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The Armenian Weekly,SEPTEMBER 1 2012,2 Contributors. 13 Armenian medieval,Historians in Print 25 Armenian Printing in. America 1857 1912,Three Centuries of By Teotig,3 500 Years A Celebration. of Ink and Paper and Glue,By Chris Bohjalian,Scholarship across. Three Continents,Translated and Edited,by Vartan Matiossian.
By Ara Sanjian,5 Talk to Me,By Kristi Rendahl,22 Celebrating 500 Years. of Armenian Printing,28 A World History,of Armenian Printers. 7 Wings on Their Feet and,on their Heads Reflections. By Lilly Torosyan Bakhchinyan,on Port Armenians and. Five Centuries of Global,Armenian Print Culture,24 The First Historian of.
Armenian Printing,By Vartan Matiossian,By Sebouh D Aslanian. CONTRIBUTORS The Armenian Weekly,Editor Khatchig Mouradian. Copy editor Nayiri Arzoumanian,Art Director Gina Poirier. Sebouh David Aslanian was born in Ethiopia and Born in Montevideo Uruguay and long time resi. received his Ph D with distinction from Columbia dent of Buenos Aires Argentina Dr Vartan. University in 2007 He holds the Richard Hovannisian Matiossian is a historian literary scholar translator. Endowed Chair of Modern Armenian history at the and educator living in New Jersey He has published. department of history at UCLA His recently published six books on Armenian history and literature He is. From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean The currently the executive director of the Armenian. Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa National Education Committee in New York and book review editor. Berkeley University of California Press 2011 was the recipient of of Armenian Review. the PEN USA literary award for the most outstanding first book of. the year from UC Press It was also awarded the Middle East Studies Originally from a family farm in North Dakota Kristi. Association s MESA Houshang Pourshariati Prize for best book in Rendahl lived and worked in Armenia from. Iranian Studies for 2011 1997 2002 and visits the country regularly She works. with the Center for Victims of Torture as the organi. Artsvi Bakhchinyan works at the Institute of History zational development advisor to 10 torture treatment. of National Academy of Sciences He is the author centers around the world and is pursuing a doctorate. and editor of more than ten books mostly in in public administration Rendahl resides in St Paul Minn. Armenian including Figures of Armenian Origin, Napoleon Bonaparte and the Armenians Armenians Dr Ara Sanjian is Associate Professor of Armenian. in World Cinema and The Dancer of Shamakha The and Middle Eastern History and the Director of the. Life and Work of Armen Ohanian co authored with Vartan Armenian Research Center at the University of. Matiossian Michigan Dearborn He is the author of Turkey and. Her Arab Neighbors 1953 1958 A Study in the Origins. Chris Bohjalian is the author of fifteen books and Failure of the Baghdad Pact He is currently. including the New York Times bestsellers The working on a book length project on the Armenian quest for. Sandcastle Girls The Night Strangers Skeletons at Mountainous Karabagh under Soviet rule in 1923 1987. the Feast and The Double Bind His novel Midwives, was a number one New York Times best seller and Lilly Torosyan is studying international relations.
a selection of Oprah s Book Club His work has been and political science at Boston University BU She. translated into more than 25 languages and three of his novels lives in West Hartford Conn Torosyan is active in. have become movies He has written for Cosmopolitan Reader s the ACYOA and BU s Armenian Students Association. Digest and the Boston Globe Sunday Magazine ASA She is a staff writer at the Armenian Weekly. 2 T H E A R M E N I A N W E E K LY September 1 2012. 500 A Celebration of Ink and Paper and Glue,BY CHRIS BOHJALIAN. o one is ever going to confuse the,Madenataran with the local neigh. borhood bookstore It sits on a hill,in downtown Yerevan a massive. 122 thousand square foot block of, marble and basalt its entrance shielded by statues. of Armenian mathematicians historians theolo,gians and the creator of the Armenian alphabet.
Saint Mesrob Mashdots As many readers of this,newspaper know it s impressive and regal and. unlike a lot of mid 20th century Soviet architec,tural behemoths imposing and welcoming at once. And yet the Madenataran is filled with nothing,but books It s Armenia s Institute for Ancient. Manuscripts a museum of very and I mean very,old books When I was in Armenia in May it was the. second place I visited The first was the Armenian,Genocide Memorial where beside the eternal.
flame I laid flowers in remembrance of our ances,tors who were killed in the genocide I don t read. Armenian and I m certainly no scholar when it,comes to illuminated manuscripts but even now. well into the digital age I am still drawn to the paper. book Consequently I spent an afternoon at the,Madenataran peering through glass at manuscripts. and Bibles and books some made of parchment and,some made of paper some copied by hand and. The author L with Prof Levon Avdoyan in front of the Library of Congress exhibit. poster Photo by Nareg Bostanian some printed by presses I was dazzled. September 1 2012 THE A R M E N I A N W E E K LY 3,This marks the 500th anniversary of.
Armenian printing The first tome The,Book of Fridays a prayer book printed. using red and black inks in Venice in 1512,The second book published in Armenian. The Bible Fittingly UNESCO has selected,Yerevan its World Book Capital for this year. Meanwhile in Washington D C Levon,Avdoyan prepared a magnificent exhibition. of Armenian manuscripts and books and,record albums at the Library of Congress.
to celebrate the Armenian literary tradition,The exhibit To Know Wisdom and. Tradition is a gem I went there too It,runs through September 26. The books in the Madenataran and on,display at the Library of Congress are eye. candy for a reader This is true whether, you prefer books made of pulp and ink or Bohjalian and Avdoyan exchange books Photo by Nareg Bostanian. glue or you ve chosen instead an eReader,The reality is that anyone who loves books.
