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Ci tY1 M Li I 3, DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE SECR TARIAT D TAT. TRANSLATION BUREAU BUREAU DES TRADUCTIONS,MULTILINGUAL SERVICES DIVISION DES SERVICES. DIVISION MULTILINGUES,TRANSLATED FROM TRADUCTION DE INTO EN. Italian English,AUTHOR AUTEUR,L Rampichini et al,TITLE IN ENGLISH TITRE ANGLAIS. Effects of a diet contahlinE rapeseed oil in pig, TITLE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TRANSLITERATE FOREIGN CHARACTERS.
TITRE EN LANGUE TRANG RE TRANSCRIRE EN CARACT RES ROMAINS. Ricerche sugli effetti di Ina dieta comprendente olio di. crIza nel suinr, REFERENCE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE NAME OF BOOK OR PUBLICATION IN FULL TRANSLITERATE FOREIGN CHARACTERS. R F RENCE EN LANGUE iTRANG RE NOM DU LIVRE OU PUBLICATION AU COMPLET TRANSCRIRE EN CARACT RES ROMAINS. Archfvio reterinario italianr,REFERENCE IN ENGLISH FddRENCE EN ANGLAIS. Itanan 7reterinary Archives,PAGE NUMBERS IN ORIGINAL. PUBLISHER iDITEUR,DATE OF PUBLICATION NUMe ROS DES PAGES DANS. DATE DE PUBLICATION L ORIGINAL,YEAR ISSUE NO,ANN E NUM R0 NUMBER OF TYPED PAGES.
PLACE OF PUBLICATION,LIEU DE PUBLICATION NOMBRE DE PAGES. DACTYLOGRAPHI ES,1Q7 6 27 25,TRANSLATION BUREAU NO. REQUESTING DEPARTMENT,MINIST RE CLIENT,Envl rnnrlenu 4. NOTRE DOSSIER N 0 24 1A4 6 8,BRANCH OR DIVISION TRANSLATOR INITIALS. Fis 1eries TRADUCTEUR INITIALES,DIRECTION OU DIVISION.
PERSON REQUESTING,DEMANDE PAR,Dr C Abkl an,YOUR NUMBER. VOTRE DOSSIER N 0,DATE OF REQUEST,DATE DE LA DEMANDE. SOS 200 10 G REV 2 08,7030 21 029 633 3,F ty ei 113. Secretary Secr tariat,f of State d tat,TRANSLATION BUREAU BUREAU DES TRADUCTIONS. MULTILINGUAL SERVICES DIVISION DES SERVICES,DIVISION MULTILINGUES.
DEPARTMENT DIVISION BRANCH CITY,CLIENT S NO,NO DU CLIENT MINISTE RE DIVISION DIRECTION VILLE. Environment Fisheries Ottawa,BUREAU NO LANGUAGE TRANSLATOR IINITIALs. NceOU BUREAU LANGUE TRADUCTEUR INITIALES,1448468 Italian M Butler Sept 2 1977. RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF A DIET CONTAINING RAPESEED OIL IN PIG. L Rampichini M Severini A Belgiomini,S Ranucci D Rutili and E Di Antonio. The autors report about results of research work,on pigs kept for 7 15 2040 and 100 days on a diet.
contaizzing 13 of rapeseed oil 40 of erucic acid,or 13 of olive oil. The animals fed with rapeseed oit showed an early, aCcunitilati ri Of the rtlbi Ocicrin the heart and. skeletal muskle but there was no early and notable. lipidosis in the heart,Slight morfological changes in the rnyocard were. found in all the animals of both groups but they,were more aCcentuated even if retarded in. the animals fed with rapeseed oit,KEY WORDS Pig rapeseed oit erueic acid heart.
Skeletal muscle,INTRODUCTION, In a previous note Rampichini et al 1976 a we demonstrated that. pigs fed on a diet containing 11 5 rapeseed oil with 35 erucic acid had. not shown typical functional and morphological changes during the first. twenty days, This finding has created a problem of interpretation as regards the. actual toxicity of erucic acid for pigs, Some results of the present research were communicated at the XXIX. Convention of the Italian Society of Veterinary Sciences Begliomini et. al 1975 Portoferraio, The authors wish to thank Messrs O Cortona and M Spaccini for their. technical assistance,SEC 5 25T 6 76, In the present work we shall describe the results of further research.
