The Folia Manuel Ponce And His Variations-Books Pdf

THE FOLIA MANUEL PONCE AND HIS VARIATIONS
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, Thank you to Professor David Tunley for his patient guidance invaluable advice and for. his wonderful ability to inspire Also a big thank you to Doctor Sam Leong for his. supervision when David was at Oxford , Thank you to my family and friends for enduring me and for not asking how is your. thesis coming along , 3, ABSTRACT, The aim of this thesis is two fold Firstly to present the argument that the Variations on. the Folia de Espana by the Mexican composer Manuel Ponce 1882 1948 were. composed as a result of collaboration between himself and Spanish guitarist Andres. Segovia 1893 1987 This will be shown through an examination of letters from Segovia. to Ponce and by linking the variations to other works commissioned by Segovia at the. time Secondly to present a detailed analytical study of the work and to provide. suggestions with a view to performance of the piece . The study documents the evolution of the folia as a musical form presents a biographical. history of the composer illustrating Segovia s influence with written documentation from. Segovia to Ponce and addresses issues of performance practice Factors concerning the. harmonic practice during Ponce s time Ponce s own compositional style the formal. structure of the work the use of rhythmic and melodic motifs and general performance. practice aspects of the period are outlined in the analysis . 4, TABLE OF CONTENTS, INTRODUCTION 8, CHAPTER 1 The Folia 10. CHAPTER 2 Manuel Maria Ponce A biographical background 15. CHAPTER 3 Correspondence The Segovia Ponce letters 22. CHAPTER 4 Analysis and performance practice 33, ENDNOTES 88.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 91, APPENDIX A 92, APPENDIX B 93, 5, UST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. FIGURE 1 First written account of the folia melody 11. FIGURE 2 Theme Original 37, FIGURE 3 Theme Segovia 38. FIGURE 4 Variation 1 40, FIGURE 5 Variation 1 Alternative left hand fingering 41. FIGURE 6 Variation 2 44, FIGURE 7 Variation 2 bb 1 9 cross string fingerings 46. FIGURE 8 Variation 2 Contour relationship to the folia melody 47. FIGURE 9 Variation 3 48, FIGURE 10 Variation 4 50, F I G U R E 11 Variation 14 51.
F I G U R E 12 Variation 14 Melodic relationship to the folia melody 52. F I G U R E 13 Variation 5 53, F I G U R E 14 Variation 5 Antecedent relationship to the folia melody 54. FIGURE 15 Variation 13 55, FIGURE 16 Variation 12 56. FIGURE 17 Variation 12 Relationship to the folia melody 58. FIGURE 18 Variation 10 59, F I G U R E 19 Variation 6 62. FIGURE 20 Variation 11 64, FIGURE 21 Variation 7 65. FIGURE 22 Variation 8 61, FIGURE 23 Variation 9 69.
FIGURE 24 Variation 15 70, 6, FIGURE 25 Variation 16 72. FIGURE 26 Variation 17 75, FIGURE 27 Variation 18 77. FIGURE 28 Variation 19 78, FIGURE 29 Variation 20 79. FIGURE 30 Fugue bb 1 25 80, FIGURE 31 Fugal entries 81. FIGURE 32 Development bb 25 73 82, FIGURE 33 Fugue bb 73 93 85.
