Tasmanian Bat Ecology Conservation Of Native Fauna-Books Pdf

Tasmanian bat ecology Conservation of native fauna
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Conservation of biodiversity is one of the most important issues globally Chiropteran fauna. contributes one quarter of mammalian species but little information is known about most. species Tasmania has eight known species of bats including one endemic species. Nyctophilus sherrini There have been a number of studies conducted in Tasmania yet much. of the biology and ecology of most species remains unclear Effective conservation of local. biodiversity requires scientific information such as distribution habitat relationships and. feeding behaviours, The present study contributes new information about the distribution for most species. in Tasmania by using Anabat detector systems Identification of species by their echolocation. calls sampled from free flying individuals was achieved by developing a regional key. derived from trapped bats and an automated identification program Anascheme Six. species species groups were successfully distinguished by the key. Distribution records were gathered by echolocation recordings and the key newly. developed for the study I found that most sites have high bat species richness as more than. four species were recorded at the majority of sites Three Vespadelus species were the most. commonly observed and the Southern Forest Bat V regulus was recorded at 100 of sites. In contrast the high flying Eastern Falsistrelle Falsistrellus tasmaniensis was only present. at only 17 of sites, Species habitat relationships were analysed where possible Tasmanian bats appeared. to have less species specific requirements in their preferred activity areas In addition to. spatial partitioning of niches the possibility of discrete temporal activity patterns of species. was examined Calls recorded for each species were assigned into 10 equal time intervals. between sunset and sunrise There were no significant differences in a total activity index. between time intervals by species suggesting a high level of activity throughout the night. Evidence of a weak bimodal pattern in nightly activity was recognised in several species. Emergence timing was also compared between species and F tasmaniensis was shown to. have a significantly later emergence time and thus later peak activity timing than the others. Although analysis detected no significant effects of weather conditions on different. observation nights nightly fluctuations in the activity of several bats were apparent. Average mergence timing was used to derive a species accumulation curve This is a. useful tool for estimating the minimum time effort required to prepare a species inventory I. found that that the species accumulation rate is similar to the reported for the Victorian. Australia bat fauna and less similar than that for tropical Australian bats At least three and. half hours of echolocation call sampling per night is necessary to collect a satisfactory sample. suitable for estimating the local inventory of Tasmanian bats. Some conservation implications for the Tasmanian bat fauna were drawn from my. study and from previous work Better protection of forest habitats that provide sufficient roost. opportunities is a primary objective as well as the retention of hibernation sites as all species. hibernate during the winter months The present study collected data during the austral. summer similar to most previous studies suggesting that a better understanding of hibernal. activity is required for Tasmanian bats, In conclusion much more research is required to better understand the biology and. ecology of the Tasmanian bat fauna to conserve bats across the diverse landscapes which. make up Tasmania, Statement of Originality, This thesis contains no material which has been accepted for a degree or diploma by. the University or any other institution except by way of background information and. duly acknowledged in the thesis and to the best of my knowledge and belief no. material previously published or written by another person except where due. acknowledgement is made in the text of the thesis nor does the thesis contain any. material that infringes copyright, Authority of Access.
This thesis may be made available for loan and limited copying in accordance with. the Copyright Act 1968, Statement of Ethical Conduct. The research associated with this thesis abides by the international and Australian. codes on human and animal experimentation the guidelines by the Australian. Government s Office of the Gene Technology Regulator and the rulings of the Safety. Ethics and Institutional Biosafety Committees of the University. Masato Inada, Table of Contents, Abstract ii, Statement of Originality iii. Authority of Access iii, Statement of Ethical Conduct iii. Table of Contents iv, List of Tables vii, List of Figures ix. Glossary xi, Acknowledgements xiii, Chapter 1 General introduction 1.
1 1 Introduction 1, 1 2 studies on the biology ecology and ecological roles of bats 2. 1 3 Information required for conservation for bats 3. 1 4 Aims of the study 4, 1 5 Contents of the thesis 5. Chapter 2 Literature review current knowledge of Tasmanian bats 7. 2 1 Introduction and history 7, 2 2 Systematics 8, 2 3 Morphology 9. 2 4 General distribution and relative abundance 10. 2 5 Habitat and roosting ecology 13, 2 6 Diet and foraging 14. 2 7 Hibernation 15, 2 8 Reproduction 16, 2 9 Conservation status 17.