understands that we have a profound smell of the onions the cooks there placed 10 million Armenians in this world only. totemic relationship with paper to the on the hamburgers And Franz Werfel s 3 million live in Armenia today. book as an artifact In the library in my magisterial epic The Forty Days of Musa And the physical book itself the paper. house in which I write there are two walls Dagh is the wood paneled living room of and the ink and the cloth is beautiful. of books There could easily be four but my childhood home in Stamford Conn I m not referring to the text or a single. the room is a corner that once was a living and my dawning awareness that there was word I wrote I m talking about the design. room and so there are also two walls of more to my Armenian grandparents lives The type The feel Doubleday designed. windows I can swivel in my chair and as children and young adults than they and produced a physically alluring book. glance at the dust jacket of most of the ever were likely to share Knowing of my Raised lettering on the cover and the spine. books on those shelves and tell you where profound love for The Forty Days of Musa An elegant juxtaposition of gold and black. I was when I first cracked the book s spine Dagh and of books made of paper the Deckle edge pages A cover image that is. Ian McEwan s Atonement is the grass Christmas before last my wife found me wistful and epic and in my opinion cap. beneath a maple tree outside a health and a beautiful first edition of the novel tures perfectly the sensibility of the novel. fitness club in Middlebury Vt the leaves The truth is a book s dust jacket or This is my 15th book so I can be pretty. unfurling in the April sun inside my spine can instantly catapult us back in jaded when my editor sends me a new one. young daughter is in the midst of one of time We don t merely recall the novel s plot hot off the presses Been there done that. her dance classes Henry Roth s Call it Sleep or a snippet of dialogue We remember who Nope Not this time. is the snack bar at Smith College where we were where we were and perhaps the When a copy of The Sandcastle Girls. my wife went to school when we were state of our lives when we first met Atticus first arrived at my house in Vermont I. merely boyfriend and girlfriend and the Finch or Daisy Buchanan or Gabriel found myself holding it in my hands and. Bagradian A book is like recalling the day I had written the book s. music in that regard It can first sentence And I thought of my recent. resurrect memories for us visit to the Madenataran and the spectac. My new novel The ular care that someone had put into the. Sandcastle Girls is set production of each and every book and. mostly in Turkey and Syria manuscript there No one planned to coin. in the midst of the cide the publication of The Sandcastle Girls. Armenian Genocide in the with the 500th anniversary of Armenian. First World War but there printing or the UNESCO selection of. are a few moments in Yerevan as the 2012 World Book Capital. Yerevan The novel is a love But this novel is the most personal and. story but it is also the story the most important book I ve written Its. Bohjalian at the Madenataran in Yerevan Photo by Movses Babayan of our diaspora why of the arrival this year is a great great gift a. 4 T H E A R M E N I A N W E E K LY September 1 2012. to M RE NDAHL,There are people more,qualified than I. to write on the,momentous occasion,of the 500th,anniversary of. Armenian printing,Nonetheless I ve been,given the honor of. adding my two dram,to the conversation,As you know they. don t even make one,dram coins so take it,for what it s worth.
WHAT HAVE I GOTTEN MYSELF INTO, et s start by establishing one thing I Until a month or two before I left such I d learned useful words like. talk a lot And I talk to a lot of people for Armenia I had been slated for Alba mirupafshim goodbye in Albanian. So it won t surprise you that when I nia The Albanian language uses the which incidentally is the only word I. moved to Armenia three weeks after Latin alphabet which makes it more can recall from my self study. college graduation in 1997 I was accessible than say Armenian At least The Peace Corps called one day. beyond concerned about my ability to for the ignorant lass that I was at the though to say that I would not be going. communicate time and quite possibly still am As to Albania after all due to instability in. September 1 2012 THE A R M E N I A N W E E K LY 5,Five hundred years. the country So much for the chest thump When I arrived is a lot to celebrate situations or as. ing I d done in front of my father I will go e mail was still in its jokes I ll leave it. until they tell me I cannot Well they told infancy stage I had I m just celebrating what to you to find the. me I cannot an e mail address in appropriate tone,15 years of progress. I d lost my verve for advance prepara college and my sec for each. tion having done so in vain once already ond was with the can provide Lav eli is a. Also I was terrified of the Armenian lan American University of phrase unique to. guage The Armenian English English Armenia At that time Armenians who live in the. Armenian dictionary I special ordered there were no cell phones let alone Skype present day boundaries of Arme. through a bookstore in Fargo N D did which even my taxi driver from today uses nia It s as if to say C mon. nothing to ease my mind The words on a regular basis man or Alright already If some. appeared to be constructed entirely from In fact when I lived in the Lori one is piling food on your plate you. letters that resembled m n and u How in province in the north of the country I might try this If they are talking your. God s name would I learn this walked down the mountain vil ear off and you want them to stop shout. My dad advised me to first learn the lage road about a mile to it out and walk away If someone budges. phrase I m much funnier in my own lan make 1 per minute calls in front of you in line mutter it with. guage Instead I learned the word for to the U S from a call cen intention. bathroom I m still not sure if I made the ter where everyone lis The word esa is tricky to translate. right choice tened or tried to listen to When you re waiting for something to. In high school I d taken two years of every word spoken More happen or someone to arrive you will. Spanish In college I took another semes often than not once I d reach often hear Esa klini or Esa kga The. ter of Spanish and a semester of you the building I d be told Gits chka There implication is that it will happen soon or. guessed it Norwegian Neither one spoke are no lines s he will come soon but the reality is that. to me in a meaningful way at the time Today I don t need to tell you you who it is not time bound in any way If someone. There was no urgency for me to learn are quite likely to be reading this online says this to you treat it with a healthy dose. either though I certainly could have cre that the world is a different place I send of suspicion before you find yourself wait. ated some of my own PDF documents in Armenian to my Kindle ing for a bus under the direct sun for two. My entr e to Armenian was something which holds hundreds upon hundreds of hours Sure it might come soon but you. altogether different My host family spoke books without changing in weight I also might be better off catching a cab. nary a word of English save for a lullaby learned recently that a new Armenian font It s useful to have a line of poetry on. that is useful only in very specific and obvi was created for official documents I read the tip of your tongue One such useful line. ous settings And I lived in a village Facebook status messages and comments comes from the great Armenian poet. Classes were four hours a day and four days in Armenian to keep up with people s views Paruyr Sevak Menk kich enk bayts mez. a week and that was a good start The real on the latest topics of conversation And hay en asum We are few but we are. work came when I got back home where when in a pinch I use Google translate to Armenians Not sure what to say in a toast. my host family had infinite patience to talk decipher a complicated sentence Unsure of the direction the conversation. with and at me Mashdots would not believe his eyes is taking Try this line You won t be sorry. If it weren t for my young host brothers,I d still be differentiating consonants in the. Armenian alphabet If it weren t for a Peace,MODERN DAY WORD ADVICE LANGUAGE IN ITS ENTIRETY.