FIGURE 34 Fugue bb 93 end 86, LIST O F TABLES, TABLE 1 Differences between the two folia s 13. TABLE 2 Comparison of the 1930 recording and 1932 publication 27. TABLE 3 Index of recurring rhythmic figures derived from var 1 42. 7, INTRODUCTION, L uring the early part of the twentieth century a renaissance in the music of the classic. guitar emerged in Spain Due to the efforts of the great Spanish classical guitarist Andres. Segovia 1893 1987 composers such as Manuel de Falla 1876 1946 Joaquin Rodrigo. 1901 1998 Joaquin Turina 1882 1949 and Mario Castelnuovo Tedesco 1895 1968 . began composing works for the instrument many of which were commissioned by. Segovia One of the most prolific composers to respond to Segovia s call was the Mexican. composer and musicologist Manuel Maria Ponce 1882 1948 . Two factors set Ponce aside from his contemporaries Firstly the volume of works he. composed for the guitar numbering over 80 These range from simple transcriptions of. Mexican folk songs to original neo baroque and neo classical suites as well as demanding. sonatas and a concerto for guitar and orchestra This is significant when one considers. that he did not play the guitar Secondly his guitar music is unique in both style and. character due to influences of his Mexican cultural background and his European musical. education , Aim, The primary aim of this thesis is to reveal how Segovia influenced Ponce in the. compositional process of this work via correspondences concerning the folia variations In. order to clarity the Ponce from the Segovia an analysis will illustrate stylistic traits an. characteristics consistent with Ponce s second style period Performance practice notes. will accompany each section of the work illustrating both modern day and period . practices The variations and fugue on the folia theme has been chosen to illustrate this. 8, argument as it still stands as one of the most substantial solo compositions written for the. classical guitar , Organisation of study, Following this introduction Chapter 1 deals with the evolution of the folia As Richard.
Hudson 1982 notes , A musical form exists in history as an evolving idea Its course of evolution is. determined by the cumulative effect of innumerable composers deciding h o w a. composition will be like and h o w it will be different from previous examples of the. form A composer in turn acts in response to the broad evolving musical attitudes of. his age and his o w n country A form therefore mirrors concurrently evolving concepts. of melody rhythm harmony style and structure as well as evolving musical. instruments and the evolving techniques of playing them It reflects changing attitudes. toward text and other non musical elements and toward the roles that music plays. within the society T h e mysterious process of evolution although seeming to be guided. sometimes by chance or by trivial circumstances usually traces a far simpler path than. is perceived by any individual composer Therefore it is often only after a form has run. its course that one can by surveying its total historyfinallyformulate a comprehensive. definition 1, Chapter 2 presents a biographical background of Ponce with special reference to the. importance of his meeting with Andres Segovia Chapter 3 documents the correspondence. between Segovia and Ponce illustrating Segovia s involvement with the folia variations and. other pieces Finally Chapter 4 presents an analysis and suggests performance practice. strategies for the entire work , 9, CHAPTER ONE, The Folia. It is important at the outset to acknowledge the research and writings of Richard Hudson . a leading authority not only on the folia but also on a variety of other baroque dance. forms Much of the following information included here has come from the many articles. and books he has written on the subject , The evolution ofthe Folia . The folia in literal translation meaning mad or empty headed originated from Portugal. and featured greatly in popular guitar music of both Spain and Italy during the early 17th. century In its original form the folia was quick and lively song and dance in triple meter. and the guitar was used in accompaniment Developed along with the sarabande . chaconne and passacaglia the folia obtained popularity as a serious musical form during. the baroque period For the purpose of this study the folia will be examined as a basis for. musical variations and not as an accompaniment for dance . In the early 1600s the newly developed five course guitar gained considerable. popularity in both Spain and Italy It was used as an accompaniment for singing and. dancing Elaborate techniques of rasgueado a flamenco strumming technique and. chordal style developed and the ensuing methods of notation proved to be intricate and. somewhat confusing Due to the lack of bass line and melody in such techniques . the dominating characteristic of a form was its distinctive succession of chords . Furthermore the various harmonic frameworks that identify the guitar forms seem to. be related within a larger concept of modality The heart of the concept of modality. , A guitar consisting of 5 doubled strings Le 10 strings in all Re entrant tuning was used .