Chapter 3 General methods and site description 18, 3 1 Introduction 18. 3 2 Permits and ethics approvals 18, 3 3 Study sites 18. 3 4 Data sampling methods 21, 3 4 1 Harp trapping 21. 3 4 2 Acoustic sampling 26, 3 4 3 Environmental data 28. Chapter 4 Identification of Tasmanian bats by echolocation calls 30. 4 1 Introduction 30, 4 2 Methods 33, 4 3 Results 35.
4 4 Discussion 41, Chapter 5 Species composition and distribution within Tasmania 47. 5 1 Introduction 47, 5 2 Methods 49, 5 3 Results 55. 5 4 Discussion 66, Chapter 6 Activity patterns of Tasmanian bats 70. 6 1 Introduction 70, 6 2 Methods 72, 6 3 Results 75. 6 4 Discussion 82, Chapter 7 General conclusion 87.
7 1 Introduction 86, 7 2 Summary of finding 88, 7 3 Management and conservation implications for Tasmanian bats 91. 7 4 Future directions 94, 7 5 Conclusion 96, References 98. Appendix i Gazetteer 110, Appendix ii Human health issues associated with bats 117. Appendix iii Echolocation call features for the regional key for Tasmanian bat. species 120, Appendix iv Distribution records of species 124. Appendix v First call records summary 126, List of Tables.
Table 2 1 List of the Tasmanian bats and their type localities Data source. http www environment gov au biodiversity abrs online. resources fauna afd taxa VESPERTILIONIDAE complete 8. Table 2 2 Body mass and forearm length in Tasmanian bat species and the. mainland species mean SD Data from O Neill Taylor, 1986 for Tasmanian mean Taylor et al 1987 for sex. difference and Churchill 2008 for mainland Australia Note. the mainland C gouldii and N geoffroyi data are sourced from. Victoria Northern Australia 9, Table 4 1 Numbers of bats trapped and hand released for the purpose of. call recording The number of individuals for supplemental. calls is unknown sources are presented in parentheses BL. Brad Law LC Lisa Cawthen Note that calls from N, geoffroyi and N sherrini were lumped to a category NYSPP 36. Table 4 2 Summary of mean signal attributes SD from reference calls of. six Tasmanian species species group 37, Table 4 3 Rate of species identification on unidentified call sequences 41. Table 5 1 Habitat variables documented for sampling sites 51. Table 5 2 Correlations of presence of species at night observations. Species pairs with significant correlation identified by. Spearman s rank correlation 57, Table 5 3 Comparisons of habitat use of species in five broad vegetation.
types in Tasmania Mean activity index with SD was, presented Wilcoxon tests were used Note the different. sampling effort in habitats only single observations were made. in Moorland Non eucalyptus forest and twice in Scrub habitat. The test failed to detect significant differences in the use of. habitat in all species 60, Table 5 4 Correlations of species richness of bats with a range of. environmental variables recorded for sites p 0 05, p 0 01 ns not significant 61. Table 5 5 Analysis of Deviance Table for Falsistrellus tasmaniensis. FATApa following logistic regression Model binomial link. logit Terms added sequentially first to last 62, Table 5 6 MRPP results for vegetation types with multiple examples 64. Table 6 1 Number of identified calls from all site combined for species. unidentified calls were excluded from analysis 75, Table 6 2 Timing of first calls of species in relation to sunset 76.
