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The Explanation of Spiritual Intelligence and Burn Out
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34 International Journal ofManagement Perspective,1 Introduction. Within the next decade a considerable proportion of the current IT workers are. expected to retire and at the same time fewer employees are entering this field 1. The nature of the information technology profession associates with specific. challenges for IT staffs These challenges decrease employees willingness to. continue their job and consequently lead to more job abandonment It is essential to. conduct more research about ways of decreasing job burnout in IT field Burn out as. emotional exhaustion is described to be the result of role overload role conflict. interpersonal conflict lack of autonomy and lack of rewards as primary. antecedents 2 which lead to more task abandonment Researchers have explained. burnout as a kind of job strain which emerges from accumulated work related stress. 3 The multidimensional model of Maslach is the most widely used definition of. burnout which consists of three dimensions of emotional exhaustion. depersonalization and feelings of reduced personal accomplishment 4 5. According to literature efforts to prevent job burnout have been concentrated on. decreasing job demand and providing employees with supplemental resources 6. This study expands the literature by examining the relationship of spiritual. intelligence with IT staffs burnout Spiritual intelligence includes facing existential. realities as freedom feeling pain death and grappling with the perennial search for. Researches in the field of SI showed that SI can be followed with psychological. health and SI development comprises and transcends personal growth leading to. more psychological health 7 It can consequently be helpful in decreasing inner. conflict or concerns By better understanding the influence of spiritual intelligence. on burnout employees may be better able to reduce a variety of negative behavioral. outcomes The next section reviews job burnout and spiritual intelligence literature. and the corresponding hypotheses are tested using survey data from a sample of IT. workers Finally research results will be discussed and some suggestions for future. studies will be provided,2 Literature Review, Burnout is described as a syndrome or a state of physical emotional and mental. exhaustion as well as cynicism towards one s work in response to chronic. organizational stressors 8 Maslach and Jackson 4 defined job burnout as a. syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism that occurs frequently among. individuals who do people work of some kind In another definition of job. burnout it is described as an emotional reaction to some stressors such as role. ambiguity absence of autonomy and absence of rewards or work overload 1. Burnout consists of three dimensions emotional exhaustion depersonalization and. feelings of reduced personal accomplishment 4 8 9 3. Emotional exhaustion is described as a feeling of being emotionally. overextended and exhausted with work so employees feel physically tired used up. and lacking capability to recover and be relaxed 23 Emotional exhaustion is a key. aspect of job burnout that associates with feelings of energy reduction tiredness and. absence of sensation 9, Depersonalization or Cynicism includes negative attitudes toward coworkers and. one s job which associates with heightened willingness to leave the job 10 It refers. to a state in which the individual treats others impersonally and harshly 9. The Explanation of Spiritual Intelligence and 35, Depersonalization is indicated by increased pessimism and individual s tendency to. abandon tasks 3 Lower personal accomplishment is explained as losing the. feelings of being successful and adequately qualified and believing that the efforts. he has been making are in vain 8 It refers to the sense of failure Ineffectiveness. and absence of achievement in the job 10 It makes individual feel ineffective and. unsuccessful at work, It has been discussed that Job burnout as an erosion of individual s energy and.
