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The Internet and Sex Industries
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The Internet and Sex Industries,Mongkok Sex Market Hong Kong. s a part of globalization women and children are increasingly. becoming commodities to be bought sold and consumed by. organized crime rings tourists military personnel and men. seeking sexual entertainment or non threatening marriage. partners Through financial and technological interdepen. dence the sex industry and the Internet industry have become. partners in the global sexual exploitation of women and children. The author is Eleanor M and Oscar M Carlson Endowed. Chair in Women s Studies and Director of the Women s Stud. ies Program at the University of Rhode Island 316 Eleanor. Roosevelt Hall Kingston RI 02881 email dhughes uri edu. She is the Research and Education Coordinator of the interna. tional nongovernmental organization the Coalition Against. Donna M Hughes Traficking in Women, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000 0278 0079 00 Sl0 00020001EEE 35. Those with power are using new Around the world today women and years it followed new technologi. information technologies to expand children are increasingly vulnerable cal innovations later it assisted the. their capacity to exploit women and to sexual exploitation when they are public adoption of new technolo. girls throughout the world refugees or migrants and when they gy and recently the success of. are suffering from the effects of technology is dependent on the sex. INDUSTRIALIZATION AND poverty racism and caste systems industry The Internet as a commu. GLOBALIZATION OF SEXUAL Women and children are compelled nications medium would exist. EXPLOITATION into sex industries by varying without the sex industry but the. The sexual exploitation of degrees of violence ranging from Internet industry would not be. women and children and the traf prior victimization and lack of eco growing and expanding at its pre. ficking of women for purposes of nomic alternatives to deception sent rate without the sex industry. prostitution have existed for all of debt bondage and enslavement According to an exhibitor at the. recorded history but the escalation Under these conditions women and 1998 Adultdex a trade show for. and industrialization of sexual children are increasingly becoming the Internet sex industry The. exploitation are less than a few commodities to be bought sold and whole Internet is being driven by. decades old The sex industry as consumed by organized crime rings the adult industry If all this refer. defined in this article is the collec tourists military personnel and men ring to products at a sex industry. tion of legal and illegal single and seeking sexual entertainmentor non trade show were made illegal. multi party operations that profit threatening marriage partners tomorrow the Internet would go. from the selling of women and chil Much of this article will focus back to being a bunch of scientists. dren through trafficking organized on the United States as this country discussing geek stuff in email 6. prostitution andor pornography is mainly responsible for the indus The Internet industry does not. The trafficking of women and trialization of prostitution and like to admit how much it is being. girls has reached crisis proportions pornography either in the U S or in supported by the sex industry but a. around the world Each year an prostitution centers spawned by few indicators are revealing. estimated four million people demand from U S military person The sex industry is among the. mostly women and girls are traf nel The United States is also the top five groups buying state of. ficked throughout the world and main home of the Internet pomog the art computer equipment 7. one million children are trafficked raphy industry In the United States Sex industry businesses were. into local and international sex the modem sex industry had its ori the first to buy and use expen. industries 11 The selling of young gins in the 1950s and 1960s and sive T3 phone lines that transmit. women into sexual bondage has has steadily expanded since then compressed high resolution. become one of the fastest growing Currently it is in a steep growth images 8. international criminal enterprises phase and is meeting with little One of the largest Internet com. earning traffickers an estimated effective resistance from communi panies in the world Digex. US 6 billion per year 2 Recent ties and lawmakers The growth and whose largest customer is. ly U S Secretary of State Made industrialization of the sex industry Microsoft Corporation has a sex. line Albright met with fourteen is based on de jure legalization industry site as its second largest. women Foreign Ministers to draft through liberalization of laws regu customer 9. a letter of concern about the lating prostitution and pornography One of the Web site designers. increased trafficking of women 3 and de facto legalization through who works at a large sex indus. and First Lady Hilary Clinton has wide scale tolerance of men s sexu try Web site described his work. made public condemnations of this al abuse and exploitation of women as a dream job because any. growing trade 4 5 and children in organized forms new technology was available. Sexual exploitation as defined in Technology has given the sex for the asking lo. this article refers to all practices by industry new means of exploiting In 1998 US lbillion was spent. which a person achieves sexual grat marketing and delivering women online on adult content 69 per. ification or financial gain through and children as commodities to cent of the total Internet content. the abuse or exploitationof a woman male buyers Usually when a new sales 111. or child by abrogating her human technology is introduced into a. right to dignity equality autonomy system of exploitation it enables SEXAND INTERNET. and physical and mental well being those with power to intensify the PARTNERS. INDUSTRIES IN,harm and expand the exploitation GROWTHAND. Althoughthere is sexual exploitation of men,in gay pornography and pmstitution this. The growth and expansion of the DEVELOPMENT, paper will focus exclusively on the sexual sex industry is closely intertwined In 1994 Netscape with its mul.
