The Role Of Pollution Prevention In Stormwater Management-Books Pdf

The Role of Pollution Prevention in Stormwater Management
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2 Role of Pollution Prevention in Stormwater Management. frequently starting vehicles These areas are usually isolated enough to make. source area runoff treatment feasible However relative pollutant contributions. from various roofmg wooden and paving materials themselves are also a. concern which has not been adequately addressed Due to the common use of. these surfaces in our urban environments reduction of emissions at the source. is desirable and material substitution would seem a good place to start. 1 1 Sources of Urban Runoff Pollutants and, Source Reduction Options. It has been known for many years that most stonnwater toxicants and much. of the conventional pollutants are associated with automobile use and mainte. nance activities and that these pollutants are strongly associated with the. particulates suspended in the stonnwatcr the non filterable components or. suspended solids It has been difficult to reduce or modify automobile use to. reduce the use of these compounds with the notable exception of the phasing. out of leaded gasoline Current activities concentrated in the San Francisco. area are trying to encourage brake pad manufacturers to reduce the use of. copper The effectiveness of most stonnwater control practices is therefore. dependent on their ability to remove these particles from the water or possibly. from intennediate accumulating locations such as streets or other surfaces. and not through source reduction The removal of these particles from. stonnwater is dependent on various characteristics of these particles especially. their size and settling rates Some source area controls most notably street. cleaning affect the particles before they are washed off and transp01ted by the. runoff l vhile others remove the particles from the flowing water. Table 1 1 shows that most of the organic compounds fOlmd in stonnwater. are associated with various human related activities especially automobile and. pesticide use or are associated with plastics Verschueren 1983 Heavy. metals found in stonnv ater also mostly originate from automobile use. activities including gasoline combustion brake lining fluids brake fluid. transmission oil anti freeze grease etc undercoatings and tire wear. Koeppe 1977 Rubin 1976 Shaheen 1975 Solomon and Natusch 1977. Wilbur and Hunter 1980 Auto repair pavement wear and deicing compound. use also contribute heavy metals to stonnwater Field et a1 1973 and Shaheen. 1975 Shaheen 1975 fotmd that eroding area soils are the major source ofthe. particulates in stonnwater The eroding area soil particles and the particles. associated with road surface wear become contaminated with exhaust. emissions and runoff containing the polluting compounds Most of these. compounds become tightly bound to these particles and are then transported. 1 1 Sources of Urban Runoff Pollutants and Source Reduction 3. through the urban area and drainage system or removed with the particulates. Stormwater concentrations of zinc fluoranthene 1 3 dichlorobenzene and. pyrene are unique in that substantial fractions of these compounds remain in the. water and are less associated with the particulates. Table 1 1 Uses and sources for organic compounds found in stormwater. source Verschuere1l1983, Use Source, Phenol gasoline exhaust. N Nitroso di n propylamine contaminant of herbicide Treflall. Hexachloroethane pla 1 icizer in cellulose esters minor use in rubber and. insecticide, Nitrobenzene solvent rubber lubricants. 2 4 Dimethylphenol asphalt fuel plastics pesticides. Hexachlorobutadiene rubber and polymer solvent transformer and hydraulic lil. 4 Chloro 3 methylphenol gennicide preservative tor glues gums inks textile and. Pentachlorophenol insecticide algaecide herbicide fimgicide mfg wood. preservative, Fluoranthene gasoline motor and lubricating oil wood preservative. gasoline wood preservative motor oil, All areas are affected by atmospheric deposition while other sources of.
