The Rwandan Genocide And Its Aftermath-Books Pdf

The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath
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The State of the World s Refugees, the political level and in the face of ruthless manipulation of refugee populations by. combatants UNHCR and other humanitarian organizations faced some of their most. difficult dilemmas, The Rwandan genocide set in train a series of events that are still in the process of. unfolding They included not only the exodus of Rwandan Hutu from the country. but also the collapse of the regime of President Mobutu Sese Seko and continuing. civil war in Zaire which was renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo in May. 1997 This war came to involve many other African states most of them militarily. and became linked to other ongoing wars in Angola Burundi and Sudan. The mass exodus from Rwanda, The 1994 genocide and the later removal of the genocidal government the same year. by the RPF provoked a mass exodus of over two million people from the country 2. But the exodus was far from spontaneous It was partly motivated by a desire to. escape renewed fighting and partly by fear of vengeance on the part of the advancing. RPF It was also the product of a carefully orchestrated panic organized by the. collapsing regime in the hope of emptying the country and of taking with it the. largest possible share of the population as a human shield By late August 1994. UNHCR estimated that there were over two million refugees in neighbouring. countries including some 1 2 million in Zaire 580 000 in Tanzania 270 000 in. Burundi and 10 000 in Uganda 3, The large camps in Goma in the Kivu provinces in eastern Zaire were close to. the Rwandan border They rapidly became the main base for the defeated Rwandan. armed forces Forces arm es rwandaises or FAR and members of the Hutu militia group. the Interahamwe Collectively these groups were often referred to as the g nocidaires. They also became the main base for military activity against the new government in. Kigali From the start the refugees became political hostages of the former. government of Rwanda and its army the ex FAR The latter s control of the camps. particularly those around Goma was undisguised This created serious security. problems for the refugees themselves and it raised difficult dilemmas for UNHCR in. its attempt to ensure their effective protection, By the end of 1994 the human toll of the crisis in Rwanda was in the millions In.
addition to the 800 000 victims of the genocide and the two million refugees. outside Rwanda some 1 5 million people were internally displaced Out of a. population of seven million over half had been directly affected The stage was set. for a new phase of the Rwandan tragedy, The refugee camps especially those in eastern Zaire were initially in complete disarray. In July 1994 High Commissioner Sadako Ogata described the situation in these terms. With the rocky volcanic topography and already dense population the surrounding area is. almost totally inadequate for the development of sites to accommodate the refugees Water. The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath, resources are severely deficient and local infrastructure with the capacity of supporting a. major humanitarian operation is virtually non existent 4. In July 1994 cholera and other diseases broke out killing tens of thousands. before being brought under control 5 The Goma camps suffered most About one. million refugees lived there initially in three large settlements There were many. other problems The Zairean central government s authority in eastern Zaire far. from the capital Kinshasa was weak The Rwandan g nocidaires had allies in the local. administration in the Kivus and ex FAR officers established effective control of the. camps Relief workers were in no position to confront them Tents at Goma were. grouped by secteur commune sous pr fecture and pr fecture in a mirror image of the. administrative organization of the country the refugees had just left The presence. of the former leaders of Rwanda amounted to a government in exile High ranking. officers from the ex FAR were eventually moved to a separate camp and rank and. Following the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 an estimated 250 000 Rwandans swept into. Tanzania over a period of 24 hours UNHCR P MOUMTZIS 1994. The State of the World s Refugees, The problem of militarized refugee camps. In 1994 96 the domination of mid 1980s Afghan refugee villages assassinations The presence of. the Rwandan refugee camps in near the border harboured tanks and armed elements in camps has also. eastern Zaire by armed Hutu groups heavy artillery as well as Mujahedin created security problems for relief. Interahamwe drew the attention fighters actively engaged in conflict workers and has undermined the. of the international community to with the Russian backed regime in credibility of humanitarian. the problem of militarized refugee Afghanistan In southwestern organizations such as UNHCR. camps The presence of armed Ethiopia southern Sudanese rebels. elements in refugee camps however used refugee camps as rear bases. Ensuring the safety of refugees, is not a new phenomenon Numerous In Honduras Salvadoran guerrillas. other examples can be cited operated out of refugee camps Faced with this problem UNHCR. and Nicaraguan contras also has made increasing efforts over. During the 1970s the camps for operated from areas in which the years to find ways of ensuring. South African refugees in refugees were settled the civilian and humanitarian. Mozambique and Tanzania were nature of refugee camps But the. controlled by members of the mil Throughout the 1990s the problem problem is a complex one and. itary wing of the African National of the militarization of refugee UNHCR has neither the mandate. Congress and the Pan Africanist camps continued in various parts nor the capacity to carry out the. Congress and were consequently of the world In West Africa for demili tarization of refugee camps. subject to raids and aerial example refugee settlement areas and settlements. bombardment by South African were often a focus for militia. armed forces Similarly in Angola recruitment and the movement of Under international refugee law. Namibian refugee camps run by the militias between Sierra Leone and responsibility for ensuring the. Namibian liberation movement Liberia often exacerbated conflicts security of refugee camps rests in. the South West Africa People s in both countries and affected the the first instance with the host. Organization were attacked by the security of the refugee population government In many cases how. South African air force In Zambia In 1998 99 refugee settlements ever governments prove unable or. and Mozambique camps for refugees and camps in Albania were used as unwilling to prevent militarization. from the war in what was then staging posts by the Kosovo Although in some cases initial. Rhodesia were controlled by the Liberation Army In West Timor screening and disarming of incoming. Zimbabwean liberation movements camps for refugees fleeing the refugees is carried out at border. and were attacked by Rhodesian violence in East Timor provided crossing points by host authorities. government forces safe haven for armed militias In this is not always effective and in. Burundi rebel groups have used situations of mass influx it is often. During the 1980s there were many refugee populated areas in Tanzania not possible Furthermore unless. other examples of camps in which as recruitment grounds and as combatants are willing to yield their. armed elements could not easily conduits for resources weapons it is almost impossible for. be distinguished from the civilian unarmed border officials or UNHCR. population In the early 1980s In each of these cases the presence protection officers to disarm them. Cambodians fleeing the civil war of armed elements amongst refugee. and the invasion by Viet Nam fled populations has exposed civilians to Once armed combatants are mixed. to border camps controlled by the increased risks It has made them with civilian refugee populations. Khmer Rouge and other armed vulnerable to intimidation harass screening and separating them out. factions Because of military ment and forced recruitment by is notoriously difficult Where there. activities on the Thai border the armed groups It has also exposed is resistance to demilitarization to. camps had to be relocated numerous them to armed attacks on refugee achieve this may require the inter. times creating additional problems camps and settlements by enemy vention of a heavily armed military. for international organizations forces the mining of areas force Yet even well trained and. attempting to assist refugees in in which they live infiltration by equipped military forces often re. these camps In Pakistan during the enemy forces kidnappings and fuse to take on this task as was. The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath, illustrated in the camps for Rwandan camps and that UNHCR should as a last resort the deployment of.