exploitation of women and children with new technology In the early ti media capabilities initiated a. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000, new and popular information April 1996 when Penthouse went advertising on the Web for Pak. transmission medium the World online its web site recorded the istan Dating Services in The Dia. Wide Web From the beginning highest number of visits for publi mond Market in Lahore 21. those in the sex industry saw the cation sites on the Web 181 Individual men upon returning. potential of the Web and the Inter Organized prostitution tours from their prostitution tours and. net industry encouraged the sex from the U S started appearing on business trips use Intemet news. industry to use the Web The first the Web in Spring 1995 Intema groups such as alt sex prostitution. web based prostitution business A tional travel and tourism are com to post information on where to go. Personal Touch Services from ponents of globalization A type of to buy women and girls in prostitu. Seattle WA U S A appeared in tourism engaged in almost exclu tion in hundreds of cities through. late September 1994 12 In late sively by men is prostitution out the world Their writings reveal. 1994 Brandy s Babes a Phoenix tourism whereby men from cruel racist misogynist attitudes. AZ prostitution service also start wealthy countries in North Ameri and treatment of the women and. ed advertising on the Web The ca Europe and Asia travel to well girls they bought on their trips. Internet Business Journal known sex industry centers in order Numerous accounts by human. described this site as the most sig to buy women and children in pros rights groups have revealed that. nificant Internet marketing innova titution Alan J Munn from New many women and girls are literally. tion of 1994 13 York City advertised group prosti enslaved in the sex industry The. At the beginning of 1995 there tution tours to the Dominican men s writings reveal that they. were 200 businesses on the World Republic and Nevada U S A on know accept and exploit women. Wide Web selling erotica services the Web in Spring 1995 Calling and girls held in sexual slavery. and products 13 By mid 1995 himself PIMPS R US he offered 22 In writings on this news. strip clubs set up advertising Web four days and three night trips to a group establishments where. sites They featured pornographic wonderful setting which includes women and girls are enslaved are. photos of strippers and women many female prostitutes A tour recommended for men who perpe. engaged in types of legal prostitu guide on the trip provided practi trate sadistic sexual violence 23. tion offered at that club such as cal information about how to find Another global enterprise. conch dancing table dancing show and deal with prostitutes and how premised on men s search for com. er shows and dominatrix acts 14 to arrange group orgies On one pliant non threatening women is. In August 1995 a search on Yahoo night courtesy of the tour oral the mail order bride business Bride. found 391 listings under Business sex fellatio is provided by an traffickers advertise their forms of. and Economy Companies Sex for attractive female whore chosen by sexual exploitation through cata. phone sex numbers adult CD the tour guide His tour packages logues on the Intemet For a fee. ROMS X rated films adult com also included instruction in html they offer to assist men in finding a. puter software live videoconferenc so the men could use the tour as a loving and devoted woman. ing prostitution tours escort tax deduction 19 whose views of relationships have. services and mail order bride agen Advertisements for prostitution not been ruined by unreasonable. cies A year later in August 1996 tours to Asian European and expectations The women adver. there were 1676 listings a four fold South American locations soon fol tised on the Internet are known to. increase in one year 151 lowed Tropical Paradise Vaca be pleasers and not competitors. Mainstream publications from tions to Central America and the They are feminine NOT feminist. the sex industry quickly moved to Caribbean were advertised for One of the first mail order bride. the Web Playboy made its debut in single men An advertisement for catalogs on the Web Asian Bride. 