of. himself in his writing he was stereotyped as a macho man nevertheless. Jake and Georgette join the Braddocks and their party and Jake introduces her as his fianc e a cynical. joke He even gives her the last name of a popular singer but nobody gets the joke Mrs Braddocks and. Frances are so self absorbed and unperceptive they accept appearance for reality like Robert Cohn and. think Georgette is really Jake s fiancee The scene conveys how superficial the relationships are among. these people Georgette is more perceptive and honest than the nice women Her smile exposes her bad. teeth but she is right in her sarcasm when she says to Jake You have nice friends. At the dance club Georgette is dancing with someone else and Jake is standing in the doorway when. Lady Brett Ashley modeled on Lady Duff Twysden comes in with a crowd of homosexuals clearly not a. lady She looked very lovely and she was very much with them Jake is angered at them because they. have in a sense possessed Brett She has cut her hair short like a boy s adding to his sense of loss She. started all that Brett is a role model for the liberated New Woman both in the novel and among readers. However she is an independent woman who can t go anywhere alone. When Jake is introduced to another rising new novelist named Robert who is still only a child the. similarities make Robert Cohn seem redundant This second Robert is named Prentiss as in apprentice. suggesting that both Roberts lack maturity and art Prentiss is not impressed by Paris and Cohn wants to. escape it As in Henry James responses to Paris define character in this novel The prostitute dislikes. Paris because it is expensive and her life there is dirty The privileged and self absorbed Frances sees it. only as clean Paris to Jake stands for the enduring values of great art and high culture in contrast to the. postwar culture of the Left Bank which is pretentious decadent and transitory. Brett is characterized by her ironic first remark Never going to get tight anymore She is what used. to be called loose and her vow to stop getting drunk is clearly bull I say give a chap a brandy and soda. The na ve Cohn looks at her like Moses looked upon the promised land He is unaware of how much. times have changed when as if living out a medieval romance he calls her Lady Her banter with Jake is. insincere in being ironic and flippant She brushes off Cohn when he asks her to dance contradicting his. expectation as if the promised land had brushed off Moses I ve promised to dance this with Jacob The. name Jacob evokes the familiar image of climbing a ladder to Heaven which for Brett would be merely. romantic gratification You ve a hell of a biblical name Jake Throughout the novel Brett puts men. through hell and profanes the sacred until in the end she gives up Romero. I suppose you like to add them up Jake accuses her Brett replies like a man out for conquests Oh. well What if I do Though flippant she knows she will pay for it When she asks him why he brought a. prostitute to the club Jake claims he doesn t know She is a picador to his bull sticking it to him. You re getting damned romantic In their circle to be romantic is to be damned Love is hell They live. by a code of fashionable cynicism generating a tension between the way they pose and talk and the way. they really feel Until in the taxi Brett closes her eyes and breaks down Oh darling I ve been so. miserable This desperate burst of sincerity or is it bull defines the plot of the novel. When he kisses her in the taxi Brett reacts to Jake just as he reacted to Georgette in their taxicab scene. in the previous chapter Don t touch me I can t stand it Then she states one of the moral themes of. the novel Don t we pay for all the things we do though When I think of the hell I ve put chaps. through I m paying for it all now Jake denies this truth Don t be a fool evidence that at this point. Brett is actually more honest with herself than he is. Throughout the Paris section of the novel Jake is running away from his bull as when he says of his. impotence I don t think about it He begins to face it down in Pamplona where running away from the. bulls precedes the bullfights At the same time Jake is a step up on the spiritual ladder above Brett in being. able to transcend sex the physical enough to enjoy the feeling of love What Brett feels is pure hell on. earth suggesting that she never feels true love As Jake says I suppose she only wanted what she. couldn t have There is no true emotional nourishment between them The restaurant in the park the. garden space of the heart is closed and dark We were sitting now like two strangers. In her man s hat when Brett asks if she looks too much of a mess it is characteristic of her to be. preoccupied with appearance It is her life not her beautiful face that is too much of a mess It gets. confusing when everybody dances with everybody Brett still calls herself Lady having it both ways a. New Woman clinging to the old gender paradigm She expresses an aversion to work by replying to Jake s. invitation to meet him at his office Hardly She does not get out of bed until late afternoon When she. says I ve never let you down have I Jake cites an example Heard from Mike And later he says to. himself To hell with you Lady Ashley The last name Ash ley recalls the valley of ashes in The Great. Gatsby 1925 by Fitzgerald and The Waste Land 1922 by Eliot. Jake returns to his flat undresses and looks at himself in the mirror We learn that he was a pilot. wounded on the Italian front He tries to transcend his condition by seeing it as funny then he breaks down. and cries Day to day he tries to play it along and just not make trouble for people in contrast to Cohn. When he hears a voice outside at past four in the morning he mistakes Brett for Georgette the prostitute. subconsciously equating them The concierge calls her a species of woman as if she is no longer human. Brett is drunk of course yet says Don t try and make me drunk She tells Jake that the fat Count. Mippipopolous resembles hippopotamus offered her a lot of money to go with him to Biarritz or Cannes. or Monte Carlo and she turned him down but only because she knows too many people everywhere. Brett is notorious for being known in the carnal sense This does nothing to cheer up Jake Naturally when. she claims to be in love with him he does not believe her Don t look like that she says This time it is. he who says Don t be sentimental, On his way to his office in the morning Jake passes a vendor with a girl assistant who manipulates toy. boxers while looking away like Brett will manipulate Robert the boxer Having lunch with Robert. Jake advises him to tell his girlfriend Frances to go to hell though he himself is not able to tell Brett the. same When Robert asks him for information about Brett Jake first calls her a nice girl But he refers. bitterly to her true love who died in the war as if he does not believe in true love returning to his. defensive pose of cynicism Like Brett Catherine Barkley in A Farewell to Arms is an English girl who. loses her fianc in the war but unlike Brett she does not cut her hair like a boy s and become promiscuous. Catherine retains her femininity helps the wounded as a nurse and is brave enough to fall in love again. becoming an exemplar of true love and grace under pressure. When he sees that Robert is infatuated with Brett and thinks that she is truly nice and absolutely fine. and straight Jake tries to kill the bull She s a drunk She s also an adulteress who marries for money. Robert refuses to face it I don t believe she would marry anybody she didn t love Jake thrusts again as. deep as the sword will go Well I said She s done it twice Robert angrily defends her honor as if. she had any He stood up from the table his face white and stood there white and angry behind the little. plates of hors d oeuvres, Hors d oeuvres are a little preliminary to more and Robert will soon have a lot to swallow When he.