refugees in eastern Zaire where withdraw services from them But military forces But the success of. UNHCR through the UN Secretary this is a difficult decision to make all such attempts to improve the. General repeatedly asked states to when such camps continue to situation depends on the political. assist in separating armed elements house substantial numbers of bona will of states particularly the host. from the civilian population No fide refugees UNHCR has often state and other states in the region. government was willing to send avoided operating in particular Unless host governments and other. external military or police forces to camps because of their militarized actors take active steps to prevent. assist with this task As a result nature In other situations such the militarization of refugee camps. UNHCR eventually paid and equipped as the Goma camps for Rwandans the problem will persist and the. a special Zairean Contingent in eastern Zaire UNHCR maintained safety of refugees will continue to. recruited from among the Zairean a presence in spite of the militari be jeopardized. presidential guard to establish some zation as it considered that a. law and order in the camps withdrawal would put the refugees. at even greater risk, Article II 6 of the 1969 Refugee. Convention of the Organization of During the last few years UNHCR. African Unity OAU states For has made various innovative. reasons of security countries of attempts to improve security in. asylum shall as far as possible refugee camps and settlements. settle refugees at a reasonable and to ensure their civilian nature. distance from the frontier of their For example in 1999 in the Kosovo. country of origin see Box 2 3 Albanian camps in the former. Although the actual distance is Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. not specified in the OAU Refugee UNHCR arranged for the deployment. Convention and although the 1951 of international police advisers to. UN Refugee Convention includes no improve security and law enforce. provisions concerning the distance ment in the camps Also in 1998. of refugee camps from borders in the Burundian refugee camps. UNHCR has on many occasions in Tanzania UNHCR started. sought to ensure that refugee camps supporting some 270 Tanzanian. are located at a reasonable distance police officers whose task is to. from international borders This enhance security for the refugees. however can be difficult to achieve and to assist in ensuring the. for a number of reasons Refugees civilian and humanitarian character. spontaneously establish camps close of the camps, to borders to make it easier for them. to return or to monitor the situation In line with these new initiatives. in their home region They are liable High Commissioner Sadako Ogata. to be reluctant to be moved Reloca recently proposed a ladder of. tion is a complex and expensive options for addressing security. operation And host governments problems in camps including soft. often prefer to keep camps close to medium and hard options These. the border in the hope of eventually include measures aimed at ensuring. encouraging return law and order such as programmes. to train and build the capacity of, It has been argued that militarized national police to handle refugee. camps should be removed from camp security the deployment of. the protected category of refugee international police advisers and. The State of the World s Refugees, Rwandan and Burundian refugee Figure 10 1. populations 1993 99, Rwandan refugee population, Country of asylum 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999.
Burundi 245 500 278 100 153 000 720 2 000 2 000 1 300. DR of Congo ex Zaire 53 500 1 252 800 1 100 600 423 600 37 000 35 000 33 000. Tanzania 51 900 626 200 548 000 20 000 410 4 800 20 100. Uganda 97 000 97 000 6 500 11 200 12 200 7 500 8 000. Total 447 900 2 254 100 1 808 100 455 520 51 610 49 300 62 400. Burundian refugee population, Country of asylum 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999. DR of Congo ex Zaire 176 400 180 100 117 900 30 200 47 000 20 000 19 200. Rwanda 250 000 6 000 3 200 9 600 6 900 1 400 1 400. Tanzania 444 900 202 700 227 200 385 500 459 400 473 800 499 000. Total 871 300 388 800 348 300 425 300 513 300 495 200 519 600. Note As on 31 December of each given year, file were persuaded to shed their uniforms but the population was still clearly. under their control and the control of the Interahamwe In South Kivu the physical. situation of the refugees was better they were fewer in number and the camp. unexplained crash as their plane approached the Rwandan capital Kigali on 6 April 1994 was used by Hutu extremists as the occasion to seize power in Rwanda and to attack the Tutsi population and Hutu moderates Approximately 800 000 people were killed between April and July 1994 in the genocide which followed Although a multinational UN

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