Temporal Changes In Land Use Pattern In The Benue River-Books Pdf

Temporal changes in land use pattern in the Benue river
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and1991duringwhich some ruraltowns and villages that becme statecapitals. experiencedrapid growth owing to the influx of people to servicepublic private and. industrial establishments BFten the development rcpresented a ma jor shift in kand use in. favour ofurban development in dominantlyruralcommunitieswith an agriculturd. Of particular interest are the newly created capitals that are located adjacent to major. floodplains in the sub humid and semi arid regions Maliurdi the capital of Benue State. which was created in 1976 has been selectedfor study. Makurdi centre at 7 4 4 N 832 E is a suburban town which trails the banlts of the. Benue River one of the major rivers in Nigeria It is dkided into northern and 0 1thern. sections by the river which is bordered on both banks bya floodplain of varying width Tt is. at an elevation of about 93 metersabovesealevelin a sub humidtropicalclimate. characterized by a distinct dry season of about four months andbySouthernGuinea. Savanna vegetation Therainy season OCGUIS between April andNovember The mean. m u a 1 precipitation is about 1370mm and has a bimodd pattern. The floodplain and its enclosed river are flanked by Cretaceous sediments the Malixrdi. sandstone in the 0 1th andtheKeana smdstone in thenorth FAGBAMI and VEGE. CATALAN 1985 The tloodplainis filled with Quaternary heterogeneous sediments. In thetown traditionaldwellingsblendhaphazardlywithmodernresidentialand. commercial buildings With the town rapidly sprawlingon both the sandstone uplands and. the floodplain there isgrowing, a concem 6vnongfarnlers living withinand at the periphery. of the town about the escalating loss of agricultural to urbanland. Therefore the objectivesof the study were, Evaluate the directionandextent of land use changes in the environs fiom 1967. Demonstrate the applicabilityof the temporal character of remotely sensed data to the. evaluation of land use changes, Highlight the usefulness of aerial photographs and interpreted information derivable. therefrom in planning the balanced development of urban areas in Nigeria in general and in. Makurdi environs in particular, Two sets of panchromatic black and white aerial photographs 23 cm square contact. prints for 1967 and 1980 were employedin the study The 1967 aerial photographs are aat. scale of 1 40 000 while the 1980 aerial photographs area at. scale of 1 10 000, Temporal Changes in Latld Use Pattern il1 the B e w e River Floodplabl ut Makwdi Nigeria.
The landforms and land use patterns were interpreted and mapped with the aid of the. nlirror stereoscope The interpreted data were transformedto appropriate base maps using. the pantograph Detailedgroundtruthingwasdone in a samplearea of 18 8 k m 2 to. characterizethecomponent soil units in thedifferent landfornq documentthecultural. features shown on both the 1967 and 1980 aerial photographs and investigatethe additional. changes in land use that had occurred between 1980 representing the nlost recent aerial. photography of the area and the present, Knowledge of the Makurdi t o m and environs gained by oneof the authors during an. ecological surveyof soils andgrasslandsin1975undertheAtomicEnergyBiosphere. programme wasapplied in furtherhighlightingwhendevelopmentactuallybecanle. intensified in the period 1967 1980, Results and discussion. Land use and temporal changes, In 1967 Makurdi was a very small town Fig l serving as a railway station and a. transit town between the north and southof the country. Much of the floodplain of the River Benue and the adjoining uplands were farndands. The floodplain was used mainlyfor production of lice in the rainy season andfor vegetables. edible leaves tomatoes okra and onions in the distinct dry season The floodplain is. narrowest in the Makurdi environs but becomes much wider between 5 km and 8km wide. on the north and south banks of the river east and. West of the town, By 1967 only a small portion of the land had been built up both on the southem and. northern banks of the river Table l the main structures being the railway quarters some. small residential areas the road network and railway bridge 1 Fig. By 1975 not much expansion of the town had occurred and the main communication. links between the north and south portions of the town remained the railway bridge and. canoes However marked changes beganin 1976 when Makurdi became the capital of the. newly created Benue state From that yea a rapid urban development ensued spurred by. the intensepublicandprivatelanddevelopmentactivities for residentialmilitaryand. industrial purposes, The development affected both the uplands and the floodplain Worthy of emphasis is.