stands up and menaces Jake demanding that he take back the facts about Brett he is charging full of bull. Jake sidesteps the bull and tells him to cut out the prep school stuff Grow up This scene dramatizes. Robert s immaturity and prepares for his more aggressive behavior later down in Pamplona In his most. widely read novel Hemingway ridicules the man who resorts to his fists yet his detractors identified him. with that man rather than with the hero Robert demands that Jake take back telling him to go to hell. though that is where he is headed with Brett Jake pacifies the bull like the steers do in Pamplona Oh. don t go to hell I said Stick around We re just starting lunch. Jake tries to be a true friend by apologizing to Robert twice He tells him to forget what he said They. go off and have coffee together at the Caf of Peace Jake holds off Robert from the topic of Brett like a. matador holding off a bull with a cape while he studies its movements. Brett confirms Jake s warning to Robert that she is unreliable by failing to show up for her meeting with. him Jake is consoled by the beauty of Paris a city with integrity that synthesizes art and Nature The. river looked nice It was always pleasant crossing bridges in Paris As a rule Hemingway tries to evoke. feelings in a reader without stating them Sometimes as here he states feelings that are common to. everyone as Hawthorne did such as nice and pleasant They are vague words expressing general. feelings because everyone experiences different specifics as nice or pleasant In the tradition of Realism. Hemingway tries to represent what is common to humanity to be as universal as possible That is why his. characters are not described much physically but are outlined with a minimum of specifics to allow readers. to project themselves into them vicariously At the same time he particularizes their environments in. authentic detail such as the names of real streets and cafes and brings characters to life through their. actions and their realistic dialogue, Jake wonders why Robert does not enjoy Paris and blames his reading of H L Mencken the popular. iconoclast Mencken hates Paris I believe Identifying Mencken with Cohn implies that both are. pugnacious fools with poor taste Again Hemingway risked his career by standing close to the bull in this. case provoked by Mencken s insulting review of in our time 1924 He waved a red muleta in the face of. the most influential American literary critic of the 1920s parodying him in The Torrents of Spring 1926. and mocking him here in The Sun Also Rises He has Harvey Stone declare that Mencken is through. now He s written about all the things he knows and now he s on all the things he doesn t know. Nobody reads him now Later when Jake and Bill Gorton are fishing and eating a lunch the famous critic. is identified with a chicken rump both a chicken and an ass Don t eat that Lady that s Mencken. Hemingway baits Mencken just as Harvey Stone baits Cohn like a bull. Harvey s insults resemble banderilleros stuck into a bull to provoke it He asks Robert what he would. do if he could do anything he wanted and Robert says play football again more prep school stuff I. misjudged you Harvey said You re not a moron You re only a case of arrested development Jake. intervenes to prevent a fight Falling in love with Brett had detached Robert from other people like a. steer running loose from the herd in Pamplona He loses control of his emotions and his tennis game went. all to pieces His fianc e Frances takes Jake aside and confides that after three years together Robert is. not going to marry her after all and intends to drop her She kills Jake s bull that she could marry. anybody with a single thrust No I don t believe it Then she goes after Robert We that live by the. sword shall perish by the sword, Frances attacks Robert like a matador who does not kill the bull in one merciful thrust of the sword but. stabs it again and again and again disgusting everyone except that a matador wants very much to kill in. one thrust whereas Frances wants to prolong Robert s humiliation out of revenge She mocks him for self. pity and crying and strips him naked of pretensions If he marries me like he s always promised he. would that would be the end of all the romance Jake wonders why Robert kept on taking it like that. Perhaps out of self pity Robert takes on the traditional Jewish role of scapegoat except that in his case the. reader may feel with Frances that Robert deserves it. Brett drops by to see Jake with Count Mippipopolous her latest consort She really knows how to stick. it to a guy One might ask Jake why he keeps taking it like that He reminds her that she missed her date. with him and she does not even remember it Waiting on her Jake is comparable to the count s chauffeur. This chapter is relatively long in order to fully dramatize and intensify sexual frustration All the repetition. in the dialogue conveys their other repetitive behavior getting drunk going to clubs kissing in taxicabs. professing love and misery compulsive approach avoidance Jake is tortured by Brett s repetition of. lovers I had the feeling as in a nightmare of it all being something repeated something I had been through. and that now I must go through again, Greeks are featured in the first story and the concluding vignette of In Our Time evoking the origin of. western civilization and its present disruptions Count Mippipopolous similarly represents the international. scope of the postwar malaise and the diversity of the lost generation except that he is older indicating. that such disillusionment is recurrent in history and not unique to any generation Furthermore the count is. not lost he knows very well who and where he is and tries simply to enjoy life to the fullest In contrast to. the young cynics of the lost generation the count is always in love He explains It is because I have. lived very much that now I can enjoy everything so well Count Mippipopolous is the archetypal wise. old man as an Existential hedonist in contrast to the spiritual Count Greffi in A Farewell to Arms To. Brett the count is one of us because We ve all been around. Hemingway emphasizes the brutal reality of our time and all time in response to criticism that In Our. Time was too violent I have been in seven wars and four revolutions said the count He even has. arrow scars a detail ironically evoking cupid in a thematic anticipation of Cohn running off with Brett to. San Sebastian a martyr shot full of arrows There is more bull when the count asks Jake and Brett why. they are not married We want to lead our own lives is pathetic juxtaposed to Jake begging her to live. with him Her claim that We have our careers is a joke since her career is staying