resources happens in a long period of time and associates with low performance and. interpersonal conflict 11 In various researches that have been done about. organizational effects of burnout it is argued that burnout leads to job turnover. absenteeism and low morale 4 low job satisfaction and reduced organizational. commitment 11 1 Burnout is affected by emotions and feelings of a person and it. has been discussed that there is a relationship between Emotional intelligence and. burnout 12 Intelligence is a mental ability that is needed for adapting to selecting. and shaping of environmental context 13, Gardner 14 categorizes intelligence into seven types linguistic musical. logical mathematical spatial bodily kinesthetic an intrapersonal intelligence and. interpersonal intelligence His research revealed that different types of intelligence. develop independently of one another and skillfulness in one domain does not refer. to skillfulness in other domains 7, In his classification he does not point out spiritual intelligence as a distinctive. kind of intelligence that develops separately from other kinds The last two. intelligences are more personal The first consists of one s ability in understanding. his her own feeling and inner self and the last intelligence refers to how an. individual can perceive others feeling and thoughts and distinguishes their moods. intentions and their other features 14, The last two intelligences are mostly related to emotional intelligence of a. person Emotional intelligence is an ability of monitoring and perceiving one s own. emotions and emotions of others in an interpersonal relationship 15 Emotional. intelligence comprises self awareness and self control and also the ability to get. along well with others The latter refers to capability of a person in listening. communicating accepting feedback as well as empathizing with various. perspectives 7, As emotional intelligence is embedded more in emotional resources there is. another intelligence that focuses more on spiritual abilities of individuals Emotional. intelligence is an ability of monitoring and perceiving one s own emotions and. emotions of others in an interpersonal relationship 15. One upper level of emotional intelligence that is recently considered by many of. organizational researches and managers is spiritual intelligence Spiritual. intelligence involves the interior life of mind and spirit and also its relationship to. the world It is described to be a practice improving intrapersonal and interpersonal. sensitivity 7 Although spirituality is claimed to be related with burnout the. relationship between spiritual intelligence and burnout is not investigated widely. Spirituality refers to the quality of human spirit that aims at happiness for oneself. and others 17 Spirituality consists of several abilities including a focus on. ultimate meaning b awareness and development of multiple levels of. 36 International Journal ofManagement Perspective, consciousness c experience of the preciousness and sacredness of life and.
d transcendence of self into a connected whole 13, When spirituality and intelligence are combined in a new context they shape the. new construct called spiritual intelligence that includes the ability of applying. spirituality for adaptation and creation of valuable products and outcomes 13 It. relies on the ability of seeing things from various points of view and understanding. the relationship between perception belief and behavior and as other kinds of. intelligence needs training and discipline 7, Zohar and Marshall 18 describe SI as the intelligence with which we address. and solve problems of meaning and value the intelligence with which we can place. our actions and our lives in a wider richer meaning giving context the intelligence. with which we can assess that one course of action or one life path is more. meaningful that another Spiritual maturity subsumes a degree of emotional and. moral maturity as well as ethical behavior and include applying wisdom and. compassion in communicating with others regardless of their demographic features. age gender origin and also respect for all types of life It encompasses some. sense of existential freedom and morality Spiritual maturity refers to the ability of a. person in linking his interior mind and spirit with outer life of action and service and. needs capability of self awareness to be improved 7. Lynton and Thogersen 19 explain spiritual intelligence as the intelligence. through which an individual can be aware of his her values purposes meaning and. highest motivations, As it was explained it is possible for a person to have constant access to pure. awareness which includes awareness of all levels Such awareness can be sustained. through walking dreaming and sleeping states as it is always present in all three. Amram and Dryer 20 developed an integrative framework for measuring. spiritual intelligence called Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale ISIS ISIS. consists of an 83 item self report that includes 22 capability scale and 5 major. domains namely Meaning Consciousness Grace Transcendence and Truth. King 21 introduced a measurement tool for measuring spiritual intelligence that. includes four features a critical existential thinking b personal meaning. production c transcendental awareness and d conscious state expansion. Critical Existential Thinking Existential thinking in a simple description refers. to thinking about one s existence which is a part of spiritual intelligence definition. 21 Critical existential thinking is described as actively and skillfully. conceptualizing applying analyzing synthesizing and or evaluating information. gathered from or generated by observation experience reflection reasoning or. communication 22 king and DeCicco 23 defined this dimension of spiritual. intelligence as an ability of thinking critically about existential issues like meaning. purpose death and etc As Gardner 24 explained existential thinking is a process. of engaging with existential issues Therefore it can be defined as a desire to. engage with ultimate concerns and the capacity to carry out a meaning making. process that locates oneself in relation to these existential issues 25. Personal Meaning Production As king and DeCicco 23 explained Personal. Meaning Production is the capability to construct personal meaning and purpose in. The Explanation of Spiritual Intelligence and 37, all physical and mental experiences including the capacity to create and master a. life purpose It is also referred to a state in which individuals have a sense of. direction have a purpose in life and a sense of order and a reason for existence. Transcendental Awareness This aspect presents the ability of going beyond one s. personal limitations which is associated with integration of individulal purposes with. larger ones 27 Transcendental awareness also is defined as capacity to perceive. transcendent dimensions of the self e g a transcendent self of others and of the. physical world e g nonmaterialism interconnectedness during the normal waking. state of consciousness 23, Conscious State Expansion As king and DeCicco 23 described Conscious State.