pollutants are specific to the activities conducted on the areas As examples the. ground surfaces of unpaved equipment or material storage areas can become. contaminated by spills and debris while undeveloped land remaining relatively. unspoiled by activities can still contribute runoff solids organics and nutrients. if eroded Atmospheric deposition deposition from activities on paved sur. faces and the erosion of matelial from upland unconnected areas are the major. sources of pollutants in urban areas, The important sources ofthese pollutants are related to various uses and. processes Automobile related potential sources usually affect road dust and dirt. quality more importantly than other particulate components of the runoff. system The road dust and dirt quality is affected by vehicle fluid drips and spills. gasoline oils etc and vehicle exhaust along with various vehicle wear local. soil erosion and pavement wear products Urban landscaping practices. potentially affecting urban mnoff include vegetation litter fertilizer and pesti. cide Miscellaneous sources of urban mnoff pollutants include firework debris. wildlife and domestic pet wastes and possibly industrial and sanitary wastewa. ters Wet and dry atmospheric contributions both affect mnoff quality. Pesticide use in an urban area can contribute significant quantities of various. toxic materials to urban runoff Many manufacturing and industrial activities. including the combustion of fuels also affects urban runoff quality. 4 Role of Pollution Prevention in Stonmvater Management. Natural weathering and erosion products of rocks contribute most of the. hardness and iron in urban mnoff pollutants Road dust and associated. automobile activities gasoline exhaust products historically contributed most. of the lead in urban mnoff However the decrease of lead in gasoline has. resulted in current stormwater lead concentrations being about 1110 of the. levels found in stormwater in the early 1970s Bannerman et aI 1993 In. certain situations paint chipping can also be a major source of lead in urban. areas Road dust contaminated by tire wear products and zinc plated metal. erosion contribute most of the zinc to urban runoff Urban landscaping. activities can be a major source of cadmium Phillips and Russo 1978. Electroplating and ore processing activities can also contribute chromium and. Many pollutant sources are specific to a particular area and on going. activities For example iron oxides are associated with welding operations and. strontium used in the production of flares and fireworks would probably be. found on the streets in greater quantities around holidays or at the scenes of. traffic accidents The relative contribution of each of these potential urban. mnoff sources is therefore highly variable depending upon specific site. conditions and seasons, 1 1 1 Other Pollutant Contributions to the Storm Drainage System. The detection of pentachlorophenols in stormwater indicates leaching from. treated wood Frequent detections of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PAHs during the U S Environmental Protection Agency s Nationwide Urban. Runoff Program EPA 1983 may possibly indicate leaching from creosote. treated wood in addition to fossil fuel combustion sources High concentra. tions of copper and some chromium and arsenic observations also indicate the. potential of leaching from CCA copper chromium and arsenic treated. wood The significance of these leachate products in the receiving waters is. currently unknown but alternatives to these preservatives should be consid. ered Many cities use ahuninum and concrete utility poles instead of treated. vmod poles This is especially impOliant considering that utility poles are usually. located very close to the drainage system ensuring an efficient delivery of. leachate products Many homes currently use wood stains containing pen. tachlorophenol and other wood preservatives Similarly the construction of. retaining walls wood decks and playground equipment with treated wood is. common Some preservatives especially creosote cause direct skin irritation. besides contributing to potential problems in receiving waters Many of these. wood products are at least located some distance from the storm drainage. system allowing some improvement to surface water quality by infiltration. through pervious surfaces, 1 1 Sources of Urban Runoff Pollutants and Source Reduction 5. 1 1 2 Sources of Stormwater Toxicants, Tables 1 2 and 1 3 summarize toxicant concentrations and likely sources or. locations having some ofthe highest concentrations found by Pitt et a1 1995. The detection frequencies for the heavy metals are all close to 100 for all. source areas while the detection frequencies for the organics shO vn ranged. from about 10 25 Vehicle service areas had the greatest abundance of. observed organics with landscaped areas having many of the observed. Table 1 2 Heavy metal source area observations Pitt et at 1995. Toxicant Highest median Source Area Highest COlle Source Area. CadmilUll 8 vehicle service 220 street fllrwff, area runoff.