drunk all the time and. sleeping around and around Brett tells Jake she is going to marry Michael Campbell who has loads of. money but I haven t thought about him for a week, In the Montmartre club the drummer is called a nigger because that is how people talked in the 1920s. and Hemingway is a Realist recording his times like Mark Twain in Huckleberry Finn He could not say. African American because people did not talk like that politically correct terms had not been invented yet. and anyway this is France The drummer is a friend of Brett but contrasts with her in shouting You can t. two time He demands loyalty in love Though he is black and she is a rich white woman he seems to be. happier than she is transcending the misery of racial discrimination while she professes repeatedly I m so. miserable In the next chapter Hemingway portrays racial discrimination with the episode of the black. boxer in Vienna who is attacked by a mob because he won Injustice everywhere Robert Cohn the boxer. implicitly contrasts to this black boxer in that Robert himself is to blame for his victimization especially in. attacking Romero because he won Brett, Book I concludes with Brett pushing Jake away as if forever and declaring I won t see you again.
another step in their approach avoidance dance and more bull. Bill Gorton arrives an American writer modeled on friend Bill Smith who is successful happy natural. and upbeat in contrast to the lost generation He is contrasted to fellow writer Cohn in his values. perspective and behavior He is goodhumored and joking stimulated by drink so positive that everything. to him is wonderful He uses the word 7 times in the first two pages. Gorton is the reliable good guy He has just come from befriending a black boxer in Vienna Austria. where Adolph Hitler would soon rise to power Ominously as it soon turned out the black man lives in. Germany Despite using the word nigger repeatedly Gorton admires the boxer greatly calling him. wonderful noble looking and splendid Hemingway insists upon the negative term in order to. emphasize the reality of racial prejudice like Twain in Huckleberry Finn The term was in common usage. even by people like Bill and Jake who did not intend to be demeaning Also in common usage were such. ethnic slurs as wop bohunk wetback kike mick spic and so on Hemingway used such terms himself on. occasion In his fiction male friends sometimes tease each other with ethnic slurs toughening their bond. Americans had more free speech in the 1920s, Bill Gorton saves the boxer from the mob gives him his coat off his back loans him clothes and money. and tries to help him collect money owed him Bill pays the bill for discrimination against the black man. Nevertheless most readers today have been conditioned to see only his use of the N word For awhile. Hemingway was a prizefight manager with a stable of boxers that included Larry Gaines a black. heavyweight who later beat Max Schmeling in one of Schmeling s early fights Once he jumped into the. ring and saved a boxer from being killed in a fixed fight and knocked out Francis Charles the middleweight. champion of France with a water bottle, Gorton uses abbreviated language dropping parts of speech and simplifying as Hemingway did in. letters and conversation like the patois of an Indian close to the soil Bill jokes that Jake should buy a. stuffed dog from a taxidermist s implying that his life is artificial Later on their fishing excursion his. teasing eases into constructive criticism of his friend as an expatriate You ve lost touch with the soil. with his country and Nature A stuffed dog is grotesquely unnatural. Knowing his condition Gorton goes on lightheartedly to encourage Jake not to be daunted parodying. the pompous rhetoric of inspirational speakers and repeating the word for humorous effects When Brett. joins them Jake responds to the stuffed dog joke by introducing Bill to her as a taxidermist Bill replies. with a quotation from Marlowe s The Jew of Malta that Hemingway used again in his title In Another. Country That was in another country And besides the wench is dead Bill substitutes all the. animals for wench referring to all the cynical expatriates rather than to Brett He does not know her. yet and would not insult her like that if he did That his taxidermist joke applies to her nevertheless is. suggested by the fact that Brett follows his quotation by asking for a taxi. One of the other dead animals arrives and Brett introduces him as the man she intends to marry This. drunkard is Mike Campbell Mr Campbell is an undischarged bankrupt Appearances deceive Campbell. is tanned and healthy looking modeled on Pat Swazey Like Cohn he has lost his own money through. bad investment and is about to make another bad one by marrying Brett But his family has loads of. money and he has never had to pay for his bad judgment His more significant bankruptcy is moral As a. man he is worthless Campbell the gentile is much worse than Cohn the Jew Campbell s stud bull crudity. is evident in his referring to Brett as a lovely piece five times in a few minutes He also calls her this. thing here His main preoccupation besides getting her into bed as quickly as possible is her dreadful. hat This judgment on her hat calls attention to the fact that Lady Duff Twysden was legendary having. already been the model for the heroine of The Green Hat 1924 a bestselling novel by Michael Arlen so. popular that just the year before The Sun Also Rises was published Arlen got mobbed at the dock in New. York by fans who tore at his clothes and ripped the buttons off his fly. Jake Bill Mike Brett and Robert Cohn plan to meet in Bayonne take a bus over the mountains to. Pamplona and go fishing in Burguete Fishing becomes a spiritual ritual in the novel especially in the. mountains and Brett says I won t fish She just wants to have fun Hubert the dull tourist boasts. about the fishing in his home state of Montana mountain but I never cared for it any Characters define. themselves by their attitudes toward fishing spirit and Nature as well as toward Paris culture and art. differentiating Hemingway from Henry James, Brett is callously flip in revealing to Jake that she has slept with Cohn Who did you think I went down. to San Sebastian with But she did not have much fun He gets a little dull San Sebastian was a saint. Brett sleeping with Cohn is the opposite of saintly T S Eliot had used this device of juxtaposing faith in. the past to decadence in the present in The Waste Land 1922 and so had Willa Cather in The. Professor s House 1925 The whole first Book of The Sun Also Rises 1926 juxtaposes the eternal. beauties of old Paris to the current decadence on the Left Bank. Naturally Jake is hurt to hear that Brett has slept with Cohn He turns the upbeat attitude of Bill Gorton. into downbeat sarcasm by calling Cohn wonderful Brett and Mike stay behind to wait for more money. to arrive and never make it to the meeting nor to the fishing place Ironically Jake and Bill are retreating. from the mechanistic modern world by riding a train as Nick does in Big Two Hearted River The. commercialism fraud and greed that corrupt social life is exemplified by the dining car conductor who. pockets their bribe and then declares that he can do nothing for them. The dining cars are monopolized for hours by a Catholic tour group from Ohio