Expansion involves the ability to enter spiritual states of consciousness at one s. own discretion He classified spiritual states in three types of consciousness as. cosmic consciousness pure consciousness and unitiveconsciousness Cosmic. consciousness refers to the awareness of order of the whole world which goES along. with a sense of eternity The state of consciousness that he called pure consciousness. pertains to a silent state of inner wakefulness with no object of thought or. perception Unitive consciousness is the other type is an understanding that all. aspects of life are ingredients of a unified whole 21. This paper examines the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job. burnout in information technology staffs King s SISRI 24 questionnaire was used. as it measures spiritual intelligence elements accurately and comprehensively. Maslach Burnout Inventory MBI was also used to measure job burnout aspects. The following section presents statistical hypothesis and survey results Finally. research results will be discussed and some suggestion for future studies will be. 3 Problem Description, It is found out that burnout negatively affects not only employees but also the. whole organization 28 Therefore most researches in this field were conducted to. see how organization can prevent costly effects of burnout Recently it is explained. that most studies in this field are guided to concentrate on human strengths and. optimal functioning instead of focusing on negative situations 29 Although there. are a lot of studies on how destructive employee burnout can be studies on how. improving employees capabilities such as spiritual intelligence are limited It is. needed to have more empirical evidence on new abilities through which burnout can. be prevented This research concentrates on spiritual intelligence s impact on. burnout among IT staffs,4 Methodology, The proposed conceptual model is shown in figure 1 As the figure demonstrates. the hypothesis of the research is as follow, Hypothesis Spiritual Intelligence has a direct effecton the Burn Out of. information technology staffs,38 International Journal ofManagement Perspective. Spiritual B2,Intelligence Burn Out,Fig 1 The Conceptual Model.
Questionnaire A survey instrument consisted of 29 items was developed to measure. two constructs of the model The items included in the survey are presented in. Appendix A A five point Likert scale was used to measure respondent s agreement. or disagreement from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree The sample. population consisted of information technology staffs dealing with information. technology related products and services The questionnaire was pre tested on 20. experts to evaluate the questionnaire s validity with regard to clarity bias ambiguous. questions and relevance to the business environment After pre testing and revising. the questionnaires were distributed among more than 200 information technology. staffs and 130 were collected Various minimum sample sizes for the structural. equation modeling SEM approach have been recommended Taking into. consideration Bollen s suggestion of a minimum sample size of 100 the sample size. of 130 in this study is adequate Data were collected over a month and Questionnaires. were distributed via email, Table 1 presents the test of reliability including Cronbach alpha explained by each. construct bothconstructshasCronbach s alpha of greater than 60 30. Table 1 Test of reliability,Variables SI B,Cronbach s Alpha 76 70. Demographics of research respondents present that nearly 53 of the people in. the sample were graduated and most of them were experts Most of the research. sample had less than7 year seniority and almost88 of them were in the range. of26 35 yearsold The profile of respondents is shown in Table 2. The Explanation of Spiritual Intelligence and 39,Table 2 Profile of the respondents. Characteristics Frequency Characteristics Frequency. Position Age,Employee 27 20 77 Up tp 25 6 4 62,Expert 72 55 38 26 to 35 115 88 46. Supervisor Manager 31 23 85 36 to 45 9 6 923,46 to 55 0 0.
More than 56 0 0,Total 130 100 130 100,Work Experience Education. Up to 3 30 23 08 Diploma 9 6 92,4 to 7 56 43 08 Undergraduate 37 28 46. 8 to 11 30 23 08 Graduate 68 52 31,More than 12 14 10 77 PhD 16 12 31. Total 130 100 00 130 100 00, Data Analysis The proposed model was evaluated applying SEM approach using. LISREL 8 53 SEM is a comprehensive statistical approach to test the hypotheses. about relations among observed and latent variables 31 The descriptive statistics of. dependent and independent variable were also computed by SPSS software Tables 3. shows mean values and standard deviations of scales A variety of indices generated. by LISREL were used to evaluate the model s goodness of fit Chi square degree of. freedom with values of less than three indicating acceptable fit 2 df root mean. squared error of approximation RMSEA with values below 0 08 representing. acceptable fit normalized fit index NFI goodness of fit index GFI and. comparative fit index CFI greater than 0 9 and adjusted goodness of fit index. AGFI greater than 0 8 and less than 0 1 are representatives of good fit The results. of indices are shown in table 4,Table 3 Descriptive statistics.