Corps colleague I d still be learning the eople ask me how I learned Armen began by stating the fact that there are. alphabet This is the colleague who taught ian and occasionally they ask for others who can speak to the noble. me the beauty of mnemonic devices Thanks advice My stock advice is 1 make aspects of the printing that has given us. to him I saw the letter m as a mud a decision to learn it 2 get a tutor and 3 the Bible the works of Sevak and Naregatsi. shovel and the letter n as capable of forget about shame These three things if and the books that provide witness to the. holding a nut to the left sincerely attempted will get you where Armenian Genocide. This wasn t high level linguistics this you want to go In the meantime tuck What is within my scope of knowledge. was survival these bits of unsolicited advice in your and ability though is something more. back pocket modest My abilities lie in words written. Amot and absos the words for shame and spoken that help a person understand. REWIND 15 YEARS and it s a pity will take you a long ways and enjoy exactly where they are And if. ive hundred years is a lot to celebrate in this country As with most things timing you should find yourself here Armenia is. I m just celebrating what 15 years of is important but usage is more important a wonderful place to be. progress can provide Both as it happens can be used in serious Lav eli yegek a. 6 T H E A R M E N I A N W E E K LY September 1 2012. Wings Feet,and on their Heads,Reflections on Port Armenians and Five Centuries. of Global Armenian Print Culture,DR SEBOUH D ASLANIAN DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY UCLA. From its origins in Venice in 1512 in Armenian historical writing Armenia s mostly landlocked. the history of early modern geographical terrain and the historical bond between statehood and. 1500 1800 Armenian print culture territorial sovereignty not being the least of which this terracentric. was closely entangled with that of view of Armenian history does not correspond to some basic realities. port cities initially in Europe and of the Armenian past especially during the crucial years between. subsequently in Asia In fact virtu 1500 and 1800 C E that I have come to label as the early modern. ally every Armenian printing press period in Armenian history 2 During this period arguably the most. before 1800 was established either momentous changes in Armenian history including but not limited. in or close to port cities and the few to Armenians early openness to and adoption of print technology. that were not owed their existence to on going relations with port did not take place on the rugged terrain of the Armenian plateau. locations Yet despite the obvious relationship between ports and where perpetual wars between the two gunpowder empires of the. printers their synergetic relationship has thus far largely eluded Ottomans and Safavids had destroyed much of the region s popula. scholarly attention As Armenians across the world celebrate the tions and local economies Rather they unfolded across the slippery. quincentenary of Hakob Meghapart s printing of the first Armenian. book in Venice it will be useful for us to pause and reflect on the. intimate relationship between port cities and printers in the rich. history of Armenian print culture and the history of the early modern. Armenian book referred to in Armenian scholarship as hnatib girk e. In the process it will also be important to meditate on the connect. ing link or hinge between ports and printers namely what I will. call following the tradition of scholars of Sephardic Jewish history. the figure of the port Armenian,An Aquacentric View of. Early Modern Armenian History 1, rmenian historiography and especially Armenian historical. memory seem to be fixated on the figure of the Armenian as. rooted in his or her ancestral homeland Land for good or for. ill has been taken as the ideal and often only matrix for Armenian. history While there are good reasons for this unexamined assumption. September 1 2012 THE A R M E N I A N W E E K LY 7, surface of the world s major bodies of water and through the port identity were largely shaped by their relationship to the sea They.
cities dotting their shorelines More particularly the pulsating center made a living as long distance merchants involved in the global. of Armenian history during the early modern period and beyond trade of silk spices South Asian textiles and precious stones. seems to have shifted almost entirely to the port cities of the Indian Constantly in motion across bodies of water to conduct what world. Ocean rim and to a lesser degree the Mediterranean basin Consider historians call cross cultural trade port Armenians as their name. for instance the location of the first Armenian printing press in Venice implies resided for the most part in great port cities of their age. in 1512 followed by a string of presses operating from the Most Serene such as Amsterdam Venice Marseille Saint Petersburg Astrakhan. republic La Serenissima for several centuries and the establishment Madras and Calcutta all locations for Armenian printing presses. of the Mkhitarist Congregation of erudite, Catholic Armenian monks a little over two From Khwaja Nahapet. centuries after Hakob Meghapart s press in Gulnazar Aguletsi. San Lazarro in the Venetian lagoon It would Parzabanut iwn hogenuag. Saghmosatsn Davt i,be almost impossible for us today to imagine. Margareein Venice,what is often called the Armenian renais 1687 2 3. sance without the erudite monks who fol, lowed in the footsteps of the Congregation s founder Abbot Mkhitar. not to mention the printing press that enabled these monks to pre. serve classify and in fact give form to the canon of Armenian litera. ture The same can be said of the Indian Ocean basin and its. archipelago of port cities such as Surat Madras and Calcutta to. name a few where the bulk of and certainly the wealthiest among. port Armenians lived What would the history of Armenian journalism. be without Azdarar published for two consecutive years by. Harout iwn Shmavonian in Madras from the 1794 to 1796 What of. Armenian political thought and modern constitutional thinking with. out Shahamir Shahamirian s Girk anuaneal vorogayt par ats Book. called Snare of Glory the first republican constitution of a future. state of Armenia that saw the light of day not in Armenia but Madras. around 1787 The same may be said of the first printed Armenian. play in the world The Physiognomist of Duplicity Calcutta 1823. and arguably the first novel in vernacular Armenian Mesrob. Taghiatiants s Vep Varsenkan 1847 All of these achievements shared. three things in common First their existence was made possible by. the modern technology of the printing press and its mechanical. re production of books through movable metal type True we should. withstand the temptation to exaggerate the revolutionary nature of. the shift from manuscript to print and the latter s impact on Armenian. societies across the world as has sometimes been done by those who. see print technology as causing a communications revolution. However the recent push back to represent the appearance of the. printed codex as a blip or hiccup 3 of continuity in the longue dur e. of the history of the book should also be avoided 4 Second they all Second as long distance merchants betrothed to the sea and its. occurred either in or near port cities or were facilitated by maritime many ports port Armenians like their Sephardic counterparts in. connections to such cities The third commonality among these Jewish history embodied many of the traits associated with Mercurius. accomplishments is that their very existence was predicated on the the Roman god of merchants often portrayed with wings on his feet. support both intellectual and financial of