1994 Its content on the Web is Erotic Vacations to Costa Rica Magazine appeared in mid 1995. designed to appeal to a younger quoted a price which included 24 Many of the international. wealthier audience the majority of double occupancy rooms and intra introduction services as the. which 75 percent do not subscribe country flights booked for two agencies often call themselves spe. to the print Playboy magazine 16 Men were told that Your compan cialize in women from certain. In 1996 Playboy magazine s site ion a euphemism for prostitute regions of the world Latin Ameri. was the eleventh most visited site will meet you at your hotel If the ca SoutheastAsia the former Sovi. on the Web 17 In 1997 the site tourise choses sic a longer tour et Union and even Africa 251. generated US 2 million in advertis his companion was changed half Internet technology enables. ing revenue Many of Playboy s way through the trip so the man Web pages to be quickly and easi. online advertisers are exclusive to could buy two women on the ly updated so mail order bride. the Web and do not buy advertising longer prostitution tours 20 In agents update their selection of. in the print publication 16 In early 1998 Pakistani pimps were women weekly The Internet. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000 37. reaches a global audience faster gy was delivering strip shows and important component the ejacula. and less expensively than any oth live sex shows to buyers over the tion lo According to the Internet. er media One mail order bride Internet 29 The electronic merg Entertainment Group in 1997 the. agent explained why he preferred er of pornography and prostitution buyers for live strip shows are 90. operating on the Internet So had arrived Either by keyboard or percent male 70 percent living in. when the World Wide Web came telephone the buyers could com the United States and 70 percent. along I saw that it was a perfect municate and direct the sex shows are between ages 18 and 40 3. venue for this kind of business taking place in another state or The Internet industry thrives on. The paper catalogs were so expen even another country or continent the sex industry and looks to it for. sive that the quality was usually One of the first live videoconfer innovation Technicians from the. very poor but on the Web you can encing sex industry sites was Vir Internet sex industry have devel. publish high resolution full color tual Dreams running off the oped new techniques to deliver. photos which can be browsed by CTSNET server in San Diego CA high quality multimedia In. everyone in the WORLD 25 The site advertised itself as fol November 1996 Warshavsky of. One of the sources of many lows Virtual Dreams uses cut IEG announced a new video trans. mail order brides for men in the ting edge technology to bring you mission technique called push. U S is the Philippines Each year the most beautiful girls in the video This development made it. due to poverty and lack of employ world Using our software and possible to view streaming video. ment opportunities 19 000 women your computer you can interact without downloading and. leave the Philippines either as real time and one on one with the installing special software. migrant laborers or mail order girl of your dreams Ask her any In 1997 entrepreneurs looking to. brides Some mail order bride thing you wish she is waiting to the Web as a site of future invest. agents operating out of the U S please you 30 ment were told by mainstream com. include young teenage girls in their Most of the owners of sex indus puter industry advisors to use sex. catalogues on their Web sites One try sites with live sex shows moved industry sites as their guide If you. agent offering women and girls to the Internet from phone sex haven t visited a pornography Web. from the Philippines complained operations IO One advantage shop in a while you should It will. that the U S govemment won t they had was money for the capital show you the future of online com. give a visa to a bride under age six investment For example the Inter merce Web pomographers are the. teen In his catalog of potential net Entertainment Group IEG most innovative entrepreneurs on. brides there were 19 girls under 17 owned by Seth Warshavsky who the Internet 31 In May 1999. years of age one named Hazel was had a phone sex business invested New York New Media Association. 13 another Eddy Mae was 14 26 US 3 million in computers and The Industry Standard The News. In March 1999 the United communications equipment to start magazine of the Internet Economy. States Immigration and Natural up his Web site z In interviews and Sun Microsystems sponsored a. ization Service INS reported that online live sex show promoters seminar entitled The Frontier of. there were over 200 mail order claim that men talking to and buy Business and Technology What. bride agencies operating in the ing women over the Internet is just You Can Learn from the Online Sex. U S with the number rapidly a step up in the distanced interactiv Industry Presenters talked about. increasingly Each year 4000 to ity of audio prostitution created by how the online sex industry drives. 