Item Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation, Independent variable SpiritualIntelligence King 2008. Critical Existential Thinking SI1 1 00 7 00 3 0615 85139. Personal Meaning Productionb SI2 1 00 7 00 3 2000 1 02223. Transcendental Awareness SI3 1 00 7 00 3 1231 91512. Conscious State Expansion SI4 1 00 7 00 3 2615 1 03095. Dependent variable Burnout Maslach 1981,Emotional Exhaustion B1 1 00 7 00 3 1308 1 05204. Personal Accomplishment B2 1 00 7 00 3 0077 83986,Depersonalization B3 1 00 7 00 2 8385 1 00235. 40 International Journal ofManagement Perspective,Table 4 Statistics Of Model Fit. Fit indices Recommended value Results,2 df 3 00 1 96.
Root Mean Squared Error of 0 08 0 08,Approximation RMSEA. Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index AGFI 0 80 0 88,Normed Fit Index NFI 0 9 0 91. Comparative Fit Index CFI 0 9 0 95,Goodness of Fit Index GFI 0 9 0 95. 5 Results and Discussion, This study has tried to investigate the relation between spiritual intelligence and. job burnout According to the results 19 of the variance in the employee Burn Out. was explained by Spiritual Intelligence R2 0 19 A graphical presentation of the. results is depicted in figure 2 Our main hypothesis was largely supported by the data. and shows spiritual intelligence has a strong direct effect on Burn Out 0 34. SI2 0 70 0 34 0 48,Spiritual B2,Intelligence Burn Out.
Fig 2 The Results of the Research, Captari 32 in studying the correlation between burnout and spirituality among. Resident Assistants found that although small a correlation between spirituality. and burnout was achieved He mentioned that RAs with higher level of spiritual. maturity were more able to cope with hard situation so were expected to be more. resilient towards burnout, One of the main factors that lead to burn out is job demand which is high. specifically in IT profession The job pressures can lead to fatigue stress and. isolation which may consequently contribute to burnout Jackson Schwab and. Schuller 33 asserted that individuals who have emotionally demanding jobs often. had feelings of fatigue and excessive tiredness It was claimed that achievement and. organization expectations are two factors that have significant roles in causing. Burnout can lead to a reduction of energy lacking of creation sensing of. separation from others and feeling of physical and psychological discomfort 32. Freudenberger 34 indicated several physical and behavioral symptoms that are. associated with burnout Feelings of fatigue gastrointestinal disturbances and a sense. of lingering cold were some of the physical signs that were explained to be the results. of burnout in individuals He also identified some behavioral symptoms as high. irritability increased paranoia stubbornness and rigidity As it was mentioned it is. The Explanation of Spiritual Intelligence and 41, critical for managers to recognize how they can reduce negative effects of burnout. and significantly how burnout can be prevented Regarding the results spirituality. can be considered as a factor that would be helpful in psychological and physical. healthiness by preventing phenomena such as burnout in employees. The workplace spirituality was considered as an experience of trust and. interconnectedness that individuals obtain during work processes This spirituality is. achieved through individual goodwill and it results in a motivational organizational. culture that is formed by collective efforts and includes reciprocity and solidarity. 35 Spirituality in workplace leads to improved organizational performance and is. addressed by lasting organizational excellence 35 The organizational benefits of. spirituality involve improvement of organizational performance employees. involvement and satisfaction and increased rates of return on investment 15. Spirituality at work involves 36, 1 Working towards the realisation of the highest potential in each individual. working from a paradigm of collaboration rather than competition. 2 Seeking to embody spiritual values love acceptance compassion forgiveness. integrity honesty in all that we do and in all our relationships. 3 Making space for all that stops us we might call this working with the shadow. and the inner critic or judge, 4 Acting in ways that acknowledge embrace and enhance the presence of something.