Table 6 3 Timing of last calls of species in relation to sunrise 76. List of Figures, Figure 2 1 Tasmanian bats species and their conspecific mainland. distribution in Australia Distribution records were extracted. from IBRA and IMCRA Note V vulturnus inhabits, Tasmania but is not indicated on Map h 11. Figure 3 1 Site map Acoustic survey sites are indicated as a purple. closed circle and trapping sites are indicated by a red triangle 20. Figure 3 2 Basic design and size of a harp trap used in the study 23. Figure 3 3 Modified catch bag designs of harp traps used for the project 24. Figure 3 4 Single harp trap set up on flyway on the Pipeline Track Mt. Wellington 25, Figure 3 5 Capture of bats for reference calls from 2 least common. species and 2 most common species a Eastern falsistrelle. F tasmaniensis b Tasmanian Long eared bat N sherrini c. Large forest bat V darlingtoni d Little forest bat V. vulturnus 26, Figure 3 6 Examples of Anabat acoustic recording sites in Tasmania a. Anabat near riparian rainforest Collingwood River b A roost. tree in a residential area Sandford c On the edge of forestry. coupe in dry sclerophyll forest Gould s Country d Sandy. bush track and low vegetation cover in open woodland South. Bruny National Park e Temperate rainforest with Antarctic. tree ferns Sandpit f Narrow walking track in dry sclerophyll. forest surrounded by dense understorey Truganini Reserve 29. Figure 4 1 Echolocation call of C morio 37, Figure 4 2 Echolocation call of F tasmaniensis Note the high signal to.
noise ratio and small number of call signals indicate less. quality of the reference call 38, Figure 4 3 Echolocation call of N geoffroyi resembles pattern and. attributes of calls of N Sherrini 38, Figure 4 4 Echolocation call of N sherrini Resembling pattern and. attributes of calls of N geoffroyi 39, Figure 4 5 Echolocation call of V darlingtoni 39. Figure 4 6 Echolocation call of V regulus 40, Figure 4 7 Echolocation call of V vulturnus 40. Figure 5 1 The representation of Tasmanian bat species for total sites and. Figure 5 2 Number of species observed at sites all nights combined A. number of sites are expressed in proportions 56, Figure 5 3 Total number of calls species recorded during the study all.
data combined 57, Figure 5 4 Proportions of the mean passes of each species in different. habitat types based on dominant vegetation All nights and. sites aggregated CHMO C morio FATA F tasmaniensis, NYSPP Nyctophilus species VEDA V darlingtoni VERE. V regulus VEVU V vulturnus 59, Figure 5 5 Ordination NMDS of individual sampling sites and habitats. based upon the community of bat species present A cut off. value of 0 2 was used for variables fitted as vectors in the. ordination space Stress in 3 dimensions 13 4 63, Figure 6 1 Box plots for timing of the first calls above and the last calls. below for bat species 76, Figure 6 2 Bat species accumulation curve averaged over all sites using.
half hourly increments after sunset The points are fitted with. a logarithmic regression 78, Figure 6 3 Proportion of AIs for species between first and second half of. Figure 6 4 Mean activity index from three sites in one tenth time. intervals between sunset and sunrise showing bimodal. distribution of activity level 79, Figure 6 5 Overall activity distribution of Tasmanian bats in one tenth. time intervals between sunset and sunrise all species. combined 79, Figure 6 6 Activity patterns of all species through the night all sites. combined Time scales are expressed as 10 equal time. intervals between sunset and sunrise 80, Figure 6 7 Nightly fluctuations of activity patterns for species recorded. at site OFR Activity index against time interval Time scales. are 10 equal time intervals between sunset and sunrise. Different lines show data recorded on different nights n 8 81. Call characteristics parameters that are species unique and can be used as measurement. of identification, Call file with Anabat system a recorded call is saved as a digital file An assumption is.
that a file contains a call sequence of an individual lasting maximum 15 seconds In reality. the file can be made of several different individuals but at any given time only the. strongest sound signal is recorded and other signal information is lost while transforming. Call parameter or attributes which can be typical to species echolocation call Different. sound analysis i e bat detector types can produce or extract different aspect of. characteristics from the signal, Call phase call sequence can be divided into three phases Search phase prey. Tasmanian bat ecology Conservation of native fauna By Masato Inada BSc Hons A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the Degree of Master of Environmental Studies School of Geography and Environmental Studies University of Tasmania June 2010 ii Abstract Conservation of biodiversity is one of the most important issues globally Chiropteran fauna contributes one quarter of

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