6000 women mostly from the phone sex lines They say they have innovation such as credit card. Philippines or the new independent an advantage in understanding how transaction technology methods for. states NIS of the former Soviet to create and market long distance streaming multimedia content and. Union are brought to the U S sexual exploitation In creating new business models 32. through mail order bride agents shows they say they think in terms The sex industry has developed. The U S government is starting to of action and response creating many of the ways of doing business. do more investigation of bride free floating computer facilitated over the Internet Privacy security. agents out of concem that women user directed fantasy They also and fast payment transactions are. from the bride trade are vulnerable know that buyers on the end of the necessary elements for the sex. to exploitation and violence 27 phone or computer supply the most industry to sell over the Intemet. In late Spring 1995 live video Men are usually secretive about. conferencing a technology that That amount includes 12 SGI servers 12 their exploitation of women and. enables live person to person Pentium based video servers two Oracle children and one of the factors in the. video and audio transmission was servers for credit card pmcessing two T3. connections and 48 PCs for point to point, introduced to the Internet 28 By videoconferencing and long distance tele This data comes from credit card compa. late 1995 the new video technolo phone billing IO nies lo. 38 IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000. success of the online sex industry example some of the most violent sector of the sex industry the. has been men s ability to download and degrading pornographic Web smallest portion and don t include. pornography or engage in online sites use techniques to keep the the money made illegally through. prostitution from the privacy of their viewer trapped on that site Some the sale of women in illegal broth. homes or offices The pimps of the pornographic Web sites remove the els massage parlors and the street. sex industry also depend on men s standard navigation tool bar to or the sale of illegal materials. impulse buying so quick financial make it difficult to leave a site such as child pornography Inter. transactions are crucial for their Others disable the Browser com nationally it is estimated that the. profits Sex industry businesses mands such as back exit or sex industry makes at least 20 bil. were on the leading edge of online close that are needed to get off lion a year 35 In 1996 Ameri. payment schemes with credit cards the Web site Whenever the viewer cans spent more than US 9 billion. At the beginning of 1995 only a clicks on one of these escape com on pornographic videos peep. few sites were accepting credit card mands another pornographic Web shows live sex shows porno. payments by email In early 1996 site opens on the screen leading to graphic cable programs porno. Warshavsky s Internet Entertain an endless number of Browser win graphic magazines and computer. ment Group introduced ecom dows opening on the screen with pornography That amount is more. merce software which provided no way to close them In some cas than many other entertainment. buyers with fast secure online es the only way to end the trap is to industries such as film music and. credit card transactions 33 shut down the computer without theater To give some further con. The Internet sex industry is also closing applications or following text US 9 billion according to. leading the way in Web database normal shutdown procedures A War on Want is enough to provide. management Many of the sex sampling of 35 pornographic Web debt relief for the world s 20 poor. industry sites have tens of thou sites found that 34 percent were est countries 36. sands of images and video clips designed to make it difficult to Estimates of the number of sex. which need to be organized in mul leave 34 Internet Service industry sites and the amount of. tiple and easily accessible ways Providers have made no move to money being made on the Internet. Lapis Labs in Tuscon Arizona is stop this type of unethical activity vary Analysts do agree that a lot of. an example As of early 1998 Over the past six years the sex money is being made and the rate. Lapis Labs operated 25 sex indus industry and the Internet industry of growth is exponential Accord. try web sites which contained 150 have been linked in their expansion ing to David Schwartz a phone sex. 000 images 1000 downloadable and development Technology his business operator who switched to. Quick Time videos and 700 torians point out that the sex indus the online sex business The. Realvideo live videos and try i s often the first to adopt new Internet is where the big money is. received 15 000 to 30 000 buyers technology and open up new areas right now 6 Sex industry sites. each day The owners say If it s and eventually mainstream busi on the Internet draw a lot of traffic. legal we have it There s some nesses take over Unfortunately the and are highly profitable estab. material that I personally find sexual exploitation of women and lished sex industry sites can expect. repulsive but not everyone has the children continues at the new to make from 50 to 80 percent. same tastes This site has a expanded level and doesn t subside profits 7. sophisticated search engine that as the technology becomes main In 1996 one report estimated. enables the buyer to search images stream and is adopted by main that the Web had 600 commercial. and film clips by gender sexual stream commercial operations pornography sites which were. act number of people in scene expected to generate revenues of. race and hair color attributes that SEXINDUSTRY,ON US 5 1 5 million 171 Popular sex. form the bases for popular racist THE INTERNET industry sites such as the one run. and sexist stereotypes used in the Although some portions of the by Danni Ashe a former stripper. sex industry In interviews the co sex industry are legal in some sells pornographic videos digital. founder of Lapis Labs refuses to countries the majority of activities images magazines and video. give his name claiming he likes to of buying and selling women and peep shows In mid 1996 her site. be known as a technology compa girls by traffickers pimps male was visited 1 5 million times per. ny rather than a sex company 191 buyers and pornographers are ille day and was expected to bring in. The close connection between gal in most countries Therefore US 1 2 million in 1996 17. the sex industry and the Internet determining the actual revenue In 1997 an Internet magazine. industry and the lack of regulation generated by the sex industry is reported that there were 10 000 sex. of the Internet has allowed many difficult It can be assumed that industry sites 37 A Sacramento. unethical practices to occur For most figures refer only to the legal firm that handles online credit card. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000 39. transactions said that in 1997 the just a few individuals with direct like to admit to the extent of the sex. largest sex industry sites had rev ties to organized crime controlled industry s importance in Internet. enues of US 1 million per month almost all of the multi million dol commerce but the large ISPs prof. while the smaller sites took in lar pornography industry in the it from the sex industry by carrying. approximately US 10 000 per United States and its international their sites and online services. month 6 38 A midsize site that distribution 41 By the late Search engines and directories also. was accessed 50 000 times per day nineties the U S sex industry was take in considerable amounts of. made approximately US 20 000 generating US 9 billion per year a money from the sex industry as. each month According to Forrester 100 000 percent increase over a advertising revenue. Research an Internet industry ana twenty five year period 36 Search engines are the indexing. lyst the sex industry made US 137 To what extent organized crime system for the World Wide Web. million on the Web in 1997 7 syndicates influence and control Search engines such as. By early 1998 Internet industry Internet technology or the sex Webcrawler HotBot Excite. qnalysts estimated that the sex industry on the Internet is not InfoSeek Lycos search hundreds. industry revenue from the Internet known But organized crime s use of thousands of Web sites per day. alone was US 1 billion per year of computer and communications picking up keywords placed in the. Forrester Research reported that technology to control the sex content of pages Web users. We know of at least three sites industry was revealed in October depend on the comprehensiveness. doing more than US lOO million a 1998 when United States Federal and accuracy of search engines. year 39 ClubLove one of Inter agents intervened in a plot to harm which vary widely to find material. net Entertainment Group s main or kill six people who operated anywhere on the Web by entering. Web sites was visited more than 7 escort services in Las Vegas Two keywords Analyses of the search. million times per day in early 1998 enforcers slang for hired tortur es on Web search engines show. At that time the club had approx ers or killers and four members of what subjects are being sought on. imately 600 000 members who paid the Gambino organized crime fam the Web In 1995 a study of the. the US 19 95 subscription fee 40 ily were arrested The crime group searches on one Web search engine. In 1999 Datamonitor reported pressured a computer technician to found that 47 percent of the 11 090. that adult content sales on the hack into local telephone company most repeated searches were for. Internet which excludes revenues switches and reroute calls from pornography 43 44. from the sales of merchandise or men seeking to buy women in Soon after the sex industry began. advertising was nearly US 1 bil prostitution to businesses that they to go online its leaders recognized. lion dollars and comprised 69 per controlled 42 the promotional value of search. cent of the total Internet content The enormous profits made by engines On December 19 1994. sales Eighty four percent of the the sex industry on the Internet The Shrimp Club an organization. content sales were from U S have attracted many budding of men who live or travel in South. based Web sites This market entrepreneurs unscrupulous oper east Asia set up a Web site to give. research firm predicted that by ators and probably organized men information on events parties. 2003 the adult content sales crime syndicates Intense competi and products that featured Asian. would reach US 3 1 billion half tion has led many operators to women As part of their promotion. the anticipated revenue of online attract buyers by supplying new al strategy they ensured that their. content sales 111 material and more extreme images Web site was listed in web search. Pornography has always been a such as bondage torture bestiality engines This aggressive marketing. high profit industry In the early and child pornography Real garnered them 15 OOO accesses to. 1970s in the United States the women and children are used to their Web site in the first week 13. pornography industry generated create these images leading to This priming of search engines was. revenues of approximately US 8 increased violence and exploita a strategy that all sex industry busi. 10 million per year The combina tion of women and children as nesses on the Internet would adopt. tion of high profit and low enforce more and more degrading and vio As sex industry businesses increas. ment of obscenity laws made this a lent images videos and live per ingly moved to the Web they placed. logical place for organized crime formances are marketed and sold paid advertisements for their sites. activity By 1977 the distribution with search engines and online ser. of pornography in the United SEARCH,ENGINES vices Eventually the success of a. States was almost entirely con ADVERTISING,AND THE SEX search engine depended on accept.