beyond the physical here and now beyond that which we can perceive with our. senses of touch taste smell sight and hearing, As Alfred 36 mentioned a willingness to live in the realm of chaos respecting. intuition and more responsible managers are the consequences of fostering spirituality. in an organization,6 Conclusions and Future Works, The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between. Spiritual Intelligence and job burnout Research results indicated that the spiritual. intelligence has a significant impact on job burnout Regarding the results. spirituality can lead to a decrease in employee burnout if it can be improved Spiritual. intelligence was demonstrated as an important feature that affects burnout and assists. managers in keeping talents in organization Employees with high levels of. spirituality can think beyond ordinary issues in their job as they seek to find the. meaning and purposes of their life This competency can able them to tolerate even. hard situations of their work and continue their job As we indicated previously one. of the main problems of IT professions is the high pressures that they receive from. their job and work environment so job abandonment have recently increased in IT. field Spiritual intelligence can be considered a factor that should be improved in IT. workers in order to increase their capability in tolerating hard situations This paper. has identified that burnout can be decreased by improving spiritual intelligence in. employees but more research is needed to find out how spiritual intelligence must. be improved in IT sector and how all components of this intelligence can affect. burnout effectively Also there is a need to investigate other variables having effect. on burn out of information technology staff such as culture or organizational. citizenship behavior,42 International Journal ofManagement Perspective. References, 1 Shropshire J Kadlec C 2012 I m Leaving the IT Field the Impact of Stress Job. Insecurity and Burnout on IT Professionals International Journal of Information and. Communication Technology Research 2 6 16, 2 Raiger J 2005 Applying a Cultural Lens to the Concept of Burnout Journal of.
Transcultural Nursing 16 71 76, 3 Cole Michael S Walter Frank Bedeian Arthur G and O Boyle Ernest H 2012 Job. Burnout and Employee Engagement A Meta Analytic Examination of Construct. Proliferation Journal of Management 38 1550 1581, 4 Maslach C Jackson S 1981 The measurement of experienced burnout Journal of. Occupational Behaviour 2 99 113, 5 Maslach C Schaufeli W B 1993 Historical and conceptual development of. burnout InW B Schaufeli C Maslach T Marek Eds Professional burnout Recent. developments in theory and research pp 1 18 Washington DC Taylor and Francis. 6 Leiter M P Maslach C 2010 Building engagement The design and evaluation of. interventions In A B Bakker M P Leiter Eds Work engagement A handbook of. essential theory and research 164 180 New York Psychology Press. 7 Vaughan F 2002 What is Spiritual Intelligence Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 8 Kanwar Y P S Singh A K and Kodwani A D 2009 Work life balance and burnout. as predictors Of job satisfaction in the IT ITes industry The Journal of Business Perspective. 9 Griffin M L Hogan N L Lambert E G Tucker Gail K A 2010 Job involvement job. stress job satisfaction and organizational commitment and the burnout of correctional staff. Criminal Justice And Behavior 37 239 255, 10 Maslach C Leiter M P 1997 The truth about burnout How organizations cause. personal stress and what to do about it San Francisco Jossey Bass. 11 Singh P Suar D Leiter M P 2012 Antecedents Work Related Consequences and. Buffers of Job Burnout among Indian Software Developers Journal of Leadership and. Organizational Studies 19 83 104, 12 Lee H 2010 The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labor.
and Its Effect on Job Burnout in Korean Organizations PhD thesis The faculty of the. graduate school of the University of Minnesota, 13 Amram J 2009 The Contribution Of Emotional And Spiritual Intelligences To. Effective Business Leadership Institute Of Transpersonal Psychology palo alto. californiajanuary 15, 14 Gardner h 1983 Frames of mind the theory of multiple intelligences New. york harpercollins, 15 Hildebrantlinda s 2011 spiritual intelligence is it related to a Leader s level of ethical. development capella university, 16 Roberts G Green D 2011 Servant leader workplace spiritual intelligence a shield of. protection from workplace stress Regent Global Business Review 5 12 18. 17 Ayranci E 2011 The relationship between spiritual leadership and issues of spirituality. and religiosity a study of top turkish managers international journal of business and. management 6 136 149, 18 Zohar d Marshall I 2000 connecting with our spiritual intelligence New York.