conducted on pigs fed for a longer period of time on a diet containing a high. percentage of rapeseed oil richer in erucic acid, For this experiment we used the same rapeseed oil which in the rat. in lesser doses was found to be capable of inducing significant morphological. changes consisting of severe early lipidosis at the level of the myocardium. and the kidneys Rampichini et al 1976,PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS. Materials and Methods, Sixteen pigs of the Large White breed all females about 3 months old. having an average weight of 25 kg at the beginning of the experiment. The subjects were fed for ten days on SM 1 PETRINI feed containing no. methionine or antibiotics in order to adapt them to the experimental diet. Subsequently they were divided into three groups the first group. comprised nine pigs to which feed combined with rapeseed oil containing 40. erucic acid in a ratio of 13 by weight 27 cal was administered the. second group comprised 5 subjects administered feed to which olive oil con. taining no erucic acid had been added in a ratio of 13 by weight 27 cal. the third sroup comprised 2 pigs to which feed only was administered. All the subjects received a constant dose of feed equal to 40 g kg of. live weight pro die The pigs were sacrificed after the following time intervals. Days of treatment 7 15 20 40 100,No of subjects 1st group 2 2 2 2 2. No of subjects 2nd group 1 1 1 1 1,No of subjects 3rd group 0 0 0 1 1.
All the subjects underwent electrocardiographic enzymatic e post mortem. histological histochemical and ultrastructural examinations. The electrocardiographic examinations were conducted at the beginning. and end of the adaptation diet and at the end of the experimental diet. immediately prior to slaughter according to the methods already described. Rampichini et al 1976, The serum values of the aldolase ald creatine phosphokinase CPK. glutamic oxalectic transaminase GOT glutamic pyruvic transaminase GPT. and lactic dehydrogenase LDH were determined according to the methods. already described Tampichini et al 1976, The chemical analyses for the evaluation of the water content raw. lipids and erucic acid were conducted on samples of myocardium and quadriceps. femoris muscle according to the methods already described Rampichini et al. The post mort was carried out immediately after slaughter with a. captive bolt device and total bleeding of the subject by jugulation after. twelve hours fasting, The histological examinations were carried out on samples taken. from the encephalon thyroid lung heart spleen liver pancreas kidney. adrenal gland stomach large and small intestine lymph glands of the chest. and abdominal organs and skeletal muscles of the hind legs fixed in formalin. and included in paraffin The prepared sections were stained with hematoxylin. and eosine for the general morphology The myocardium sections were further. stained with the Van Gieson method for the connective tissue. The histochemical examinations were conducted on samples taken from. the myocardium the liver and the kidney frozen in isopentane cooled with. liquid nitrogen and sectioned under a cryostat The sections were stained. with Sudan III for the fats The liver sections were further used to determine. the activity of the glucose 6 phosphatase using the method of Wachstein et al. 1957 The ultrastructural examinations were carried out on samples of. ventricular myocardium placed in 2 glutaraldehyde in pH 7 4 phosphate buffer. for 2 hours then fixed in osmium tetroxide and included in Epon 812 The. ultrathin sections contrasted with lead hydroxide and uranyl acetate were. observed with a Philips 300 M E, Throughout the experiment the subjects under study showed no. pathological manifestations which were clinically detectable. The examination of the basal electrocardiographs and those carried. out immediately prior to slaughter in the subjects of all the groups showed. an essential superimposition of characteristics and the absence of patholo. gical alterations though within a certain range of variability as regards. the shape and amplitude of the waves in the individual pigs. The data relative to the serum enzymes and those relative to the. water and raw lipid content of the myocardium and skeletal muscle together. demonstrate an essential homogeneity of values among the pigs of the various. groups Table No 1,TABLE No 1,Pig gg Oil Md CPK GOT GPT LOH H 2 0 Fat H2 0 Fat.