trolled by organized crime In the INDUSTRY ing advertising from the sex indus. late 1970s the Federal Bureau of Many Internet Service Providers try as the case of Snap Online. Investigation FBI reported that ISPs and Online Services do not demonstrates. 40 IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000. In December 1997 partially in GLOBALIZATION,AND THE training and 67 percent said they. response to public complaints of the COMMODIFICATION. OF needed drug and alcohol treatment, pervasiveness of the sex industry on WOMEN AND CHILDREN 5 11 Internationally 92 percent of. the Internet and parents concerns Looking at the growth and prof women in prostitution report that. about children viewing sex industry its of the sex industry it is easy to they wanted to leave prostitution. sites or their advertising CNET overlook the human cost The prof 48 These findings reveal the. announced Snap Online a Web its of the sex industry are based on harm done to women in the sex. directory safe for children The sexual exploitation which first has industry and their desire not to be. Snap search engine was advertised to be acted out on real women and in the sex industry. as having no pornographic Web girls Sexual exploitation trauma. sites in its directory In the press tizes and scars women and girls for INTENSIFYING. release CNET said Snap Online life 46 Research on women in The expansion of the global sex. does not accept any pornographic prostitution in San Francisco industry especially on the Internet. advertising nor does it contain found that 82 percent had been has intensified the harm to the vic. pornographic listings in its directory physically assaulted and 68 per tims and normalized and global. of more than 100 000 hand selected cent had been raped while in pros ized the victimization and. Web sites Nine months later in titution Sixty eight percent suf exploitation Two components of. August 1998 CNET announced fered from post traumatic stress globalization rapid development. that Snap would be including porno disorder 47 Similar research on and deployment of information. graphic Web sites in its directory women in prostitution from South technology and the industrialized. and admitted that pornographic sites Africa Thailand Turkey the U S commodification of women and. could be found through Snap for and Zambia found that 73 percent children have become linked to. some time Anyone searching for had been physically assaulted and expand and truly internationalize. pornography on Snap would auto 62 percent raped while in prostitu sexual exploitation The lack of. matically be rolled over to the tion and 67 percent suffered from regulation of the Internet and pre. search engines Infoseek and Inkto post traumatic stress disorder 48 vailing uncritical views on the sex. mi which index pornography It is widely assumed that industry are contributing to the. Snap s executive producer women and girls enjoy being in escalation of the global sexual. Katharine English defended the prostitution and making pornogra exploitation of women and chil. decision by saying Our statistics phy while research findings reveal dren through global advertising of. show that 40 percent of our users are that women and girls are often prostitution tours and online mar. looking for this kind of material tricked and coerced into the sex keting The United States is the. This is a user driven decision The industry The United Nations esti founder and leader of both of these. decision was rationalized by point mates that there are 200 million industries but their impact is felt. ing out that everyone else is doing it people around the world forced to profoundly all over the world. so they had to also Katharine Eng live as sexual or economic slaves especially by women and children. lish said If you search for bestiali 49 Few women choose to be in. ty you ll find it there It s not like the sex industry If any choice is ACKNOWLEDGMENT. we re standing out The lack of involved it is usually the last Thank you to Valerie Balding. profitability was due to loss of choice when no other options are University of Manchester U K. advertising revenue from the sex available Each year hundreds of and Vanessa Chirgwin Monterey. industry 45 Pornographic adver Ukrainian women are trafficked Institute of International Studies. tising banners on search engines are into the United States Most of the U S A for their thoughtful com. the cash cow or certain money women believe they will be ments on this paper. makers for the Web search engines employed as waitresses or nannies. and indexes The owner of a Web only to be forced into the sex REFERENCES. site search engine or Web directo industry using debt bondage once I R Cook Clampdown on child sex. tourism BBC News U K Apr 4 1998, ry is paid each time a viewer clicks they arrive In a survey of 476 2 L Shelley Professor American Univer. on an advertisement on that page Ukrainian women zero percent sity and Director UN Institute for Transna. Advertisers pay in the range of 12 responded that a job in the sex tional Organized Crime Studies in Parlia. industry was an acceptable job mentary Hearings Russian State Duma Oct. cents to US l per click The Snap 9 10 1997 Pcrsonal Communication with. Online example demonstrates the abroad 50 In a research study Kristen Hansen CEELI attorney in Russia. reliance of Internet search engines from San Francisco 88 percent of 3 T Deen Women Foreign Ministers seek. on the sex industry Without the sex women in prostitution said they end to human trafficking Inter Press Ser. wanted to get out of prostitution vice Oct 5 1999, industry many services on the Web 4 First Lady to fight prostitution AP. would close 73 percent said they needed job, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000 41.
