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Table of Contents,Geographical Region Distribution p 3. Demographic Information p 4,History of Telugu p 5,Social Aspects Culture p 6. Linguistic Features p 10,Words Phrases p 16,Linguistic Community p 17. Specialized Speech Language Pathologists p 18,Test and Assessment Materials p 19. Additional Resources p 20,References p 22, Page 2 of 23. Geographical Region, Andhra Pradesh the main state Telugu is spoken in is located in southeast India To the north of. Andhra Pradesh are the states of Madhya Pradesh Chattisgarh and Orissa To the east lies the. Bay of Bengal To the south are the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka To the west is. Mahrashtra The capital of Andhra Pradesh is the city of Hyderabad It covers an area of 275 045. sq km It is divided into three zones of Coastal Plains Eastern Ghats and the plains The. climate is tropical , Above picture retrieved from http indiamicrofinance com files 2010 04 andhra pradesh . microfinance jpg, Page 3 of 23, Demographics,Population 75 727 541 2001 Census . 5th Largest State in India based on geographical area and size of population. Districts 23,Town 210,Villages 28 123,Literacy Rate 61 11 . Highest in capitol city of Hyderabad 79 04 ,Unemployment rate 6 67 . The main staples grown are rice jowar bajra maize red gram Bengal gram black gram green. gram horse gram chillies onions groundnut castor sesasmum sunflower cashewnut cotton . tobacco sugarcane coconut turmeric bananas and mangoes . Andhra Pradesh is governed by an elected governor and an appointed Chief Minister with a. bicameral legislature The Legislative Assembly consists of 295 members . Governor,Sri E S Lakshmi Narasimhan,The Legilsative Assembly. above images retrieved from, http www aponline gov in apportal index. Page 4 of 23, History of Telugu, Telugu is part of the Dravidian language family which includes 24 other languages spoken in. South Asia It is known as the Italian of the East Sanskrit and English have heavily influenced. its vocabulary as well as Persian and Arabic words Culturally Telugu is closer to its southern. neighbors Tamil and Kannada historically it s closer to its northern neighbors Gondi Konda . Kui Kuvi Pengo and Manda There are four stages in the history of the Telugu language . 1 200 B C 500 A D , 2 500 A D 1100, 3 1100 1400, 4 1400 1900. In the first stage Telugu was heavily influenced by Prakrit and Sanskrit Early literature existed. in Telugu at this time In the second period the literary languages developed among the courts of. kings and scholars Telugu went through some phonetic changes in the dialect spoken by the. people and the dialect used in literature In the third stage the literary dialect became highly. stylized and rigid In the last stage changes that occurred ultimately led to modern day Telugu . In 1966 Telugu became the official language of the State and in 1969 became the official. language for medium of instruction in higher education . http www aponline gov in Quick 20links HIST CULT languages html. Geographical Distribution and Linguistic Community. Telugu is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh in southeast India Telugu is. spoken by over 45 million people in Andhra Pradesh It is the second most spoken language in. India preceded by Hindi , It is also spoken in the states of Karnataka Tamil Nadu Orissa Maharashtra and Chattisgarh . Other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh are Urdu Hindi Banjara English Tamil Kannada . Marathi and Oriya ,Population in the U S , According to the U S 2000 Census the top 5 states with Telugu speakers over the age of 5 are. California 13 825 New Jersey 9 130 Texas 7 570 Illinois 6 465 and Michigan 5 445 . Page 5 of 23, Social Aspects,Culture,Religion, Religion is followed with the highest regard in Andhra Pradesh The main religions in Andhra. Pradesh are Hinduism Islam Christianity and Buddhism Hinduism is the most popular. religion Muslims are highly concentrated in the cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad . Arts and Crafts, Andhra Pradesh is known for many different handicrafts that have been traditionally passed. down over generations for centuries It is known for Banjara embroidery bidri bronze castings . budithi crochet lace dokra filigree folk paintings ilkat kalamkari and block printed fabrics . lacquerware nirmal pupets toys and dolls sari sheet metal stone carvings and wood carvings . Andhra Pradesh is well known for its handlooms and textiles and its silk sarees . Kalamkari is an art that is only found in Andhra Pradesh