bloomsbury Ma Retrieved september 17 2008 from http www yosiamram net paper. 19 Lynton N Thogersen K 2009 spiritual intelligence and leadership in the china. laboratory journal of international business ethics 2 112 121. 20 Amram y dryer c 2008 The integrated spiritual intelligence scale. ISIS Development and preliminary validation Proc 116th american psychological. associationConf boston Aug,The Explanation of Spiritual Intelligence and 43. 21 King D B 2008 Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence a definition model and. Measure Master s thesis trent university peterborough ontario canada. 22 Scriven M Paul R 1992 Critical thinking defined Proc Handout given at Critical. ThinkingConf Atlanta GA, 23 King D B DeCicco T L 2009 A Viable Model and Self Report Measure of Spiritual. Intelligence International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 28 68 85. 24 Gardner H 1999 Intelligence reframed Multiple intelli gences for the 21st century. New York NY Basic Books, 25 Allan B A Shearer C B 2012 The Scale for Existential Thinking International. Journal of Transpersonal Studies 31 21 37, 26 Reker G T Wong P T P 1988 Aging as an individual process Toward a theory of. personal meaning In J E Birren and V L Bengtson Eds Handbook of theories of aging. pp 214 246 New York NY Springer, 27 Csikszentmihalyi M 1993 The evolving self A psychology for the third millennium.
New York NY Harper Collins, 28 Garner B R Knight K and Simpson D D 2007 Burnout among corrections based. drugtreatmentstaff International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 51 510 522, 29 Wilson K 2009 A Survey of Employee Engagement PHD thesis University of. Missouri Columbia, 30 Nunnally JC 1978 Psychometric theory New York McGraw Hill. 31 Hoyle r H 1995 The structural equation modeling approach basic concepts and. fundamental issues in r H Hoyle ed structural equation modeling concepts issues and. applications 1 14, 32 Captari D 2010 Investigating the Correlation between Burnout and Spirituality among. Resident Assitants at Liberty University Senior Honors Papers 119. 33 Jackson S Schwab R Schuler R 1986 Toward an understanding of the burnout. phenomenon Journal of Applied Psychology 71 630 640. 34 Freudenberger H 1975 The staff burn out syndrome in alternative institutions. Psychotherapy Theory Research Practice 12 1 73 82, 35 Harmer R Fallon B 2007 The role of emotional intelligence in the pursuit of a.
spiritual life implications for individuals in organisations Organisations people emotional. intelligence special edition, 36 Alfred R 2002 Developing practical spirituality in the work place Proc 1th International. conference on organisational spirituality university of surrey guildford england 22 24. 44 International Journal ofManagement Perspective,Appendix A Survey instrument. Independent variable,Spiritual Intelligence,Critical Existential Thinking SI1. I have spent time contemplating the purpose or reason for my existence. I am able to deeply contemplate what happens after death. I have developed my own theories about such things as life death reality and existence. I frequently contemplate the meaning of events in my life. I have often contemplated the relationship between human beings and the rest of the universe. Personal Meaning Production SI2, My ability to find meaning and purpose in life helps me adapt to stressful situations. I am able to define a purpose or reason for my life. When I experience a failure I am still able to find meaning in it. I am able to find meaning and purpose in my everyday experiences. Transcendental Awareness SI3, I recognize aspects of myself that are deeper than my physical body.
I am aware of a deeper connection between myself and other people. I am highly aware of the nonmaterial aspects of life. Recognizing the nonmaterial aspects of life helps me feel centered. Conscious State Expansion SI4, I am able to enter higher states of consciousness or awareness. I can control when I enter higher states of consciousness or awareness. I am able to move freely between levels of consciousness or awareness. I often see issues and choices more clearly while in higher states ofconsciousness awareness. Dependent variable,Burn Out Reverse coded,Emotional Exhaustion B1. I feel emotionally drained from my work,I feel used up at the end of the workday. I feel frustrated by my job, Working with people directly puts too much stress on me. Personal Accomplishment B2, I deal very effectively with the problems of my recipients.
I feel I m positively influencing other people s lives through my work. 1 have accomplished many worthwhile things in this job. I feel very energetic,Depersonalization B3, I feel I treat some recipients as if they were impersonal objects. I don t really care what happens to some Recipients. I ve become more callous toward people since I took this job. I worry that this job is hardening me emotionally,.

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