Online Nov 18 1997 demned Pakistan News Sewice Infom Services. 5 M Bjorgulfsdottir First Lady End traf tion limes Exclusive Feb 1998 39 Some cybersex companies weaving. ficking of women Associated Press Oct 22 D M Hughes Sex tours via the Inter webs of deceit Seattle Post lntelligencer. 10 1999 net Agenda A Joumul about Women and Aug 28 1998. 6 C Said Adultdex Trade Show Sex sells Gender South Africa no 28 pp 71 76 40 Wired for sex A growing cyberporn. on the Net San Francisco Chronicle Nov 1996 empire in Seattle takes a new twist on an old. 19 1998 23 D M Hughes Pimps and Predators on trade Seattle Post lntelligencer Apr 27. 7 Surfing for sex The Guardian May the Internet Globalizing the Sexual 1998. 14 1998 Exploitation of Women and Children Coali 41 Final Report of the Attomey General s. 8 X rated sites pace online industry tion Against Trafficking in Women pp 13 Commission on Pornography Rutledge Hill. Chicago Sun limes June 24 1997 17 1999 Press 1986 p 293. 9 Tucsonan does boffo business in adult 24 Asian Bride Magazine Summer 1995 42 J Markoff Indictment says mob is. sites Arizona Daily Star Feb 14 1998 25 B W Toms 1995 1996 Santa Barbara going high tech Six men arrested in alleged. IO F Rose Sex sells Young ambitious International Center World Wide Web Vegas computer scheme New York limes. Seth Warshavsky is the Bob Guccione of the http www rain org sbintUourstory htm1 Oct 17 1998. 1990s Wired no 5 Dec 12 1997 26 World Class Services http www Filip 43 Study by Prof Harold Thimbleby Prof. l l E Moore Adult content grabs lion s ina codfilipinas 7 Nov 1996 of Computing Research Middlesex Univ. share of revenue Adult Video News Online 27 L H Sun Mail order brides of the U K. May 26 1999 90s are met via Intemet and on Romance U S Connor Pomography most popular. 12 A Bosley Escort Agency A Personal Tours Washington Post Mar 8 1999 subject for Intemet searches The Indepen. Touch Services Selling Sex in Cyberspace 28 News Release WhitePine and Come11 dent London Sept 13 1995. The Internet Business J p 4 Jan 1995 team up to bring real time desktop video 45 Snap s G rated sites adds XXX rated. 131 M W Strangelove Internet advertising conferencing to Intemet users worldwide searches Reuters Aug 3 1998. review The Intemet has hormones Selling Online http www wpine com press htm 46 D M Hughes and C M Roche Making. Sex in Cyberspace The Intemet Business J May 3 1995 the Harm Visible The Global Sexual. p IO Jan 1995 29 Wired Online no 5 Dec 12 1997 Exploitation of Women and Girls Speaking. 14 Fantasy Show Bar Summer 1995 30 Virtual Connections Live Nude Video Out and Providing Services The Coalition. 151 Yahoo http www yahoo com Aug 8 Teleconferencing http www cts com talon Against Traflicking in Women 1999. 1996 accessed Oct 29 1995 47 M Farley and H Barkan Prostitution. 16 R Rnnett Hefner highlights Playboy 31 Taylor and Jerome Pornography as violence against women and posttraumatic. transitions to TV Web Connections the innovator PC Computing Feb 1997 stress disorder Women and Health vol 27. digital edge http www digitaledge org 32 New York New Media Association no 3 pp 37 49 1998. connections98ihefner html accessed Oct Presents an Exclusive Panel PR Newswire 48 M Farley I Barat M Kiremire and U. 8 1998 May 26 1999 Sezgin Prostitution in five countries Vio. 17 J Simons The Web s dirty secret Sex 33 F Rose Sex sells Today s sex indus lence and post traumatic stress disorder. sites make lots of money U S News try tomorrow s manstream Wired no 5 Feminism Psychology vol 8 no 4 pp. World Rep Aug 19 1996 Dec 12 1997 405 426 1998, 18 Nielsen survey as cited in Wired 34 The National Institute on Media and the 49 Director General of the United Nations. Online no 5 Dec 12 1997 Family Violence and sexually explicit Web Bureau Vienna Associated Foreign Press. 19 A J Munn PIMPS R US Goes to the sites hold surfer s hostage PRNewswire Nov 13 1997. Dominican Republic The World Sex Guide Sept 1 1998 50 International Organization for Migration. Summer 1995 updated Aug 1995 World 35 Giving the customer what he wants Information Campaign Against Traficking in. Wide Web http www panix coml zz The Economist Feb 14 1998 Women om Ukraine Research Report Int. exDR htm1 36 The land of the free The Guardian Organization for Migration July 1998. 20 The Travel Connection A tropical par Nov 26 1997 51 N Hotaling What happens to women. adise vacation is waiting for you World 37 Inter ctive Week survey results X in prostitution in the United States in Mak. Wide Web http www travelxn com fer rated sites pace online industry Chicago ing the Harm Visible D M Hughes and. fer2 htm accessed Nov 18 1995 Sun limes 24 June 1997 C M Roche Eds The Coalition Against. 21 S Adeeb On line prostitution con 38 C Ochs President Valley Internet Trafficking in Women 1999 pp 239 251. 42 IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Spring 2000.