and two other nearby states It uses a. quill and vegetables dyes to use wooden blocks carved into designs for printing . Kalamkari Style Block Printed Chanderi Sari Banjara embroidery. lacquerware,AP govt website,above images retrieved from . Page 6 of 23, http www exoticindiaart com product textiles kalamkari style block printed chanderi sari . from madhya pradesh SAG30 , http www indialine com travel andhrapradesh arts crafts html. http www onlytravelguide com andhra pradesh arts crafts lacquer ware php. Festivals and Holidays, Festivals and holidays are an important part of the residents of Andhra Pradesh They celebrate. each and every occasion with ardor and fervor Festivals holidays depend on the lunar calendar. and the dates change every year However national holiday have fixed dates . National Holidays,Republic Day January 26,Independence Day August 15. Gandhi Jayanti October 2,Examples of Festivals, Ugadi Telugu New Year day A special chutnety called Paccadi is prepared with neem flowers . jarrery sugar and new tamarind The whole family eats the chutney after it is offered to the. deity The family celebrates by wearing new clothes At 3 00 pm a Brahmin will recite the. panchangam for nearby residents The panchangam tells about the new year rain fall . agriculture prices education eclipses and auspicious days for marriages health and astrological. forecasts In the evenings bullock cart races physical duels running races or cardgames and. other competitiosn amy be held , Deepvali which means row of lights It is celebrated on the new moon day called Amavasya It is. believed on this day a demon called Narkasuara was killed Lord Rama returned to Ayodhya. after salying Ravana Emperor Bali donated his kingdom to Vaman and King Vikramarka. descended to his throne On this day the Goddess of wealth Lakshmi is worshipped This festival. is celebrated with firecrackers and lamps and by using 14 varities of vegetables and leaves in. curries cooked on that day , Kirshna Ashtami celebrates the birth of Lord Krishna To celebrate families make mandapam. and a utti is hung in the center decorated with special festoons This utti is tied to a. pulley and a group of people will try to break it while water is splashed on them The families. offers a special offering of butter mixed with jaggery and dry ginger The families fast during. this day , http www aptourism in tourists site tourists fairsnfestivals2 html. ttp www bharatonline com andhra pradesh travel tips holidays html. Cuisine, Andhra Pradesh is famous for hot and spicy cuisine Cuisine is influenced by Hindu and Muslim. styles of eating The Andhra cuisine is mainly vegetarian The staple food is rice Pulihara . tamarind rice with green chilies is a common dish Pickles and chutneys are also very popular . The cuisine of Hyderabad the capitol city is famous for non vegetarian food A popular dish. Page 7 of 23, there are kebabs , The Chowki dinner of Andhra Pradesh is very famous It is served on a low table Chowki around which. 8 people can sit This is served in typical Nawabi style where authentic Hyderabadi food is served course. by course Along with the exotic dinner the majestic Deccan ambiance accompanied by traditional. entertainment like Ghazals ,Local Grocery Stores Restaurants. Austin,Gandhi Bazar Northwest Austin ,12809 N FM 620 3. Austin TX 78750, 512 249 7600,http gandhibazar com index html. Gandhi Bazar North Austin ,2121 W Parmer Ln 113,Austin TX 78727. 512 837 9701,Curry in Hurry North Austin ,2121 W Parmer Ln 114A. Austin TX 78727, 512 821 0000,http www curryinhurryaustin com . TarkaIndian Kitchen South Austin,5207 Brodie Lane,Austin TX 78745. 512 892 2008,http www tarkaindiankitchen com ,Tarka Round Rock. 201 University Blvd ,Round Rock TX 78665, 512 246 1922. Clay Pit,1601 Guadalupe St ,Austin TX 78701, 512 322 5131. San Antonio,New India Bazar, Page 8 of 23, 8466 Fredericksburg Rd . San Antonio TX 78229, 210 614 8600,India Store,5751 Evans Rd . San Antonio TX 78238, 210 681 3100, http www indiastoresa com index htmlLittle India Grocery. Sangeet Video Groceries,2411 NE Loop 410 102,San Antonio TX 78217. 