port Armenians 5 Who and head 6 Mercurius s winged sandals and winged hat have come. or what were these port Armenians and how did they differ from the to symbolize the principal attributes of the port Jew according to. run of the mill Armenians who did not live in or near port cities Are historians Lois Dubin and David Sorkin who coined the concept of. there any attributes that distinguished them and if so what are they port Jew a little over a decade ago to distinguish mostly Sephardic. First unlike their agrarian counterparts who for the most part Jews engaged in long distance maritime trade from their counterparts. lived far away from the great shorelines of the world and eked out working in European courts often known as court Jews The sym. a living by tilling the land as peasants or as small time local mer bolism of Mercurius s winged nature was not lost on Dubin and Sorkin. chants and artisans port Armenians were predominantly if not both of whom identified it with movement and flight attributes they. almost exclusively long distance merchants whose livelihood and found present in the figure of the port Jew The latter because of his. 8 T H E A R M E N I A N W E E K LY September 1 2012. association with port cities and long distance commerce was a quin Third with the exception of a small minority from the mer. tessential border crosser who moved swiftly through and across cantile town of Agulis in the Caucasus 7 the overwhelming majority. diverse cultural zones and was no less swift adventurous and cos of these port Armenians traced their ancestry to the township of. mopolitan in the flights of his imagination and thoughts The rela New Julfa the prosperous suburb of the Iranian Safavid imperial. tionship with commerce on the seas for the port Jew and as we shall capital of Isfahan where their forebears were relocated by Shah. see for the port Armenian is therefore an integral part of his identity Abbas I in 1604 1605 in the course of the Ottoman Safavid wars 8. as a social type Generally speaking individuals whose location and Their original homeland the town of Old Julfa in what is today the. vocation are in ports are more likely to be open to the world around Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhijevan was probably the last place in. the world to be associated with oceans and seas Its land locked. position and inhospitable environment were traits that had caught. the attention of more than one European traveler who passed. through the town before its destruction in the early years of the. seventeenth century The French traveler and writer Jean Chardin. for instance remarked that it is not possible to find another town. situated in a place that is more dry and more rocky 9 It was Shah. Abbas I s razing of the town to the ground and the brutal relocation. of its mercantile denizens to his newly built capital of Isfahan that. altered the future trajectory of Armenian history The Shah s granting. of a royal protection and quasi monopoly of the Crown s silk trade. to the Julfans 1619 and subsequent unlocking of the gates of the. Indian Ocean in 1622 when the fort of Hormuz at the mouth of. the Persian Gulf fell from Portuguese to Iranian control prized. open the wide watery world of the Indian Ocean to merchants from. New Julfa and helped transform the Julfans into port Armenians. Like some of their counterparts who had settled or were in the. process of settling in the port cities of the Mediterranean world. Venice Livorno Marseille Smyrna Izmir and Constantinople. Istanbul as well as on the Atlantic seaboard in Amsterdam they. did not take long to establish mercantile communities in most of. the ocean s important port cities Most settled in port cities under. the rule of the English East India Company such as Madras. Calcutta and Bombay followed by Singapore and Dutch controlled. Batavia in the nineteenth century others resided in French and. Portuguese outposts such as Pondicherry in Southern India and. Macao Canton in China whence they plied a lucrative trade with. Manila exchanging Indian textiles and spices as well as Chinese. porcelain and silk for New World silver that arrived each year from. Acapulco on Spanish convoys known as the Manila Galleon But. what could these port Armenians have to do with the history of. the Armenian book and the printing press which after all was. almost entirely confined to its European cradle from 1512 to the. them probably more likely to experiment with the cultural practices late 1600s when it began to gravitate slowly to the East This brings. they encounter among the peoples with whom they come into con us to the fourth and final attribute of port Armenians their active. tact and thus are likely to have cultural identities that are hybrid and patronage of the arts and culture in general and of the new craft. enriched through sustained contact and intermingling with others of printing in particular. from across the oceans Also largely as a function of their location. in port cities themselves some of the greatest hubs of information. The PPP Link Port Armenians Ports and Printers, in the globally connected world that came to take shape during the he bonds that connected ports and port Armenians to printers.
early modern period port Armenians were exposed to a greater vol across the oceans and occasionally over land were complex. ume and more diverse varieties of information than their land locked First and foremost the location of the printing establishment. counterparts This meant that new technologies such as the printing was crucial Most Armenian printers in the early modern period. press or inventions associated with it such as novel papermaking with a few exceptions were members of the literati belonging to the. techniques and so on would be more easily accessible to port clerical hierarchy of the Armenian Church They usually set up their. Armenians than their landlubbing counterparts presses in the port cities in Europe that already had a substantial. September 1 2012 THE A R M E N I A N W E E K LY 9, presence of port Armenians with ties to New Julfa The port city loca and spies from Rome Amsterdam with its famous stock exchange. tion was preferred for several reasons For reasons alluded to above also boasted an information and transportation network second. port cities were the most dynamic nodes of the world economy dur to none as well as paper mills producing cheaper and better quality. ing the early modern period and therefore leading loci of techno paper due to a new innovation in production techniques 15 The. logical innovation As far as printers were concerned port cities same was true of Marseille 1670s Livorno 1640s Venice. offered access to paper manufacturers font casters engravers as 1512 1513 1564 5 1586 1660s to the present Constantinople. well as compositors and press operators In addition the fact that 1567 1660s and from 1701 to the present Saint Petersburg 1781. they usually contained a substantial presence of port Armenians Astrakhan 1796 and especially Madras 1772 and Calcutta. willing to patronize and shore up new printing presses meant that 1796 All these locations were port cities with impressive com. Armenian port settlements already came equipped with a diasporic munities of port Armenians They were also connected to each. community infrastructure including churches and other community other and to New Julfa through networks of circulation through. institutions Most important perhaps port cities afforded printers which capital commodities printers and merchants as well as. with relatively cheap and efficient access to transportation In an printed books ideas and new technologies circulated The estab. age when transportation by water was almost always cheaper safer lishment of a press in New Julfa as early as 1638 was in many ways. and faster than