Bill Gorton calls them. Goddam Puritans a surprising outburst from the reliable good guy Like all serious writers Bill values. freedom As a Protestant and a drinker he protests against Catholics for supporting Prohibition of alcohol. in the land of the free Ironically here in the Catholic country of Spain they are free to drink and do so in. abundance especially at Fiestas Prohibition was one of the main incentives to expatriates in moving out of. the United States Bill still lives in New York To him this big group depriving him by taking over all the. dining cars is a metaphor of those back home who were imposing themselves on him by law displacing. him and turning him into a secret drinker and a criminal Jake offsets Bill s criticism of Catholics by. declaring that he is one Bill goes on to fume that It s enough to make a man join the Klan the criminal. organization that was increasing its influence during the 1920s We have seen that Bill is not racist like the. Ku Klux Klan What he means is that Prohibition has greatly increased serious crime and violent alienation. from the government The excessive drinking in The Sun Also Rises is in part a reaction to Prohibition. back home like taking drugs would be in the countercultural 1960s. Bayonne is contrasted to dirty Paris as represented by Georgette the prostitute a very clean Spanish. town The three men stay in really an awfully clean hotel The driver of their rented car on the trip up. to Pamplona wears a white duster and the villages in the countryside look clean The syntax and sentence. rhythms evoke the sensations of riding into the hills and through the countryside Spain is geographically. south psychologically deeper and hence spiritually higher than France as symbolized by the mountains. where they go fishing They cross a frontier and started up the white dusty road into Spain White cattle. graze streams are clear and donkeys sleep in the road The road went on very white and straight The. simplicity of pastoral nature and the motif of white imply a purity of life in contrast to the Left Bank. Ahead the road stretched out white across the plain going toward Pamplona When they roll into town. they pass the bullring high and white, At lunch in the Hotel Montoya we would not interpret for Robert Cohn who does not know Spanish. and makes no effort to learn It is polite to make an effort to learn the native language and Robert is rude in. his self absorption Jake and Bill are losing their tolerance Robert makes the situation worse by lying to. Jake about why he stays behind to wait for Brett Naturally Jake cannot help but hope that Brett is on the. train so that Robert will be forced to face his own bull It was lousy to enjoy it but I felt lousy Cohn had. a wonderful way of bringing out the worst in anybody. Under all the circumstances when Jake expresses the worst in himself his feelings are natural I was. blind unforgivingly jealous of what had happened to him The fact that I took it as a matter of course did. not alter that any I certainly did hate him I do not think I ever really hated him until he had that little. spell of superiority at lunch that and when he went through all that barbering And yet Jake goes into. the cathedral and prays for everybody I thought of including Robert Cohn before himself His prayer. is a sentence much longer than the stereotype of Hemingway s style It is followed by an even longer. sentence over half a page long that is stream of consciousness differing from Joyce s and Faulkner s in. retaining conventional grammar and punctuation Jake affirms religious faith and laments that in his. condition he does not feel religious himself and is a rotten Catholic The reviewers who called the novel. nihilistic missed this passage Throughout his fiction Hemingway creates a tension between religious. faith and nada that gives his novels a theological suspense cosmic scope metaphysical interest spiritual. sensibility and psychological drama missing in fiction by atheistic Postmodernists Whether or not God. exists respect for religion contributes to Jake s strong moral character. Robert almost provokes Jake and Bill into anti Semitism but they remind themselves that they both. have Jewish friends who do not act superior like Cohn Bill adds The funny thing is he s nice too I like. him But he s just so awful At the end of the chapter while he shaves Bill satirizes Robert by boasting as. he looks at his face in the mirror All women should see it It s a face that ought to be thrown on every. screen in the country Every woman ought to be given a copy of this face as she leaves the altar Then he. laughs at himself My God he said isn t it an awful face Calling himself awful repeats what he said. about Robert But the scene dramatizes more differences between Bill and Robert who unlike most Jews. has no capacity for self criticism and no sense of humor. Jake and Bill ride in the breeze on top of the hot crowded bus from Pamplona up to Burguete in the. mountains Robert Cohn waves goodbye to them and the Basque peasants on board wave goodbye to. Robert like an omen of his future As soon as we started out on the road outside of town it was cool. The heat in Pamplona where the bullfights and human fights will take place contrasts to the cool outside of. town in the pastoral countryside and to the cold up in the mountains at Burguete Hemingway associated. cold with spiritual elevation here in his next novel A Farewell to Arms where it is identified with belief in. God and again in The Snows of Kilimanjaro where it represents immortality. The peasants embody pastoral values of simplicity honesty generosity fellowship and good humor. sharing their wine They are the opposite of the decadent urbanites on the Left Bank They are natural and. brown like the earth and drink wine from goatskin bags These Basques are swell people Bill said. After the publication of The Sun Also Rises there was a boom in cheap winebag sales in the United States. especially on campuses The descriptions of Paris were mainly of streets and cafes and man made. structures whereas now the descriptions are of natural landscape that elevates the spirit to a greater height. culminating in mountains Outside of town the road commenced to mount. In the paragraph beginning The bus climbed steadily up the road the description of landscape seems. most clearly to be influenced by the paintings of C zanne the Cubist which Hemingway studied in Paris. His most extended application of C zanne to objective landscape description as Gertrude Stein had applied. Picasso to her abstract prose is in Big Two Hearted River The motif of white continues as the road up. to the mountains is white and hayforks and garlics and beards and the fast water they fish in are white. The houses in the mountain village of Burguete are white with a monastery in the near background. At a stop they made in the pastoral countryside a woman who served them drinks gave back their tip. but commercialism has reached even the village of Burguete and the innkeeper overcharges them saying. Now is the big season Nevertheless it is so cold in the inn that Bill exclaims My God In identifying. cold with spirituality Hemingway intuitively preceded all the paranormal investigators of the next century. who use scientific instruments to locate spirits and identify them with cold spaces. The pace of pastoral life is much slower than in Paris or in New York where Bill lives People here. have time to synchronize their lives with the rhythms of Nature The countryside is a quiet and peaceful. retreat Bill is so relaxed he does not want to get out of bed He teases Jake to cheer him up and makes fun. of the current intellectual fashions in New York first pretending to affirm Marxism work for the good of. all while letting Jake do all the work, Bill then satirizes the current trend in literary criticism that calls for irony and pity in the tradition of.