210 675 4527,Taste of Malabar,5999 De Zavala Road. San Antonio TX 78249, 210 775 6286, Page 9 of 23, Linguistic Features. Telugu has four regional dialects Northern Southern Eastern and Central Education level. distinguishes Telugu pronunciation more than regional or caste differences Illiterate. monolingual Telugu speakers lack the phonemes that standard Telugu has There are 10 aspirated. consonants 4 fricatives and 2 retroflex consonants that this group is missing . Phonology, Telugu has 12 primary vowels 23 primary consonants and 10 aspirated consonant symbols that. are used in words that have been borrowed from Sanskrit and modern day Indo Aryan. languages The order of Telugu characters is based on phonological features For example . consonants are arranged in order of place manner of articulation by unvoiced then voiced and. by nasal realizations if any , Page 10 of 23, The primary consonants listed above are pronounced with the vowel a All consonants and. vowels have secondary forms that are used with consonants clusters and double consonants . When a vowel follows a consonant clusters the addition of the vowel s secondary form is added. to the symbol , The Telugu symbol of o is an unspecified nasal It s point of articulation is influenced by the. following consonant For example in the word pampu to send this nasal is pronounced as the. labial nasal m since p is a labial stop ,Telugu has two diphthongs ai and au . When w occurs before a back vowel it is pronounced similarly to English w but without lip. rounding When it precedes a front vowel w is pronounced as a labiodental fricative v . Long vowels are twice as long as short vowels , The front low vowel ae is only used in the Central and Eastern dialects The consonants that are. in parentheses are part of standard Telugu ,Samples of Telugu Symbols Vowels. Page 11 of 23, Morphology, The morphology of Telugu is agglutinating which means the building of words from component. morphemes that retain their form and meaning in the process of combining Suffixes are. frequently attached to a form of the noun which is called the oblique stem Telugu nouns have. 3 forms singular plural and honorific There is only two parts of speech categories nouns and. verbs Other categories are derived from combining nominal and verbal elements . Telugu has a two way gender system which differs in singular and plural forms Singular nouns. are divided into masculine vs nonmasculaine In plural nouns are divided into human vs . nonhuman , Telugu has personal pronouns in first and second person only First person plural has two forms . inclusive and exclusive The inclusive form is chosen when the person being addressed is. included in the reference otherwise the exclusive form is used . For third person pronouns demonstrative pronouns are used except for reflexive pronouns . Forms of these pronouns must account for gender number and various degrees of formality . Only third person reflexive forms exist To distinguish case cases suffixes are added to their. oblique stems , Telugu has no indefinite or definite articles but has demonstrative determiners for that this and. which , Telugu verbs agree in person number and when using third person gender Because there are no. adverbs for example Telugu uses suffixes to describe the intensity of an action or negation . Telugu has 3 tenses to code for past future habitual and durative All are coded with suffixes In. a finite verb the order of mophemes is verb stem tense suffix agreement suffix . Page 12 of 23, Syntax, Telugu consists of complex predicate constructions in which the verb is multiplied when. combined with other inflected elements , Basic syntax of the essential components of sentence structure in the Telugu language consists of. the subject object verb in which the normal predicate is fixed in the final position In some. cases non predicate elements display variations in order of words . Grammatical relations are expressed through case morphology as opposed to word order The. accusative suffix marks the direct object While the dative suffix marks the indirect object The. normative case is unmarked morphologically and is the case of subjects third person. predicates and inanimate direct objects , In the Telugu language there are two negative verbs that negate other predicates kaa and lee . Morphological expression of both tense aspect distinctions do not exist within the same word . Tense and aspect distinctions can be made in negative sentences that express negation in a. syntactic manner within a complex verbal production When tense and aspect of morphology is. not present then the verb can be inferred as future . The Telugu language employs the widespread use of participles Primarily utilizing more than. one verb per sentence is not allowed The first verbs in a sentence take place of a participle . However there are instances in which multiple verbs are utilized in the quotative construction . Other multifaceted predicate constructions are present within the Telugu language such as light. verb constructions Such type of