the encroachment of non agricultural land use into the floodplain A zoo cum recreational. area some institutions residential quarters and a brewery had consumed portions of the. floodplain south of the river North of the river the townhad extended markedly into the. floodplain 4 t the, h development ofa housing estate a new road which is linked to the south. bank of the riverby a new bridge and some residental traditional quarters Fig 2. MINORROAD MU UAKURDI UPLAND, M i WILWAY FP FLOOD PLAIN. LAND UNIT BOUNDARY BUlLT UP AREA, S SAND BAR, Figure 1 Land use map of Makurdi environ 1967. MlNOR ROAD, 0 4 8 12km, KEANA UPLAND, MAKURDI UPLAND. t RAILWAY FP FLOOD PLAIN, LAND UNIT BOUNDARY BUlLT UP AREA.
S SAND BAR, Figure 2 Land use map of Makurdi environ 1980. Table 1 Land use trends in a sample area of the Benne valley at Makurdi 1967 1980. Land use categorjes 1967 hai 1980 fia, Area occupied by Benue River 390 116. Area occupied hy floodplain 177 152, Upland m a adjoining floodplain 1315 1304. Built up aren of total 2 4 32 1, Generally the built up area that is amount converted to non agricultural uses in. Makurdi increased from about 21 in 1967 to about 32 of the total land area in 1980. Table 1 Considering the floodplain alone the amount of it that had been built up. increased from about 7 in 1967 to about 41 in 1980 Table 2. Presently a substantial part estimated at more than 50 of the land area in the. Evpakurdi environs has been converted to urban use Regarding the floodplain only very. narrow strips of it are left however a relatively large expanse of it is available to the. east and west of the t o m Currently the intensive use of the remaining floodplain at. Makurdi by local farmers for rice in the rainy seasonj and for vegetable in the dry. season production is being sponsored by the state government through its extension. agency the Benue State Agricultural and Rural Development Piuthority NANIA. However the farmers face the risk of losing the remaining floodplain to residential or. other uses unless the Benue State Government takes steps to protect this area and those. portions to the east and west of the t o m as well. Soi1 qualiey as guide 0 land use, The alluvial soils of the floodplain though heterogeneous are superior.
agriculturally to the adjoining upland soils derived from sandstones They are. generally heavier textured than the upland soils They classify as EutricFluvisols. Luvisols Orthic and Vertic subgroups Nitosolsand Cambisols Gleyic and Vertic. subgroups whereas the upland soils areAcrisols Ortic and Ferric subgroups and. Dystric Cambisols FAO UNESCO 1974 FAGBAMI and AE AMIGBO 1986 The higher. waterand nutrient retaining capacities higher inherent fertility and availability of. moisture in the horizons above the water table in the dry season make the floodplain. areas sites for all year around cultivation and therefore food production for the. increasing population On the other hand the better drained upland soils have. predominantly low activity Clay fractions kandic property low ta medium base status. and low water and nutrient retaining capacities like most other upland soils of the sub. humid region L a 1983, T e n p n Changes, l il2 Land Use Pattern il1 the Berzlle River Floodplain at M a h d i Nigeria. Table 2 Level of encroaclunent on the f loodplainin a sample area at Mah rdi by urban. development activities 1967 80, Land types ha 1980 ha. A Floodphin m a s, i South Bank 128 114, ii North Bank 49 38. Total 177 152, B Built upm a 63 12, C Built up m a ils Q of floodplain m a 6 8 41 45. Regarding the floodplainsoils the problems of wehess low permeability and frequent. periodicfloodinghazardsnlakethemhigldyunsuitable as on siteseptictank sewage. disposal fields and for strucrnes such as buildings and roads These adverse properties of. thefloodplainsoilshave notbeenconsidered in theconversion of thefloodplaininto. building sitesin the M k d i environs, Urban development without land use planning.