its overland counterpart location in a port city meant an exception to the port city printers pattern discussed above 16. that a printer could load his newly printed commodity books and However this press could have hardly existed without the financial. have it shipped to the nearest markets of consumption In the eigh and technical support offered to it by the township s famous mer. teenth century the major reading market for Armenian books was chants residing abroad in one of their many port city settlements. Constantinople Istanbul home to the largest urban population of from Venice to Madras For instance when in 1686 the township s. Armenians The city s close to 80 000 Armenians by the second half clerical hierarchy decided to reopen the press that had been shut. of the eighteenth century was the prized destination for printed down following an uprising in the 1640s of the suburb s scribes if. Armenian books that were shipped there either directly to its bustling the French Huguenot traveler Jean Baptist Tavernier s account is. port with its minaret studded skyline or by caravan routes once the to be trusted the primate of the time wrote a letter stored at the. books were unloaded in the port of Smyrna Istanbul in the south 10 Archivio di Stato di Firenze to the most notable Julfan merchants. A few examples of Armenian port city presses will suffice to clarify residing in Venice asking them for assistance with the purchase of. what has been said thus far technical equipment including new fonts and types 17. Amsterdam where an Armenian press was installed in 1660 In addition to providing Armenian printers with an institutional. and where Armenian printers were active until the second decade or community infrastructure port Armenians provided the capital. of the eighteenth century was an important Armenian port city investments necessary to shore up the printing activities of the. with a significant presence of Julfan merchants and two successive clerical elite They did this in several ways They were directly. churches Surb Karapet in 1663 64 followed by Surb Hogi in 1713 11 involved in partnerships with printer priests as a form of what has. In the second half of the seventeenth century the city had clearly come to be known as print Capitalism 18 An example of this is. taken the lead as the most dynamic printing center in the world the partnership contract that a Julfan merchant named Paolo Alexan. with over forty printing houses publishing in multiple languages Poghos ordi Aleksani had entered with two Armenian priests. including Armenian and Hebrew Partly as a result of this reputation Oannes de Ougorlou and Matheus di Hovhannes who ran an. it attracted Armenian printers beginning with the most famous of important press in Amsterdam from 1685 to the mid 1690s After. them Oskan Yerevantsi originally from New Julfa who with the printing 8 300 copies of Armenians books many of them destined. active financial support of several Julfan merchants in Livorno for Smyrna to be sold there and one would assume in. printed the first Armenian bible in Amsterdam in 1666 12 After Constantinople the partners had had a falling out and took their. Yerevantsi moved to Livorno and Marseille with his press his place dispute to a notary public 19 However business partnerships. was eventually filled by members of the illustrious family of savants between port Armenians and printers based exclusively on the. and printers the Vanandets is from the region of Ghoghtn in profit motive were the exception in the history of the Armenian. Nakhijevan who actively published first rate books from their set book unlike its European counterpart where printing was from its. tlement in the Dutch capital from 1694 to 1717 when their press origins a model of a capitalist enterprise 20 The small size of the. was shut down due to financial troubles 13 As Rene Bekius has Armenian reading market itself a function of low population num. pointed out in an insightful essay another reason for Amsterdam s bers and even lower literacy rates was probably the main reason. lure was its reputation for being a haven for persecuted minorities why the profession of the printer was not a profitable one. such as Sephardic Jews expelled from Iberian Peninsula and Merchants were thus quick to realize that printing for capitalist. Huguenots from France as well as Armenian printers keen to avoid motives was not a paying proposition and began supporting print. the tentacular reach of the censors of the Propaganda Fide an ing presses not necessarily with the intention of engaging in a cap. organization founded by the Catholic Church in 1622 to spread italist enterprise but rather as a form of cultural patronage for both. Christianity in new areas and to combat the effects of the refor Church and nation They could have done this for reasons that. mation and presence of what it regarded as heresy 14 In addition we would today call prestige power or the vanity of having the. to having lax censorship laws and being relatively free of censors names of their family members immortalized in the colophons of. 10 T H E A R M E N I A N W E E K LY September 1 2012. the books published through their benevolence The case of Simeon In addition to patronizing the printing activities of priests did. Yerevantsi s press in Ejmiatsin the first printing press in the port Armenians also own and operate their own printing presses As. homeland as far away from a port city as one could imagine is mentioned above the miniscule size of the Armenian reading public. an example of the latter Established in 1772 this press was entirely and the low levels of literacy made print capitalism unfeasible for. paid for by a port Armenian residing in Madras known as Grigor port Armenians and the few cases of merchant printers were few and. Agha Chekigents alias Mikael Khojajanian who donated 18 000 far in between 23 In the seventeenth century Armenian merchants. rupees to the Catholicosate to help buy the appropriate material operated at least two Armenian presses in Venice Gaspar. for casting of types and even Shahrimanian s press of 1687 and the. for the establishment of a Portrait of Marcara press of Khwaja Nahapet Gulnazar. Shahrimanian from,paper mill in 1775 on the Patmut iwn Metsin. Agulets i which published the, grounds of the Catholicosate 21 Gengizkhani arajin Psalms of David the second of only. Thus when technical specialists kayser nakhni mghulats three printed Armenian books in the. could not be procured in situ ev tatarats bazhaneal vernacular during the seventeenth. i chors girs Trieste,a port Armenian in Madras 1788. century 24 In the eighteenth century, made sure not only to raise the it became more common perhaps to.