Henry James who set the aesthetic standards for the novel that prevailed among elite critics until the 1930s. as distinct from the hardboiled H L Mencken who championed the lowbrow novelists Dreiser and Sinclair. Lewis In his review of In Our Time Conrad Aiken had criticized Hemingway for not writing dialogue in. the manner of James By repeating the phrase irony and pity Hemingway calls attention to his own irony. and pity in The Sun Also Rises and contrasts himself to James in style action and vision as well as. dialogue To console Jake Bill refers to the apparent impotence of Henry James at which point the title. The Sun Also Rises becomes a sexual pun celebrating potency. Gorton elides from laughing at the fashions in New York to a sincere criticism of Jake in a teasing. manner that is gentle because he is always exaggerating in good humor Fake European standards have. ruined you You drink yourself to death You become obsessed by sex You hang around cafes Bill is. giving Jake a bill so to speak pointing out what he will have to pay for He is helping his friend rise out of. his rut in Paris and encouraging him to face his bull. Bill balances his irony with pity I m fonder of you than anybody on earth I couldn t tell you that in. New York It d mean I was a faggot Bill expresses resentment with the slur faggot because as the. whole passage shows 1 the inclination of many homosexuals to reduce everything to sex was juvenile. and reduced people like Jake to nonentities 2 claims that Abraham Lincoln or virtually anybody was. actually homosexual were obnoxious 3 such exaggeration increased the inhibition of heterosexual males. about expressing affection to another man so as not to be misidentified Again Hemingway is fighting the. bull of a group that could injure his career especially in New York. To our surprise Jake reads Romantic fiction like Robert Cohn showing that he has traits of Robert in. himself Jake longs for romance but he knows he cannot have it and does not take it seriously The bride. of a man who falls into a glacier and waits 24 years for her true love to come out in the moraine is the. opposite of Brett Ashley Jake is out in the cold like the frozen lover who can never come to life yet goes. on waiting He fishes passively waiting at the dam a blockage and then reads his romance while Bill. wades searching around in the fast water and catches bigger fish Fishing expresses the feminine side in. being relatively passive receptive and depending on bait and patience and sensitivity whereas bullfighting. is masculine in being a physical fight ending in the thrust of a sword Fishing in Hemingway represents a. movement from the masculine into the feminine side a phase in the individuation of a man often in the. company of male friends Male individuation into the feminine more often happens through relationships. with females as with Nick and Marjorie in The End of Something and in romantic love of women such. as Catherine Barkley who educates Frederick Henry in A Farewell to Arms Hemingway s own. individuation culminates in the integrated balanced holistic consciousness of Santiago whose fishing is. also compared to bullfighting in The Old Man and the Sea. For bait Jake uses worms dug from the earth while Bill casts flies through the air consistent with their. differing psychological situations personalities and moods Jake is incomplete Bill is whole In Big. Two Hearted River Nick is not yet ready to fish the swamp which is psychologically analogous to Jake. who is not yet ready to fight the bull In the greatest of all fishing stories Moby Dick watergazing is. meditation on what is under the surface especially the whale representing Truth In Hemingway s. fishing episodes when Nick or Jake or Bill look down into water they do not meditate like Melville or. Thoreau They look at the trout They feel the trout transcending themselves Thinking interferes with. transcendence Ishmael individuates into a pantheistic union with Nature and becomes a whaleman like. Queequeg Melville was like Ishmael overcoming the Ahab in himself much as Jake overcomes the Cohn. in himself Hemingway is already a whaleman like Queequeg Melville dives Hemingway rises from. the depths in his writing like the whale and the marlin In The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber. Hemingway becomes a lion and narrates from his point of view The wholeness attained by Santiago is. manifest in his ability to both think and identify spiritually with the marlin his brother. While they eat lunch Bill fights bull with ridicule parodying a leader of the Prohibition movement a. Protestant not a Catholic the politician and orator William Jennings Bryan three times unsuccessful. candidate for President of the United States Bryan is remembered today for his prosecution of a. schoolteacher for teaching evolution in the sensational Scopes Monkey Trial of 1925 while Hemingway. was writing The Sun Also Rises Let us not pry into the hencoop with simian fingers Bill pontificates H. L Mencken covered the trial as a journalist Bryan personifies the traditional Puritanism against which the. Modernists rebelled literalminded fundamentalist religion gentility and intolerance Repeating the word. utilize when use would serve as well Bill mocks the pretensions rhetorical complications pedantry. and authoritarianism of Bryan on your knees brother He and Jake revel in their freedom to drink wine. and mock the pompous Prohibitionist The artificial rituals of Bryan s conventional religion have worn out. and are contrasted to the natural ritual of fishing. After calling Mencken a chicken s ass Bill jokes that Bryan and Mencken and I all went to Holy Cross. together Bryant was a Protestant Mencken an atheist and Holy Cross a Catholic school In contrast to. social institutions the chapter ends with spiritual regeneration by immersion in Nature good fishing. pleasant sensations wading in a cold stream and swimming in a deep pool. Harris the Englishman is a British parallel to Bill The three men climb the mountain actually a gradual. slope of road up a wooded hillside and visit the old monastery at Roncevalles This monastery is famous. as marking the place where the heroic knight Roland sacrificed his life in the year 778 as the rear guard for. Charlemagne in his retreat from the Saracens who had invaded Spain as celebrated in the French epic The. Song of Roland Here again the faith and glory of the past are contrasted to the modern age as in Eliot s. The Waste Land published four years before The Sun Also Rises This novel is Hemingway s rebuttal to. Eliot beginning with the epigraph from Ecclesiastes which reminds us that no matter how bad human. society gets the earth abideth forever The sun sets but the sun also rises Salvation may be found in. Nature Jake is the impotent