constructions generally includes cases in which a noun that has. been borrowed from Sanskrit or English exists with a Telugu verb . The formation of relative clauses in Telugu primarily consists of the use of a relative participle. rather than a relative pronoun The use of dative markers for subjects with select verbs is. common in this language and generally Telugu sentences are grammatical lacking an explicit. object , The use of passive construction in reference to syntax in the Telugu language is created by. combining the finite form of the verb along with the infinite of the primary verb is infrequently. utilized The structure more universally used is the past participle in conjunction with the finite. form of the verb , Page 13 of 23, Pragmatics, There are inadequate resources available that are specific to the Telugu linguistic community . Pragmatic characteristics associated with the Telugu language currently do not exist exclusively . Although there are factors that should be considered with regards to this linguistic community. when interacting in various settings ,Communication Factors to Consider. There is a great difference in cultures between the North of India and the South as well as. between rural and urban families Traditionally the South worships more the Hindu god of. Vishnu , The division of castes is essential to keep in mind while working with Hindu families and the. States of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh UP uphold these divisions more than other states . Parent care is the task of the eldest son and his wife Parent care by the daughter is infrequent as. she marries and goes to live with the family of her husband Devotion to the family is essential . As a rule an Indian woman is not only married to her husband but is committed to serve and. obey his parents and close relatives as her duty , The relationship between a therapist helper and a patient client can be very familiar like close. family relatives , Stress might not be perceived as requiring the expertise of psychologists psychiatrists instead. indigenous forms of medicine and healing such as yoga exorcizing evil spirits Ayurvedic and. homeopathic medicines and religion are seen as the real medicine of the mind and heart . Acceptable Behaviors Do s , Do try to work in conjunction with the traditional healers of the community of your. client , Do try to greet your client saying Namaskar ji or Pranaam for the sophisticated. meaning of I bow down to you to greet you dear Sir Madam . Do put your hands together in the form of praying below your chin when greeting and. slightly bow or nod , Do let the woman lead the salutation greeting if you are a male wait to see whether the. woman extends her hand or bows to you if you are a woman you can take the lead on. what you feel comfortable or take the lead on , Page 14 of 23. Do be aware that shaking your head from one side to the other of the neck in a fast. motion can both mean yes and no and generally means that there is an. understanding , Do try to use professional titles such as Professor and Doctor or Mr Mrs and Miss . Do create the process of decision making as slow and thoughtful . Do realize that if you are in session with the elderly member of the family it. is important to have them take the lead of the conversation Also you should. great them first out of respect , Do be aware of the different festivals which occur during the year and that are followed. by your clients ,Unacceptable Behaviors Don ts , Do not point your feet towards the person out of respect if you happen to. touch your client with your feet do apologize , Do not grasp your ears as this expresses repentance . Do not point to an object in your office with your finger rather you should do. so with your chin , Do not backslap as this is not a sign of affection . Do not use your left hand to accept gifts or hand shake as is seen as unclean . If you are sharing a meal with your clients don t hesitate to also eat with your. hands as this is more than accepted and respected . Do not whistle as this is considered impolite , Do not open gifts that are offered to you or expect your clients to open them in. front of you either , Do not pat the head of a child as it is considered the seat of the soul . Do not discuss the issue of caste unless the family brings it up . Don t bring up the bad things about India before the family might . Do not to bring up controversial topics like riots between Hindus and Muslims. or the partition especially among Punjabis unless they bring it up .
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