10, seems to lie in various central chord progressions Since these progressions imply no. particular rhythm meter or phrase structure they actually constitute what might be. called chord rows 2, The first written account of the folia melody was given by Francisco de Salinas appearing. in De musica libri septem Salamanca 1577 However folia texts appeared in plays of. Gil Vincente written from around 1503 1529 3, Figure 1 . Vulgares quas Lusitani Follias vocant, Francisco Salinas 1577. V, J t, 1 c in 5 O rV, fm S r , V e ri ta te fac ta cunc ta cer nis op ti me .
if v j r am 1, A V o 1, J, i o 1, fj, 1, ve ri tas m a net m o ven tur haec sed or di ne . In 1606 the first set of variations on the folia appeared in Libro primo dintavolatura di. chittarone Venice 1604 of Johannes Hieronymus Kapsberger The folia started from a. modest beginning as a musical framework for songs dances and variations It was simple. in structure binary form the first half being punctuated by chord V and the second half. ending on the tonic chord The harmonic progression and melodic structure lent itself to. endless variation , 11, The Spanish Italian Folios . The Spanish varied the music in the early style through adding extra chords to embellish. the standard chord progression This was prompted by the development of rasgueado. techniques It was the Italians however who subjected the folia to significant rhythmic . melodic and harmonic change resulting in the later style folia It is also important to note. that the folia in Spain was danced and sung and played In Italy the folia like the. zarabanda and ciaconna appears to be a dance without song 4. During the baroque period an interest in polyphonic exploration and more melodically. delineated writing occurred As a result the distinctive chord progressions became. melodic bass lines Furthermore the same Baroque concept acted upon the guitar itself . and the playing of selected notes punteado on specific courses joined or in some cases. superseded altogether the strummed rasgueado chords 5. According to Hudson the evolution of the folia can be divided into two periods 1577 . 1674 when the folia was popular mainly in Spain and Italy and was fast and lively 1672 . 1750 when the form was popular mainly in France and England and was slow and. dignified in character Hudson does not qualify his reason for the apparent two year. overlap between 1672 74 , The folia gained popularity in France towards the latter half of the 17th century The. significance of this regarding its evolution is immeasurable as the following statement. attests , In 1672 a French folia appeared that displayed a substantial alteration of the. traditional structure As an almost fixed melodic and harmonic framework this n e w. folia became immensely popular in France and England for sets of instrumental. variations All four forms were subjected in France to a severe slowing of tempo and. all four referring to the chaconne sarabande and passacaglia were finally. 12, characterised by majestic triple rhythm in which the dotted second beat received a.
heavy accent 6, This later French development was to be given its most famous utterance w h e n Arcangelo. Corelli 1653 1713 composed a set of variations on the folia theme The structure of the. folia has not changed since baroque times Interestingly the folia unlike the sarabande. and chaconne did not attain popularity in Germany and as a result was never utilised in. any of the dance suites that proved to be so popular there . T h e following table as devised by Hudson 7 clearly illustrates the characteristic differences. between both types of folia and in so doing effectively traces the historical evolution o. the form , Table 1 Differences between the Two Folios . The Earlier Folia The Later Folia, Period 1577 1674 and isolated 1672 1750. ex Until 1774, Location Spain Italy Mainly in France England . Structure Disposed of in four 4 measure Consists of two 8 measure sections . phrases , Often has 2 standard ritornelli N o internal repetition beyond the.
parallelism of the 2 halves , The first accent is on the V chord First accent is on the i chord thus. shifting the entire structure , Rhythm Usually has 2 beats of anacrusis Usually no anacrusis . Tempo fast lively Tempo slow dignified , 2nd beat accents often caused by Accents created by dotted 2nd beats. chord changes ordinarily in any of melody especially in odd . measure except 4 8 12 or 16 numbered measures , Chords may shift from the duration Each framework chord usually. shown in the framework occupies one full measure except in. m 15 , Alternation between 2 different Insistent and steady emphasis on 3A.
meters cross rhythms between the meter , melody and the chordal. accompaniment or between stroke, rhythm and chordal rhythm . Harmony M a y use a major or minor tonic Uses a minor tonic chord . chord or mix them within a single, statement , Favours G minor but may occur in Almost always in D minor . any other major or minor key , Does not include III in the Almost always includes III in both. the Folia de Espana by the Mexican composer Manuel Ponce 1882 1948 were composed as a result of collaboration between himself and Spanish guitarist Andres Segovia 1893 1987 This will be shown through an examination of letters from Segovia to Ponce and by linking the variations to other works commissioned by Segovia at the time Secondly

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