Chromium 100 landscaped area 510 roofrunolf, Copper 160 urban receiving 1250 street runoff. Lead 75 CSO 330 swrage area, Nickel 40 parking area 130 landJ capec area. runoff runoff, Zinc 100 roof runoff 1580 wofrunoff. Table 1 3 Toxic organic source area observations Pitt et al 1995. Toxicant Maximum Detection Significant Sources, giL Frequency. Benzo a anthracene 60 12 gasoline wood preservative. Benzo b fiuoranthene 226 17 gasoline motor oils, Benzo k fluoranthene 221 17 gasoline bitumen oils.
Benzo a pyrene 300 17 asphalt gasoline oils, Fluoranthene 128 23 oils gasoline wood preservative. Naphthakne 296 13 coal tar gasoline insecticides, Phenanthrene 69 10 oils gasoline coal tar. Pyrene 102 19 oils gasoline binunen coal tar, wood preservative. Chlordane 2 2 13 insecticide, Butyl benzyl phthalate 128 12 plasticizer. Bis 2 chloroethyl ether 204 14 lilmigant solvents insecticides. paints lacquers vamishes, Bis 2 chloroisopropyl ether 217 14 pesticides.
1 3 Dichlorobenzene 120 23 pesticides, 6 Role of Pollution Prevention in Stormwater 4anagement. 1 1 3 Potential Sources, A drainage system captures runoff and pollutants from many source areas all. with individual characteristics influencing the quantity of runoff and pollutant. load Impervious source areas may contribute most of the runoff during small. storm events e g paved parking lots streets driveways roofs sidewalks. etc Pervious source areas can have higher material washoff potentials and. become important contributors for larger storm events when their infiltration. rate capacity is exceeded e g gardens bare ground unpaved parking areas. construction sites undeveloped areas etc Many other factors also affect the. pollutant contributions from source areas including surface roughness. vegetative cover gradient and hydraulic cOlmections to a drainage system. rainfall intensity duration and antecedent dry period and pollutant availability. due to direct contamination from local activities cleaning frequency efficiency. and natural and regional sources of pollutants 1be relative importance of the. different source areas is therefore a function of the area characteristics. pollutant washoff potential and the rainfall characteristics Pitt 1987. Important sources of toxicants are often related to the land use e g high. traffic capacity roads industrial processes and storage area that are unique to. specific land uses activities Automobile related sources affect the quality and. quantity of road dust particles through gasoline and oil drips spills deposition. of exhaust products and wear of tire brake and pavement materials Shaheen. 1975 Urban landscaping practices potentially produce vegetation cuttings and. fertilizer and pesticide washoff Miscellaneous sources include holiday fire. work debris wildlife and domestic pet wastes and possible sanitary wastewa. ter infil1l ation In addition resuspension and deposition of pollutants particles. via the atmosphere can increase or decrease the contribution potential of a. source area Pitt and Bozeman 1982 Bannennan et a1 1993. Numerous source area samples were collected by Pitt et a1 1995 Roof. runoff parking area and vehicle service area samples had the greatest detection. frequencies for the organic toxicants Vehicle service arcas and urban creeks. had several of the observed maximum organic compound concentrations Most. of the organics vere associated with the non filtered sample portions indicat. ing an association with the particulate sample fractions The compound 1 3. dichlorobenzene was an exception having a significant dissolved fraction. In contrast to the organics the heavy metals analyzed were detected in. almost an samples including the filtered sample portions The non filtered. samples generally had much higher concentrations with the exception of zinc. which was mostly associated with the dissolved sample portion i e not. associated with the suspended solids SS Roof runoff generally had the. highest concentrations of zinc probably from galvanized roof drainage. 1 2 Use of SLAMM to IdentifY and QuantifY Source Area 7. components as previously reported by Bannelman et al 1983 and others. Parking and storage areas had the highest nickel concentrations while vehicle. service areas and street runoff had the highest concentrations of cadmium and. Roof vehicle service area I 0 14 796 JWMM R207 0 I 2 Role of Pollution Prevention in Stormwater Management

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