The development of the M h d i environment into a suburban centre from 1967 a. process which became intensified from 1976 has not been based on a conlprehensive land. use planningas is commonly donein the developed countries DOYLE 1966. A comprehensive land use planning as a basis for the town s development would have. ensured the integral use of the land area in which provision would have been made based. on soi1 and other landscape qualities for areas to be developed as urban sites agricultural. land open space recreational sites and conservation sites for special needs within at. urban rural periphery of the town, Moreover potential conflict areas such as the floodplain would have been identified a. steps taken to guide their use In this regard the tloodplain would have been zoned to. agricultural use and declaredas a Floodplain Conservation Area by ordinance. It is important to state that the governmentat national level introduced the World. assisted Fadama Agricultural Development Project nationwide as one of the stategies to. boost food and agricultural production The tloodplains are the land base for the project. wherever they occur Therefore the need to declare them Hoodplain Conselvation Areas in. support of the project is apparent especially with regard to the sub humid and semi arid. Currently the encroaclment on prime agricultural lands by urbm development is not. peculiar to the Makurdi environs It occurs in other towns and cities developing dong the. bank of rivers having extensive floodplain andor fertile upland soils Only a policy of. conlprehensive land use planning for urban development at all levels of government can. protect such agricultural lands from other uses, The usefulness in land use planning of aerial photogaphs and their interpretations to. reveal dope and soil conditions trends of land use changes within urban areas and their. peripheries RYERSON ef al 1982 Lamy el al 1988 and oher derivedlandscape. information cannot be over emphasized Soil survey data usuallyacquired in modern times. withtheaid of remotesensingtechniques asfor example interpretation of aerial. photogaphs areequallyusefulforplanningurbandevelopment Regrettably these. information resources especially soil survey data that are available A BE et al 1976. FDALR 1985 havenot been utilized in fashioning a balanced developmentof Malardi as. an urban centre Since the town is still gowing and spreading dong the River Benue on. both banks it is advisable that further development should be guidedby a comprehensive. land use plan aided by remote sensing techniques Part of that plan will be to protect the. iloodplain from other than agicultural uses, Intensive rural development programmes coupled with state creation in 1967 1976 and. 1991 haveengendered the remarlcabletransformationof many ruralcommunities into. rapidly growing urban centres These centres Mdardi being an example are developing. withoutthesupport of comprehensiveland use planning aided by remotesensing. techniques and data in which land is zoned as based on qualities to different uses without. the towns andtheir peripheries meeting socio economic needs of the popuhtions The result. is that urban land use often encroaches on vital or prime agicultural lands such as has. occurred in the M a h d i environs with respect to the floodplain of the River Benue To. reverse this trend into land use change it is recommended that a comprehensive land use. planningwillbeundertaken for the Malmdi environsandother t o m s that border. floodplains especidly in the sub humid and semi arjd regions of the country. Floodplains shouldbedeclaredby goverment policy andordiance as floodplain. Consenration Areas especially reserved for agricultural uses in support of the recently. introduced Fadma Agricultural Development Project nationwide. BENNETTJ G HILL I D HOWARDW J HUTCHEON A A b C K A I L L J WOODA W 1976. Land resources of Central Nigeria Landform soils and vegetation of the Benue Valley Land. resources Interim Report No 7 LRD ODA Surbebeton Survey UK. DOWXR H 1966 Soil Survcy und the Regional Land Use Plan In SuiZ S z n eami y h l d. Use Plnmirlg L J BARTELLI et al eds Soils Science Society of ArnericdAmerican Society. of Agronomy Madison Wisconsin USA 8 14, FAGBAMI A A4K 4hlIGB0 F O R 1986 The soils of Benue State and their capabilities Proc. 14th A11111cal COI of SSSN Makurdi Nigeria 6 234, FAGBAMI A VEGE CATALAN F 1985 An evaluation of the physiographic soil map of the.
Benue Valley at Makurdi ITC Jounzal 1985 4 268 274. FDALR Fedcral Department of Agricultural Land Ressources 1985 The reconnaissance soil. survey of Benue State 1 250 000 Lagos, FAO UNESCO 1974 Soil map of the world 1 5 000 000 Vol 1 Legend UNESCO Paris. Temporal Changes in Land Use Pattern in the Benue River Floodplain and Adjoining Uplands at Makurdi Nigeria A G OJANUGA M A EKWOANYA Abstract Intensive rural development progranmes coupled with state creation have engendered the renmkable transformation of many mal communities into rapidly growing urban centres in Nigeria Most affected are the small towns which became the capitds of the

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