no diet admin mu mi mtuml m0 1111 mU m1 mtliml heart heart muscle muscle. 1 7 RapeSeed 4 10 55 00 27 40 10 31 131 50 70 05 4 02 78 39 1 37. 2 7 Rapeseed 436 44 12 28 60 15 23 209 84 70 17 5 88 78 91 1 14. 4 15 Rapeseed 432 80 36 27 40 12 93 2 9 66 72 18 6 57 77 18 3 12. 5 15 Rapeseed 4 36 55 00 2636 15 23 152 90 73 20 4 65 77 93 2 21. 7 20 Rapeseed 4 36 60 00 34 20 11 04 203 40 76 61 7 49 76 91 3 24. 8 20 Rap es eed 2 94 57 00 22 80 5 60 152 90 73 10 5 31 77 07 2 SD. 10 40 Rap es eed 3 63 55 00 55 00 9 72 185 50 78 79 3 27 78 01 2 82. 11 40 Rapeseed 3 35 66 18 19 38 9 12 22038 75 92 4 76 77 66 2 53. 14 100 Rapeseed 3 35 56 00 19 38 9 72 212 90 73 04 2 88 71 41 2 42. 3 7 Olive 5 57 63 00 26 56 15 23 152 90 34 13 2 72 74 95 200. 6 15 Olive 4 36 55 00 27 40 5 60 203 40 70 25 5 69 76 90 3 48. 9 20 rive 2 43 53 00 27 20 7 92 162 30 76 24 3 81 73 27 3 02. 12 40 Olive 3 50 39 00 23 80 6 10 209 65 77 89 2 58 76 76 3 43. 15 100 Olive 4 10 59 15 26 20 11 64 205 60 79 56 2 08 31 56 1 94. 13 40 4 52 57 00 23 35 1h46 132 60 77 33 2 45 73 32 2 35. 16 100 3 91 71 00 26 20 11 64 248 30 78 42 4 74 77 52 3 02. M grams 100g of fresh tissue, Erucic acid was found to be present in the myocardium and the. skeletal muscle of subjects administered feed and rapeseed oil as early as. 7 days from the start of the diet and its accumulation became more marked. after the twentieth day Table No 2, In all the subjects the post mortem examinations revealed the. presence of lobular alterations in the lung enzootic pneumonia In the. pigs fed on rapeseed oil or olive oil the kidney had a somewhat pale. appearance and sometimes the muscles of the hind legs as well In some. of these subjects a small quantity of liquid discharge was noted in the. pericardial cavity In two subjects fed for 20 and 40 days on the diet. containing rapeseed oil a catarrhal gastritis was noted limited to. the mucosa, The histological examination revealed constant alterations only at. the level of the heart liver kidney intestine and lung In the myocardium. of all the pigs fed with rapeseed oil the alterations through diffuse. affected only a very limited area in all In the subjects sacrified within. the first 20 days of the diet these consisted in the presence of rare. isolated fibres with homogenous intensely eosinophile cytoplasm lacking. TABLE No 2,Pigs erucic acid content of,the heart qnd skeletal mus. 120 cles in mg kg of fresh tissue,0 10 20 4 40,Legend Heart le grovp.
Skeletal muscie 1st grOup,Ijeart and skeletal muscle. 2nd and 3rd groups, visible transverse striae and showing a thick pycnotic nucleus of. thin fibres with paler granulose cytoplasm with visible transverse striae. and a certain number of small interstitial infiltrates of histocyte cells. In the pigs sacrificed after 40 days rare and isolated eosinophile fibres. were observed as well as a slightly higher number of fibres showing granular. degeneration and diffuse histocyte infiltrates generally small and localized. in the interstice Infiltrates of significant size or which tended to replace. degenerated fibres were found only rarely Fig 1 In the myocardium of. the subject sacrificed after 100 days of diet the eosinophile fibres were. practically absent while fibres showing granular degeneration or small. infiltrates of histocyte cells replacing them were clearly evident Fig 2. Fig No 1 Pig fed for 40 days with rapeseed oil Staining hematoxylin. and eosine x 280, Fig No 2 Pig fed for 100 days with rapeseed oil Staining hematoxylin. and eosine x 140, In the myocardium of pigs fed with olive oil alterations more or. less identical to the less serious ones observed in the animals fed on a. diet with rapeseed oil were present but the time of onset was different. After 7 days in fact the only thing noted was numerous small. histocyte infiltrates at the interstitial level and after only 15 days. rare isolated eosinophilefibres with clear granulose cytoplams appeared. while the infiltrates became less numerous and were still interstitial. These alterations remained constant in the pigs sacrificed at a later date. though a slight accentuation of the processes of granular degeneration. was observed in some fibres, In the liver of all the pigs examined we noted some phenomena of.