required capital but also to rely find port Armenians who were also owners of their own. on his local connections in printing presses The most celebrated case of this was. India and dispatch to the the merchant prince Shahamir Shahamirian who estab. Catholicos French technical lished in Madras in 1772 the first Armenian printing press. specialists from the port settle in India and printed a number of trailblazing books. ment of Pondicherry to help including in 1787 89 Girk anuaneal vorogayt Par ats. the monks in their enterprise Book called Snare of Glory the republican proto con. of printing Sometimes both stitution for a future republic of Armenia 25 Later this. activities cultural patronage same press appears to have been used to print the first. and entrepreneurial invest Armenian newspaper in the world Azdarar 1794 1796. ment were combined as was The press of Grigor Khojamal Khaldarian a Julfan from. the case with Oskan Yerevantsi s India who had traveled to and resided in London in the. press in Amsterdam which was 1770s26 and later opened Russia s first Armenian printing. bought with the capital invest press in the port city of Saint Petersburg in 1781 is another. ment of Oskan s brother Avetis case in point It is interesting to note that the first pub. Ghlijents a merchant from lished work by an Armenian woman Kleopatra Sarafian s. New Julfa This press was later Banali Gitut ean Key of knowledge saw the light of day. donated by Oskan to Ejmiatsin on Khaldarian s press in 1788 27. under whose name it functioned during its various peregrinations As Armenians across the world celebrate an important milestone. from Amsterdam to Marseille and thence to Constantinople in Armenian history we need to remember that many important. Merchants also stepped in to support Armenian printers through aspects of the history of the Armenian book remain to be properly. directly commissioning important works for publication scrutinized and studied What I have sketched above in an impres. The publication of several trade and language manuals useful to sionistic way is only the maritime and mercantile underpinnings. merchants such as the celebrated Gants ch ap oy kshroy twoy ew of Armenian print culture Other scholars before me have touched. dramits bolor ashkhari A treasury of measures numbers and moneys upon this in more or less fruitful ways but never systematically. of the entire world Amsterdam 1699 and the first Armenian book There are entire areas of the history of the Armenian book that. in the vernacular Arhest Hamaroghut ean amboghj ev katareal The remain not only untouched but whose very existence has not even. art of arithmetic complete and perfect Marseille 1675 are examples been properly acknowledged and therefore examined Important. of such mercantile patronage of Armenian books The same can be questions such as how does the study of the printed book in its. said for works of translation from foreign languages such as Charles multifaceted dimension from its production site in port cities or. Rollin s Histoire Romaine Patmut iwn hrovmeakan and William elsewhere to its destination into the hands of readers contribute. Robertson s multi volume History of America Vipasanut iwn to our understanding of the mentalit of any given society In other. Amerikoy both commissioned by Julfan merchants from Madras words how do books begin to transform the mental universe of. and printed or published by Mkhitarists in Venice and Trieste 22 respec ordinary readers once they are released into a network of circulation. tively In a few cases merchants carried out the translations themselves Who were the principal readers among the early modern Armenians. and paid for the publication of their own works such as Marcara what was the literacy rate and how does one even begin to measure. Shahrimanian s translation of Petis de la Croix s Histoire du Grand it In addition the history of reading or who read what how and. Genghizcan Patmut iwn Metsin Gengizkhani arajin kayser nakhni where is a topic that has occupied center stage in the discipline of. mghulats ev tatarats bazhaneal i chors girs Trieste 1788 the history of the book in Europe and North America but remains. September 1 2012 THE A R M E N I A N W E E K LY 11. 9 Jean Chardin Voyages du Chevalier Chardin en Perse et autres lieux de l Orient Ed. terra incognita in the scholarship on the Armenian book 28 As the. L langles 10 vols Paris Le Normant Imprimeur Libraire 1811 2 304. worldwide celebrations of the quincentenary continue and exhibits 10 For a smart discussion see the following works by Raymond H K vorkian. and conferences are convened one hopes that scholars of the Catalogue des incunables arm niens 1511 1965 ou chronique de l imprimerie. arm nienne Geneva Patrick Cramer 1986 idem Livres imprim et culture. Armenian past will pause take critical stock of what their prede ecrite dans l Arm nie des XVI et XVII si cles Revue des etudes arm niennes 1982. cessors accomplished and while grateful for standing tall on their idem Les imprimes arm niens des XVIe et XVIIe siecles Paris 1987 idem Les. imprimes arm niens 1701 1850 Paris 1989, shoulders will forge ahead to pose new and imaginative questions. 11 Aslanian From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean 79 80. of their own As every good historian knows the ability to pose the 12 For the involvement of three Julfan merchants in the printing Yerevants is Bible. right kinds of questions to the evidence one has at one s disposal see Karapet Amatuni Oskan Vrd Erevants i ev ir Zhamanak lusavor ej m Zh daru. yekeghets akan Patmut ene n Oskan Vardapet Yerevantsi and his Time A Luminous. is among the most important skills that members of the historian s Page from the History of 17th century Ecclesiastical History Venice San Lazzaro. tribe cherish One can only wish that in the wake of the quincen 1975 150 152 and Alessandro Orengo Ov Dateos dow Elkeli Le Disavvenure di. tenary celebrations new and theoretically vigorous studies will un Mercante Armeno Nella Livorno del XVII Secolo Ov Dateos dow Elkeli The. Misadventures of an Armenian Merchant in XVII century Livorno Gli Armeni Lungo. bloom in the study of the printed Armenian book If we are fortunate Le Strade d Italia Livorno 1998 55 68. this crop will be conceptually informed by the most recent 13 Sarukhan Arakel Holandan ew Hayer Holland and the Armenians Vienna. Mkhitarist Press 1925 Mesrop Gregorian Nor Niwt er ew Ditoghut iwnner. Euroamerican scholarship in the tradition of the post Annales Hratarakich Vanantets woh Masin New Materials and Observations on the. L histoire du Livre while simultaneously being archivally grounded Vanantetsi Family of Publishers Vienna Mkhitarist Press 1966 and Sahak. in notarial and other documents A hundred years ago at the last Chemchemian Hay Tpagrut iwn ew Hrom ZhE dar Armenian Printing and. Rome in the Seventeenth Century Venice San Lazzaro 1989. centenary as Armenians in Istanbul Tiflis and other locations pre 14 Ren Bekius Polyglot Amsterdam printing presses a comparison between. pared to celebrate the accomplishments of Hakob Meghapart in Armenian and Jewish printers unpublished paper. 15 See Bekius and also the excellent overview in Melin Pehlivanian Mesrop s Heirs. the port city of Venice they inspired a new generation of scholars The Early Armenian Book Printers Middle Eastern Languages and the Print. of the book including Teotik and the formidable Leo Arakel Revolution A Cross cultural Encounter eds E Hanebutt Benz D Glass G Roper. Babakhanian 29 to blaze new paths of scholarship that superseded Westhofen WVA Verlag Skulima 2002 pp 53 92. 16 The press in Lvov established in 1616 was also an exception to the port city pattern. the work of Garegin Zharbanalian30 and others in the generation but it too was paid for by the town s Armenian merchants some of whom had. before them May the same happen with this centenary a maritime connections in the Black and Mediterranean Seas. 17 The document is a letter written by Primate Stepanos Jughayetsi in New Julfa and. addressed to the pious and Christ loving Julfan Merchants residing in the city of. ENDNOTES Venice dated September 27 1686 New Julfa Isfahan See Archivio di Stato di. Firenze Acquisti e doni busta123 nn 77 7 I thank my friend Meroujan Karapetyan. 