Fisher King who leaves the spiritual wasteland of postwar modern life goes. on a quest achieves a healing of his heart in the fishing place and then goes on to attain transcendence. through a code to live by in the aesthetics of fighting the bull. Bill and Harris both admire the religious shrine But you know I m not much on those sort of places. Harris said Me either Bill said They agree that It isn t the same as fishing Fishing gives them an. immediate spiritual fulfillment shared values and mutual experience as the basis for friendship and even. for expressing affection Of course the wine helps too Englishmen are known for being emotionally. constipated but here in the fishing place explicitly identified with the heart in Big Two Hearted River. Harris is able to convey his fondness for Jake and Bill I say Barnes You don t know what this all means. to me He is deeply moved and it is not necessary for him to put his feelings into words The three men. bond through humor by all using Bill s parody word utilize I say You know this does utilize well. Bill slapped him on the back Good old Harris This happy utilizing of wine contrasts with the. sacrament of drinking wine in church Come on and utilize another glass I said Bill and Harris. generously contend for the pleasure of paying for their drinks When they leave Harris behind in the. mountains to go on down to Pamplona he gives them flies he has tied himself Casting a fly through the. air gives a sensation of flying toward the Sky the archetypal space of transcendence The disciples of. Christ were fishermen Christ associated fishing with salvation I will make you fishers of men and a. fish was an early recognition symbol in the history of Christianity. Brett Mike and Robert Cohn never make it up to the mountains Jake and Bill are closer to Nature like. the brown peasants You chaps are brown Look at Bill In Pamplona it is ironic that Jake has so much. passion for bullfighting since he has yet to face his own bull His aficion is said to be spiritual and it. brings him together with Montoya in an affectionate bond as fishing brought him together with Harris. transcending ethnicity and culture putting the hand on the shoulder Buen hombre Montoya forgave. me all my friends Without his ever saying anything. Jake generously transcends his jealousy by arranging for Mike and Brett to have a choice room in the. hotel Montoya overlooking the plaza Mike Campbell was in the war but unlike Jake he did not suffer or. get wounded He never had to pay In fact he enjoyed himself How I wish those dear days were back. Brett calls him an ass having lost her fianc in the war Campbell berates Cohn for following Brett around. like a steer while behaving like an ass himself Haven t you any manners How do you think it makes me. feel Campbell earned no medals in the war and had to borrow some for the sake of appearances Then. he gave them away to strangers for fun They meant nothing to him just as the bull s ear means nothing to. Brett later How do you think Mike made veterans feel who had earned their medals or those who lost. loved ones in the war like Brett Campbell s remark about how he went bankrupt has often been quoted. Two ways Mike said Gradually and then suddenly, In explaining the activities preliminary to the bullfights Jake tells Bill that the castrated steers are trying. to make friends and their purpose is to quiet down the bulls and keep them from goring each other as Jake. does with his friends Must be swell being a steer Bill says as if in sympathy with Jake One steer. picked the new bull up quieted him down and made him one of the herd as Jake did with Bill but could. not do with Robert Jake points out to Brett how the bull uses his horns He s got a left and a right just. like a boxer like Robert Cohn An interviewer from the Paris Review asked Hemingway whether he. intended to inform the novel with the tragic structure of the bullfight ritual Hemingway sidestepped the. question refused to interpret the symbolism of his novel and addressed only the facts Who ever said Jake. was emasculated precisely as is a steer Actually he had been wounded in quite a different way and his. testicles were intact and not damaged Thus he was capable of all normal feelings as a man but incapable. of consummating them The important distinction is that his wound was physical and not psychological. and that he was not emasculated, Figuratively speaking Jake is a steer with the suppressed feelings of a bull while Robert is a bull now. behaving like a steer It s no life being a steer Robert said This episode makes the bullfight metaphor. explicit bringing all the submerged metaphors of bullfighting in Book I to the surface of awareness When. he gets detached from the herd Robert gets violent They only want to kill when they re alone Mike. Campbell detaches Robert from the herd by goring him repeatedly Is Robert Cohn going to follow Brett. around like a steer all the time Three times Campbell calls Cohn a steer Then he makes an unqualified. anti Semitic remark further differentiating him from Jake and Bill Cohn is right in comparing Brett to. Circe turning men into swine Cohn Campbell Jake and almost Pedro Romero Jake s earlier. subconscious moral equation of Brett to the prostitute Georgette is expressed in a motif of being dirty like. swine as Brett keeps saying throughout the novel that she needs to go bathe whereas Jake and Bill have. just been swimming in pure mountain water Bill says Campbell is worse than Cohn I don t like Cohn. God knows and I think it was a silly trick for him to go down to San Sebastian but nobody has any. business to talk like Mike Nevertheless Bill gets along with both of them Jake does too with irony and. pity and no illusions Under the wine I lost the disgusted feeling and was happy It seemed they were all. such nice people, Jake is brown from the sun that also rises He has come down to earth and is no longer reading. romances He is reading Turgenieff a sportsman and lover of nature like Hemingway who said elsewhere. Turgenieff to me is the greatest writer there ever was Jake s improved taste evinces growth in character. realism and the possibility of transcendence through art and Nature Consider that he has arranged to. occupy the room right next to Brett and Mike the drunken stud I heard them laugh He is moving ever. closer to his bull Meanwhile Robert Cohn is trying to learn Spanish too late. Finally Jake faces it I had been having Brett for a friend I had not been thinking about her side of it I. had been getting something for nothing That only delayed the presentation of the bill The bill always. came That was one of the swell things you could count on I thought I had paid for everything Not like. the woman pays and pays and pays You paid some way for everything that was any good Enjoying. living was learning to get your money s worth and knowing when you had it I did not care what it was. all about All I wanted to know was how to live in it. Although he says he does not care what life is all about Jake goes to church again a couple of times. once with Brett She wants to hear his confession as if to substitute her paganism for his Christianity I. told her that not only was it impossible but it was not as interesting as it sounded because he is impotent. and besides it would be in a language she did not know Brett does not know