microvacuolization of the liver cells close the centrolubular areas. which was slightly more accentuated and diffuse in subjects fed with rapeseed. oil and in those fed for more than 7 days on the diet with olive oil and in. the kidney slight degenerative alterations with significant differences. between the animals of the three groups, In the intestine of almost all the pigs fed with rapeseed oil or. olive oil slight catarrhal enteritis was noted, In the lung of all the subjects of the various groups lesions. characteristic of enzootic pneumonia were noted, Sporadically alterations were observed in other organs In the. pancreas of 2 pigs fed with rapeseed oil or olive oil for 7 days necroses. of the exocrine glands were visible In the stomach of 2 subjects fed on. the diet containing rapeseed oil respectively for 20 and 40 days mild. catarrhal gastritis was noted at the level of the mucosa. Staining with Sudan III revealed the presence of a very few fibres. containing minute drops of fat in the myocardium of 2 subjects fed for 15. and 20 days with rapeseed oil and in one fed with simple feed. In the liver of all the subjects administered rapeseed oil or olive. oil for more than 7 days acertain accumulation of fat was noted in the liver. cells of the centrolobular areas This alteration reached a high level of. diffusion and severity only in one pig fed for 20 days on the diet with. rapeseed oil In the liver of the animals of the first two groups sacrificed. after 7 days and in those of the third group sudanophile drops were noted in. a very limited number of isolated and irregularly distributed liver cells. In the kidney of all the subjects fed for more than 7 days on a. diet containing rapeseed oil or olive oil small drops of fat were found. at the level of the epithelium of the convoluted tubules The affected. tubules were more or less isolated and rare and only occasionally were there. 3 or 4 contiguous ones, The histochemical reactions to reveal the activity of the glucose 6. phosphatase permitted us to confirm the presence of similar patterns in the liver ofth e. of all three groups Enzymatic activity was present in the cytoplasm of pigs. all the liver cells in the form of minute dark brown colored granules. The ultrastructural examinations revealed in the myocardium of pigs. fed with rapeseed or olive oil for 7 15 and 20 days some structural altera. tions and a slight accumulatibn of fat in a rather low percentage of fibres. The structural alterations of the fibres consisted in the presence of small. light colored cytoplasmic areas for the most part in the vicinity of the. nuclei with no myofibrils and with mitochondria dispersed among finely. granulose material Fig 3 of mitochrondria with reduced or dissolved. crests sometimes containing small vescicles or reduced themselves to. vescicles Figs 7 8 9 and of dilations of the sarcotubular system which. Fig No 3 Pig fed for 7 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydroxide. and uranyl acetate x 5100, Fig No 4 Pig fed for 7 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydroxide.
and uranyl acetate x 5800, Fig No 5 Pig fed for 7 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydroxide. and uranyl acetate x 8800, Fig No 6 Pig fed for 7 days with olive oil Contrast lead hydroxide. and uranyl acetate x 8800, Fig No 7 Pig fed for 7 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydroxide. and uranyl acetate x 27000,Contrast lead hydroxide. Fig No 9 Pig fed for 7 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydroxide. and uranyl acetate x 27000, Fig No 10 Pig fed for 7 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydro.
xide and uranyl acetate x 27000, Fig No 11 Pig fed for 100 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydro. xide and uranyl acetate x 1900, Fig No 12 Pig fed for 100 days with rapeseed oil Contrast lead hydro. xide and uranyl acetate x 13000, in some cases had the appearance of mascicles Figs 7 8 9 10 Signifi. cant accumulations ofmitochondriawere found occasionally between the myo. fibrils in the vicinity of the nuclei Fig 4, The fatty accumulation was characterized by the presence of small. slightly electron dense drops without a clear delimiting membranelle. isolated and localized between thenitochondria in the intermyofibrillar. spaces or under the arches at the periphery of the cells Figs 3 5 6. The myocardium of pigs fed for 40 days on diets including rapeseed. oil or olive oil showed the same characteristics described above with the. exception of the fatty accumulation in fact a very few isolated lipid. droplets were detected only in a few rare fibres The structural alterations. were slighly more serious and diffuse in particular in subjects fed rapeseed. oil The percentage of altered myocardial fibres was substantially unvaried. in the pigs sacrificed after 100 days the lesions were somewhat more accen. tuated in the animals that had received olive oil while they showed indica. tions of extreme gravity in those that had received rapeseed oil In the myo. cardium of these latter subjects there were in fact some fibres showing. large cytoplasmic areas emptied of the normal structures and containing only. amorphous residues of cellular material alternating with small areas con. taining fragmented but apparently preserved myofibrils and mitochondria. with altered or swollen crests or lacking crests between the still par. tially visible sections of the sarcotubular system Figs 11 12 Occasionally. some isolated histiocytes were detected in the interstitial spaces. No structural alterations were found in the myocardium of pigs. receiving feed only only rare fibres containing isolated drops of fat. were observed,CONCLUSIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS, The results obtained show that in the pig a diet including 13.
rapeseed oil with 40 erucic acid causes an early progressive accumulation. of erucic acid at the level of the heart and skeletal muscles but causes. no significant modifications in the electrocardiogram nor any quantitative. variations in serum enzymes Ald CPK GOT GPT LDH nor severe cardiac. lipidosis such as that found in rats fed with a lower dose of the same oil. Rampichini et al 1976b and considered by numerous authors to be a. specific lesion Adbellatif et al 1970 Beare Rogers et al 1972. Vodovar et al 1972 Adbellatif et al 1973 Beare Rogers et al 1974. Rauber et al 1974 Cluzan et al 1975 Dallocchio et al 1975 Svaar. et al 1975 Vodovar et al 1975, This diet however induces some slight constant morphological. alterations in the heart liver kidneys and intestine and a slight fatty. accumulation in the myocardium detectable only with the M E and in the. liver visible in sections stained with Sudan III, A diet including 13 olive oil causes essentially the same altera. tions though the cardiac alterations throughout time appear to be less.


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