1 My thoughts in this section of the paper were first inspired by my reading of Jerry for placing this document at my disposal. Bentley s Sea and Ocean Basins as Frameworks of Historical Analysis Geographical 18 For this well known concept see Benedict Anderson Imagined Communities. Review Vol 89 No 2 Oceans Connect Apr 1999 pp 215 224 and K ren Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism 2nd and revised edition. Wigen AHR Forum Oceans of History Introduction American Historical Review London Verso 1991. June 2006 717 721 19 See Sarukhan Hollandan ew Hayere 102 103 for the translation of a notarial doc. 2 See Sebouh D Aslanian Silver Missionaries and Print A Global Microhistory of ument where the dispute between the involved parties is discussed and Gregorian. Early modern Armenian Networks of Circulation and the Armenian Translation Nor Niwt er ew Ditoghut iwnner 48 50 for a brief discussion. of Charles Rollin s Histoire Romaine unpublished paper 2009 idem Port Cities 20 Anderson Imagined Communities and Lucien Febvre and Henri Jean Martin. and Printers Reflections on Five Centuries of Armenian Print Culture and Book The Coming of the Book The Impact of Printing 1450 1800 English translation. History unpublished paper London Verso 1976 This classic was originally published in French as L Aparition. 3 Elizabeth Eisenstein The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe 2nd ed du Livre Paris 1958. Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2005 316 I have elaborated at length 21 For the Catholicosate s first printing press see Sebouh Aslanian Dispersion History. on the issue of continuity versus rupture in my Port Cities and Printers Reflections and the Polycentric Nation The Role of Simeon Yerevantsi s Girk or Kochi Partavjar. on Five Centuries of Armenian Print Culture and Book History in the Eighteenth Century Armenian National Revival Venice Bibliotheque d ar. 4 Thus Robert Gross writes The current consensus neatly summarized by the menologie Bazmavep 39 2004 30 31. French historian Roger Chartier is that the change from the manuscript to the 22 The Trieste branch of the Mkhitarists was established in 1773 by Minas Gasparian. printed book was no big deal In its physical design the newcomer kept the old and Astuatsatur Babikian scion of a wealthy family from New Julfa who were exiled. ways It employed devices developed in monastic scriptoria to order the text sig from the mother convent in San Lazzaro following a violent quarrel with the then. natures page numbers columns and lines ornaments alphabetical tables sys reigning Abbot Stepanos Melklonian The Trieste branch was relocated to Vienna. tematic indexes It inherited a hierarchy of sizes from the learned folio to the where it continues to exist in 1811 See Aslanian Silver Missionaries and Print for. humanist quarto down to the bedside libellus And it called upon methods of silent a detailed account of their separation from San Lazzaro. reading of long standing in medieval universities and popularized among aris 23 I thank Meroujan Karapetyan for discussions on this matter. tocratic laymen in the fifteenth century The printing press thus depended on 24 See Pehlivanian Mesrop s Heirs 62 and Jean Pierre Mah The Spirit of Early. rather than altered the fundamental form of the book Emphasis added Robert Armenian Printing Development Evolution and Cultural Integration Catalogue. A Gross Communications Revolutions Writing a History of the Book for an des incunables arm niens 1511 1695 ou Chronique de l imprimerie arm nienne. Electronic Age Rare Books and Manuscript Librarianship 13 1998 15 Raymond K vorkian Gen ve P Cramer 1986 xvi. 5 My thoughts on Port Armenians have been influenced by the work of Lois Dubin 25 See Aslanian Dispersion History and Silver Missionaries and Print for fuller. and David Sorkin in Jewish Studies See David Sorkin The Port Jew Notes Toward discussion of these works. a Social Type Journal of Jewish Studies Cambridge England 50 Spring 1999 26 For Khaldarian s stay in London see Willem G Kuiters The British in Bengal 1756. 87 97 and Lois Dubin Wings on their feet and wings on their head Reflections 1773 A Society in Transition Seen through the Biography of a Rebel William Bolts. on the Study of Port Jews in David Cesarani Gemma Romaine eds Jews and 1739 1808 Paris Indes savants 2002. Port Cities 1590 1990 Commerce Community and Cosmopolitanism London 27 Pehlivanian Mesrop s Heirs 75. Vallentine Mitchell 2006 14 30 28 For an exploratory foray into this terrain see Aslanian A Reader Responds to. 6 See Dubin Wings on their Feet 14 16 Joseph Emin s Life and Adventures Notes Towards a History of Reading in Late. 7 Armenian merchants from Agulis were particularly active alongside Julfans in Eighteenth Century Madras Handes Amsorya Vienna Yerevan 2012 9 65. Mediterranean port cities such as Venice Livorno and Marseille 29 Teotik Tip u Tar Type and Font Istanbul 1913 Leo Arakel Babakhanian Hay. 8 For information on Julfa and its merchants see Sebouh David Aslanian From the kakan tpagrutyun Armenian Printing 2 vols Tiflis 1901. Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants 30 Patmut iwn Hay Tpagrut ean History of Armenian Printing Venice San Lazzaro. from New Julfa Isfahan Berkeley University of California Press 2011 1895. 12 T H E A R M E N I A N W E E K LY September 1 2012. Armenian Medieval,Historians in Print,Three Centuries of Scholarship. across Three Continents,BY DR ARA SANJIAN UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN DEARBORN. written overwhelmingly in Classical,Armenian grabar and their more recent. translations into both the Eastern and,Western branches of the modern Armenian.
literary language ashkharhabar 2 It thus,provides one important indicator to how. akob Meghapart s pioneering the locus of Armenian Studies research. effort exactly five centuries ago activities shifted across a number of cities. this year has made it inconceiv and institutions situated on three conti. able ever since to analyze and nents over the last 300 years At the same. evaluate the worldwide dissemination of time it will be this author s humble tribute. Armenian culture bypassing the medium to all the prominent scholars whose efforts. of printing both books and periodicals made medieval Armenian histories acces. For a people with a long diasporic tradition sible to their peers and lay readers inter. and until 1918 without a state of their own ested in the Armenian past. printing technology made it easier for This article covers the works of those. Armenian authors and their readers to Prof Manuk Abeghian 37 Armenian authors who were treated. establish and maintain their own worldwide in a separate chapter each in Levon. network of printing distribution reading and exchanging ideas Hovhannes Babayan s trilogy on Armenian historiography arguably. This study focuses on one particular facet of the history of the most comprehensive study in this domain to date 3 To make. Armenian printing the editing and publication of the works of it easier both for the reader to follow the chronological structure. Armenian medieval historians who lived in the 5th 18th centuries of this article and for the author to make comparisons and gen. It analyzes the patterns of publication of both their original texts eralizations a number of ground rules were followed during the. September 1 2012 THE A R M E N I A N W E E K LY 13. presentation of the compiled data First Cover page of the 1669. the works of Tovma Artzruni and Amsterdam edition of Arakel. Davizhetsi s History digitized, Matteos Urhayetsi are considered as a by the National Library of. single unit each their continuators Armenia,are not accorded individualized treat. ment Secondly if the same work has, been published at different times contains numerous gram. under the name of different authors matical errors Moreover he. all of its editions are listed here under omitted certain sections. the author who is now accorded the combined or rephrased oth. widest acceptance 4 Thirdly only the ers and made stylistic. works of history of these 37 authors changes to bring Davrizhetsi s. are covered 5 Finally if an author has style into conformity with. produced more than one work of grabar All these would neces. historical nature only his major sitate the preparation of a crit. work is considered 6 Thus all but ical edition of Davrizhetsi three. one of the 37 authors covered do centuries later, appear in this article with only The choice of the next.