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copyright in the digital era: country studies This chapter illustrates how copyright-intensive industries are performing and evolving in light of the changes brought about by the growth of the Internet, digitisation, and an increasingly globalised market

Business Models and the Internet of Things

Business Models and the Internet of Things

Business Models and the Internet of Things Abstract This article provides theoretically and practically grounded assistance to companies that are today engaged primarily in non?digital industries in the development and implementation of business models that use the Internet of Things. To that end, we investigate the role of the Internet in ...

Industry Agenda Industrial Internet of Things: Unleashing ...

Industry Agenda Industrial Internet of Things Unleashing

During the past 15 years, the Internet revolution has redefined business-to-consumer (B2C) industries such as media, retail and financial services. In the next 10 years, the Internet of Things revolution will dramatically alter manufacturing, energy, agriculture, transportation and other industrial sectors of

Overview of RFID-Based Indoor Positioning Technology

Overview of RFID Based Indoor Positioning Technology

The development and implementation of RFID-based positioning technology are very fast, whilst according to the literature, little review and convinced assessment comprehensive for the latest RFID technology have been conducted, and some of the main features of the latest RFID technology have rarely or

AC Motor Selection and Application Guide

AC Motor Selection and Application Guide

The motor nameplate voltage is determined by the available power supply which must be known in order to properly select a motor for a given application. The nameplate voltage will normally be less than the nominal distribution system voltage. The distribution voltage is the same as the supply transformer volt-

Power Relays Application Guide - GE Grid Solutions

Power Relays Application Guide GE Grid Solutions

Application Guide GE Power Management. 3 A GUIDE TO THE APPLICATION OF POWER RELAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF OVERPOWER OR REVERSE POWER CONDITIONS ON A POWER SYSTEM by Kenneth Winick Switchgear Equipment Engineering Department General Electric Company Philadelphia, Pa. This guide covers all of our true power relays as distinguished from directional power and direc-tional overcurrent relays. Its ...

Lab 7: Introduction to Pen Testing (NMAP)

Lab 7 Introduction to Pen Testing NMAP

Lab 7: Intro to Pen Testing (NMAP) 1 Details Aim: To provide a foundation in understanding NMAP. In this lab (Figure 1), we will use a local Windows hosts to scan the Windows 2003 and Ubuntu virtual machines. The addresses we will use are: [Host IP] which is the IP address of your Windows host.

Design and Implementation of a Smart Shopping Cart by RFID ...

Design and Implementation of a Smart Shopping Cart by RFID

Design and Implementation of a Smart Shopping Cart by RFID Technology by Nemalidinne Sai Megana A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Microelectronics and Embedded Systems Examination Committee: Dr. Mongkol Ekpanyapong (Chairperson) Assoc. Prof. Erik L. J. Bohez