Spanish and she does not. understand the spiritual language of religion Coming out of church Jake feels better evidence that for him. religion is part of how to live The chapter ends with It was a good morning and the elevating spiritual. motifs of high mountains and white clouds in the Sky. On Sunday Jake goes to church again secular critics do not notice all this churchgoing then the fiesta. exploded He is reminded of the war There is a guard of soldiers All the time rockets were going. up The caf was like a battleship stripped for action smoke hung in the sky like a shrapnel burst. Hemingway as a rule avoids similes as too literary and unrealistic but during the fiesta Everything. became quite unreal finally His use of repetition for emphasis is effective in the paragraph that begins. and ends with the fact that it went on for seven days He attains Impressionistic effects without similes. by simply describing what Jake sees The dancers were in a crowd so you did not see the intricate play of. the feet All you saw was the heads and shoulders going up and down up and down. The brown peasants come into town from the countryside and the mountains and mingle with the. foreigners generously sharing their wine They are so accepting that Robert Cohn does not realize that. We re the foreigners as Bill says The fiesta also transcends differences in combining the Christianity of. Jake with the paganism of Brett Some dancers formed a circle around Brett and started to dance They. wanted her as an image to dance around Robert Cohn hangs around her without knowing how to dance. Just as he missed the fishing Robert misses the religious procession having passed out on Anis del. Mono A mono is a silly fool or monkey and anis is a drink but the English pronunciation sounds. like anus Mencken is a chicken s ass and Cohn is a monkey s anus but so is Jake who tastes the same. drink before going to look for Robert in the dark Having not yet killed his bull Jake still resembles Cohn. to a degree as suggested when he sleeps in Cohn s room and puts on one of Cohn s coats while he watches. the men running away from the bulls as he and Robert both are doing figuratively Later in the story. Hills Like White Elephants the selfish man insensitive to the woman he has gotten pregnant drinks Anis. del Toro while she kills his bull, Robert Cohn detaches himself from the herd again as Bill says He s got this Jewish superiority so. strong that he thinks the only emotion he ll get out of the fight will be being bored In contrast Bill is so. appreciative of the fiesta he notices that the dancers dance differently to all the different tunes Jake is. unnecessarily concerned that Brett will be disgusted by the sight of the bulls goring the horses of the. picadors spilling their guts It turns out that Brett is entertained by spilling guts She couldn t take her. eyes off them In later years largely in response to criticism from foreign tourists the picador horses were. protected by padding as thick as mattresses that absorb the charges and horn thrusts of the bulls although a. bull sometimes overturns both horse and rider, Just as characters defined themselves by their responses to Paris they define themselves now by their.
responses to bullfighting Bill and I were very excited by Pedro Romero Jake says Pedro Romero is. named after a real matador from the high mountain village of Ronda location of the oldest bullring in. Spain He was an originator of the modern bullfight in the 18th century His portrait hangs in the museum. at the bullring of Madrid Hemingway personifies the history of bullfighting in Romero He uses his friend. the contemporary veteran matador Juan Belmonte as a foil to Romero who is also modeled on the real. contemporary matador Cayetano Ordonez also known as Nino de la Palma Mike Campbell is impressed. by Romero s reputation but does not pay enough attention to remember his full name and spends most of. his time watching Brett As always Brett is preoccupied with looks especially with the matador in his. tight pants Oh isn t he lovely And those green trousers Even after she watches him perform and. Jake explains his greatness in detail Brett says And God what looks. Robert is the only one in the group who is sickened by bullfighting He was positively green Robert. is like many American tourists in feeling superior to the peasants lacking knowledge of the native language. and culture disinterest in many local customs dislike of the bullfights and wishing they didn t have the. horse part Mike taunts him You mustn t ever get bored at your first bullfight Robert It might make. such a mess It is ironic that Cohn cannot stomach the sight of spilled guts since he is the one who makes. himself obnoxious by spilling his own guts,BULLFIGHTING. Montoya honors Jake and Bill by introducing them to the dignified young matador Pedro Romero a boy. of nineteen Bullfighting originated over 3 000 years ago on the island of Crete where the Minoans. captured wild bulls in the forests and brought them into courtyards of their palaces where priests and. priestesses performed acrobatic feats with them Paintings on the walls at Knossus illustrated barebreasted. women running at bulls and doing handspring flips off their backs and taking a frontal charge by grabbing a. bull s horns and somersaulting over the bull to the ground behind it Minoans worshipped bulls made. sacrifices to them and decorated their palaces with stylized bulls horns along the tops of walls and. parapets They associated the roar of a bull with the sound of earthquakes one of which eventually caused. a huge wave that destroyed much of Minoan civilization The ruins of the underground plumbing at. Knossus was mistaken by Greeks for a labyrinth inspiring the myth of the Minotaur half bull half man. The Romans forced gladiators to fight bulls in their arenas and knights fought bulls with their lances during. the Middle Ages establishing the tradition of the picadors. The bullfight is not a sport it is a tragedy in 5 acts It evolved to its present form beginning in the 1700s. particularly in the southern mountain town of Ronda the location of the oldest bullring in Spain Pedro. Romero was born in Ronda hence he embodies the tradition The bull represents divine Nature a pagan. vestige of animism Tragically wildness must be killed in order to establish civilization Otherwise. humans would be running away from beasts forever The running of the bulls in Pamplona to the bullring. is an allegory of human progress from vulnerability to dominance barbarism to civilization The bulls. have names and the best are revered unlike the cattle herded into the stockyards of Chicago In Spain the. bulls are given an opportunity to kill their killers Americans buy meat wrapped in cellophane and do not. think about the stockyards Spaniards face the reality and honor their animals They give them a chance. for salvation There are more bulls heads mounted in the bullfighting museums of Spain than there are. pictures of matadors because the bulls are usually braver than men Bulls are bred to be killers They are. so smart they are never allowed to fight or even to see a fight until the first time they are let out into an. arena for their first and only fight Otherwise they would be too smart for matadors to control It takes a. team of men to kill a bull Sometimes a bull will