one work that which is generally Armenian medieval historian. considered as their magnum to go into print appears more. opus in history 7 logical For centuries Movses,Khorenatsi had been consid. ered as the Father of Armenian,GRABAR EDITIONS History The Geography attrib. edieval Armenian uted to him had already had two,historiography editions when the editio prin. flourished not long after the ceps 9 of his History was printed. creation of the Armenian alphabet in the 5th cen in 1695 again in Amsterdam but. tury In contrast publishing works of history was not foremost by Bishop Tovmas Nurijanian a member of the Vanandetsi family. in the minds of the first Armenian printers after 1512 It took of printers who published over 20 Armenian language books in. exactly 157 years until 1669 to see the first work of history the Dutch capital in 1685 1717 Khorenatsi s first edition was. printed in Armenian By then 70 titles in Armenian had already based only on a single manuscript which was full of errors. seen the light Nevertheless it helped bring the work to the attention of western. The first printed Armenian history was that of Arakel scholars and was reprinted in Venice in 1752. Davrizhetsi published by Archbishop Voskan Yerevantsi in After a couple of short lived attempts in 1567 69 and 1677 78. Amsterdam Most of the earliest Armenian language printing had Armenian printing was established in Constantinople on a more. been carried out in Italy However from 1660 Armenian printers regular footing at the end of the 17th century For the next 100. had become attracted to the Dutch capital considered then to years or so the Ottoman capital consistently remained the city. be the world s wealthiest city Printing standards had dropped in where the largest number of Armenian books was published. Italy during the 17th century and perhaps more importantly the Among these Constantinople publications were the next four. largely Protestant Dutch Republic was renowned for its relative editiones principes of medieval Armenian historians Grigor. religious tolerance Roman Catholic censors could not hamper Marzvantesi printed Agatangeghos 1709 10 and Hovhannes. the work of Armenian printers there Voskan often considered Mamikonian 1719 Martiros Sargsian Pavstos Buzand 1730. as the second most important early Armenian printer after and Hovhannes Astvatzatrian Yeghishe 1764 This was an era. Meghapart arrived in Amsterdam in 1664 and printed 15 where the tasks of choosing the manuscript and editing it for. Armenian language books during his five year stay Foremost publication were not yet separate from the technical process of. among his Amsterdam publications was of course the first full printing Therefore the owners of the printing presses are also. edition of the Armenian Bible in 1666 68 acknowledged as the publishers of the respective works although. Davrizhetsi s History printed by Voskan is significant because they usually had a number of associates from those who provided. it was published during the author s lifetime 8 The circumstances the manuscript and or supervised the process of copy editing. that pushed Voskan to print Davrizhetsi s work remain unclear and proofreading to those who covered the printing expenses. The author had completed his manuscript in 1662 and had already When the Mkhitarist Father Mikayel Chamchian compiled in. ordered a number of hand copies to be made probably to guar the 1780 s his monumental three volume History of the Armenians. antee the work s preservation in the future Voskan s print version the most ambitious such project since Khorenatsi and the first. 14 T H E A R M E N I A N W E E K LY September 1 2012. comprehensive Armenian history in the 18th century it was still in the. modern times only five medieval process of acquiring manuscripts to. Armenian histories were in print build up the rich library of over 4 000. Chamchian mentions twelve other Armenian manuscripts it now has on. authors included in this survey the isle of San Lazzaro Indeed the. whose works he probably consulted compilation of Chamchian s History. in manuscript form Indeed he con provided an important catalyst to. tinued to receive new manuscripts as that process The History of Ghazar. writing was in progress He also indi Parpetsi which had been discovered. cates awareness of the existence of in a monastery in Taron in 1782 and. other medieval historians whose immediately sent to Venice was. works he did not have at his disposal eventually published in 1793. Among them Ukhtanes Sebeos However it was only after 1826 that. Ghevond and Movses Kaghankatvatsi the Mkhitarists began publishing. would be discovered and published in medieval Armenian literature includ. course of the next century ing histories in a consistent manner. The works of eleven historians, ndeed by 1915 all but three of included in this survey eventually. the authors surveyed for this arti came out in two parallel and long. cle were already in print and lasting series Entir matenagirk. many of them had had multi Outstanding Medieval Authors and. ple a few even critical editions Matenagrutiunk nakhniats Ancient. These new editions came out in over Writings Among them Khorenatsi. a dozen different cities across the and Yeghishe were printed in both. Ottoman and the Russian empires but series However there were only two. also in Western Europe and even the editiones principes Koriun and. British colony of India These cities Aristakes Lastivertsi Instead the. were either centers of Armenian Mkhitarists of Venice played a pivotal. monastic communities both Apostolic role in disseminating on a wider scale. and Roman Catholic Venice Vienna works which had been published ear. Vagharshapat and Jerusalem or lier but mostly as poor editions and. towns hosting vibrant Armenian com with limited printruns Altogether. munities Constantinople Smyrna between 1827 and 1914 they printed. Moscow St Petersburg Feodosiya Yeghishe nine times Khorenatsi six. Shushi Tiflis and Calcutta Paris Cover page of the first edition of Khorenatsi Amsterdam Pavstos and Koriun three each. meanwhile appears on this list solely 1695 source Hay girke 1512 1800 tvakannerin p 116 Agatangeghos Parpetsi Hovhannes. because of the single handed efforts Mamikonian and Lastivertsi twice. of Father Karapet Shahnazariants 1814 65 who set up a printing each and finally Vardan Areveltsi and Kirakos Gandzaketsi once. press in the French capital in the second half of the 1850 s and each These editions enjoyed the advantage of having been based. published the series Shar hay patmagrats Armenian Historians on comparing larger number of manuscripts than the earlier edi. Series including the editiones principes of Ghevond Stepanos tions of the same authors. Taronetsi Asoghik Stepanos Orbelian Kaghankatvatsi and Tovma In 1773 some Mkhitarist monks broke away from the con. Metzopetsi The 19th century is also the period when the publi gregation in San Lazzaro and eventually settled in Vienna in 1810. cation of new editions of medieval histories gradually became However the Vienna Mkhitarists unlike their peers in Venice. associated with their editors who were otherwise famous as aca published only one medieval Armenian history before 1914. demics or scholars rather than with the entrepreneurs who owned Constantinople based Vahram Torgomian edited and published. and ran the printing presses as had been the case previously Yeremia Chelepi Keomiurchian s History of Istanbul in serialized. The first ever Armenian language book printed in Calcutta form in the journal Handes Amsorya in 1909 13 Thereafter the. was the editio princeps of Abraham Kretatsi 1796 Thereafter first volume of this work appeared under a separate cover in 1913. the printing press of Jentlum Avetian issued reprints of Hovhannes Most Mkhitarist monks were from Armenian communities. Mamikonian 1814 and Yeghishe 1816 both based on the 18th in the Ottoman Empire and primarily from Constantinople. century editiones principes published in Constantinople Nevertheless various printing presses in Constantinople also. The Mkhitarist Congregation founded in 1700 joined the continued the legacy of printing medieval Armenian histories in. efforts to print medieval histories relatively late By the end of the 19th century including the editiones principes of Sebeos. September 1 2012 THE A R M E N I A N W E E K LY 15.

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