jump over a barrier wall into the crowd During the. typical bullfight the bull is cheered by the crowd and the matador gets hooted and maybe even cushions. thrown at him even if he fights with great courage like Manuel in The Undefeated. The matador represents the ideals of civilization that justify killing a magnificent divine animal The. honor of the community is at stake in his performance The more honorably the matador performs the. more he proves that human civilization is worth the sacrifice of the bull Usually he does not Most. bullfights are poor Typically a matador draws three bulls to fight Usually he selects the most aggressive. brave and predictable bull and does his best in fighting that one while taking no chances and killing the. other two in the easiest way In killing the easy way the average matador keeps his distance from the bull. as it passes while bending and contorting himself to make it appear that he is in danger Closeness to the. bull is the measure of the matador He should stand so close to the bull as it passes him that blood comes. off the back of the bull onto his costume a suit of lights that glorifies him in his role of saving the. community from disgrace and giving it honor Occasionally especially brave bulls are allowed to live on. and breed The meat of dead bulls is given to the poor The picador horses used to be so old at the start. that they were on the way to a glue factory and the bullring gave them an honored finale Today they are so. well protected by padding that some have extended careers. The tragedy of the bullfight culminates in the kill The focal point is a large hump of muscle just behind. the head of the bull The matador will have no chance unless that muscle is injured discouraging the bull. from tossing his horns upward The two picadors on horseback spear the hump of the charging bull with. their lances like medieval knights leaning forward on their lances when the bull pushes its horns into the. sides of their horses Then one after another agile banderilleros come running fast at the bull and quickly. reaching over the horns with a dart in each hand they stick them into the hump and spin leaping away. before the bull has time to gore them By now the bull is very pissed off His anger will make him charge. predictably Now the matador strides into the ring to face the bull alone. While performing gracefully with the cape he studies how this bull uses his horns Then in the last act. of the tragedy he takes up the red muleta concealing his sword He wears the bull down by taunting him. into pass after pass controlling him standing closer and closer manipulating the bull into a futile circling. around his body then again and again and again This is the graceful mastery required to elicit from the. crowd Ole with each circling of the bull around the matador Ole Ole Ole This word is believed. to derive from a Moorish word for God The most spectacular way the bull may be killed is when it is. charging past the matador Usually the matador waits until the bull is exhausted and dazed facing him and. panting with his head low Now the matador risks leaning in over the horns if the bull jerks his head up. the matador gets gored in the gut He must hit a spot on the hump about the size of a silver dollar He aims. his sword lining up the thrust, Then he drives his sword over the horns and in between the shoulders all the way up to the hilt He. hopes The sword might hit bone and go jerking out of his hand the worst humiliation No matter how. well the matador has performed if he does not kill the bull in one clean merciful thrust his whole. performance is spoiled Typically it takes about three tries If it is done perfectly with grace the first time. the bull crumples and falls over and the crowd erupts The moment is mystical uniting the community. in a kind of ecstasy The most moving moment is when a dying bull struggles up all bloody and regains his. feet He stands there dazed with bloody spittle drooling from his muzzle The crowd gasps in awe at his. great spirit until finally he crumples and falls over on his side. AESTHETICS, The bullfighting of Romero is a metaphor of Hemingway s writing in The Sun Also Rises Both styles. express the aesthetic values of Neoclassicism economy restraint simplicity purity honesty morality. courage understatement formal beauty in contrast to the Baroque style She saw how close Romero. always worked to the bull and I pointed out to her the tricks the other bull fighters used to make it look as. though they were working closely Romero never made any contortions always it was straight and pure. and natural in line The others twisted themselves like corkscrews their elbows raised and leaned against. the flanks of the bull after his horns had passed to give a faked look of danger Romero s bull fighting. gave real emotion because he kept the absolute purity of line in his movements and always quietly and. calmly let the horns pass him close each time Romero had the old thing the holding of his purity of line. through the maximum of exposure while dominating the bull Hemingway said elsewhere that what the. experienced spectators seek in the bullfight is honesty and true not tricked emotion and always classicism. and the purity of execution of all the movements Since the performance is a matter of the matador s. honor bullfighting is a moral art and style a moral issue. Hemingway s prose style in The Sun Also Rises is not the compressed evocative poetic style of his short. stories The texture is not as dense Jake Barnes is not an artist but a reporter and he tells his story in the. straightforward prose of a journalist confiding in a friend or a priest He is clearly trying to be honest. straight and pure and natural in line His narrative seems aimless like the lives of his friends on the Left. Bank ironically since Hemingway is all along giving it significant form Romero never made any. contortions and Hemingway gives Jake a simple plain style pure of any literary contortions such as. explicit metaphor or complicated syntax or exaggeration He gives formal beauty to the narrative mainly. through the central branching metaphor of the bullfight working close to the bull in Book I without making. the metaphor explicit Suppressing the metaphor is consistent with Jake repressing his thoughts and not. facing his bull Like Romero Hemingway avoided every brusque movement and saved his bulls for the. last when he wanted them in Book II where the metaphor finally becomes explicit He evokes real. emotion because he understates and relies upon objective correlatives rather than stating emotions. holding his purity of line Statements of feeling or valuation are usually limited to generalities such as. nice fine pleasant liked and so on sometimes used ironically. In later years a real matador appeared with the Neoclassical style of Hemingway and Romero Manolete. was an intellectual with a sad face who always stood tall and straight and dignified without bending or. flinching as the bull passed He is a legend There are photos of him in the ticket booths of Spain not even. looking down at the bull as it charges under his muleta smearing blood on his chest looking aside as if in. contemplation It is permitted to make a safe kill of a bad bull one cowardly and unpredictable Manolete.

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