Tana Varnam S An Entry Into R Ga Delineation In Carnatic-Books Pdf

Tana Varnam s An Entry into R ga Delineation in Carnatic
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Anaytical Approaches To World Music Vol 1 No 1 2011. I will begin by studying the pedagogy of an important type of Carnatic composition. the tana varnam A tana varnam 1 or simply varnam is among other things2 a. composition explicitly designed to present the r ga in which it is composed in all of its. subtleties of ornamentation special phrases and overall pitch movement it teaches the. student how to sing perform and eventually improvise in its r ga as well as serving as. sort of a r ga dictionary on which other compositions and performances are based. Because of this feature the study of the teaching of varnams supported by transcription. offers direct and pertinent data for determining r ga delineation In the last part of this. paper I show what results when I enter this data into a computer program whose output. shows typical paths through the notes of a r ga, Indian music is usually taught orally one on one from teacher to student In the. Carnatic tradition graded exercises in the form of compositions are used to teach the. basics These compositions are said to have been composed and or collected by. Purandaradasa 1484 1564 recognized as the founder of Carnatic music All beginning. students must memorize and master these elementary solf ge exercises called sarale. svarali janti varase and t la alankaras as well as songs called pillari gitas 3 Then. the student is taught more complicated pieces ending the pedagogical sequence with. The prefix tana is used to distinguish this type of varnam from pada varnams found in Indian dance. Since we will not be looking at pada varnams I will simply use the term varnam. Varnams are used to perfect vocal style and promote a proper control of rhythm Varnams are often. practiced or performed at double speed to this end In such cases the t la does not speed up it is counted. with kr ya at tempo with the performance of the composition at double speed. Much of this pedagogical literature is composed in the r ga Mayamalavagaula and in all the major t las. See Kumar K and Stackhouse J Classical Music of South India Karnatic Tradition in Western Notation. Stuyvesant N Y Pendragon Press 1987, Tana Varnam s An Entry Into R ga Delineation In Carnatic Music. varnams and swarajatis 4 Only after this pedagogical sequence is complete is the student. taught items in the concert repertoire and improvisation. But in recent years other pedagogical settings have been employed such as teaching. students in groups and using media such as notation and recordings often over the. Internet An example of such pedagogical aids is the six cassette recording called. Carnatic Lessons Nottuswara Sahitya and Varnams sung and with commentary in. English by S Rajeswari a lecturer in Tamil Nadu Government Music College The tapes. include the teaching sessions of 13 well known varnams Another example is the book. Ganamrutha Varna Malika by A S Panchapakesa Iyer a collection of forty one. varnams in Indian notation also in English The set of tapes and the publication provide. data for an inquiry into r ga structure in two varnams found in both pedagogical sources. Viriboni in Bhairav r ga and Ata t la and Vanajakshiro in Kalyani r ga and Adi. t la See Example 1 a, But before we get to these pedagogical sources let me briefly outline the musical form of. a typical varnam A varnam is usually based on a single r ga and set in one of two t las. either Adi t la of 8 beats divided 4 2 2 or Ata t la of 14 beats divided 5 5 2 2 A. varnam has two basic sections the second sung or played on an instrument in a faster. tempo than the first Example 1 b gives the complete formal design of a varnam. however I will only be examining the first section of varnams consisting of the pallavi. and anupallavi sections which have text and the concluding mukthaya swaram section. which is sung in Indian solf ge called sargam, While these two types of compositions are part of the pedagogical sequence they are often performed in. concert with a varnam as the first or second piece on the concert. Anaytical Approaches To World Music Vol 1 No 1 2011. Example 1 a Varnams studied in this paper, Vanajakshiro in Kalyani raga and Adi tala 8 beats 4 2 2 composed by Ramnad.
Sreenivasa Iyer 1860 1919, Viriboni in Bhairavi raga and Ata tala 14 beats 5 5 2 2 composed by. Pacchimirium Sree Adiyappiyer 18 century, Example 1 b General form of the Varnam. A Purvanga first part, pallavi with text two or more cycles of tala. anupallavi with text two or more cycles of tala, mukthaya swaram sargam two or more cycles of tala. pallavi opening phrase, B Uttaranga second part, ettugada pallavi carana with text.
chitti swaram 1 sargam, ettugada pallavi, chitti swaram 2 sargam. ettugada pallavi, chitti swaram 3 sargam, chitti swaram n sargam. ettugada pallavi, sargam is Indian solf ge, Now let us look at the Indian notation of one of two varnams we shall study. Vanajakshiro in Kalyani r ga and Adi t la The first page of three from Panchapakesa. Iyer s book is shown in Example 2 The notation is headed by the name of the r ga its. parent scale t la and composer The ascending and descending movement of the r ga in. sargam is given next followed by the Sanskrit texts of the pallavi anupallavi and. charanam sections The composition follows in sargam The letters stand for the. vocables Sa Ri Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni the names of the seven notes of the scale This. corresponds to Do Ri Mi Fa Sol La Ti however note that neither the exact pitches. Tana Varnam s An Entry Into R ga Delineation In Carnatic Music. Example 2 Indian notation of Vanajakshiro, nor the intervals between them are given in the notation but inferred from the r ga of the. composition The r ga of this varnam is Kalyani with its fourth degree Ma sharped. Thus the pitch material for this r ga is akin to the notes of the Lydian mode 5. In the notation of the other varnam the r ga is Bhairav which takes a flat third and seventh degree and. both a flat and natural sixth, Anaytical Approaches To World Music Vol 1 No 1 2011.
Rhythm is notated by symbols either sargam letters or lines indicating rests or. sustained pitches each equal to a quarter of a beat The layout of the notation shows a. cycle of the t la of the varnam in two lines the first line comprises sixteen symbols. equaling the first four beat division of the t la and the second line gives the last two beat. divisions of eight symbols each separated by a vertical line Below the symbols is the. text of the music, Obviously Indian notation is schematic leaving out many important features of the. music 6 The main function of the notation is mnemonic to aid memorization. Nevertheless the notation gives the basic information of a composition which when. combined with the performance practices of r ga and t la should yield something like. the performed composition We can therefore say the notation is phonemic rather than. In Example 3 is the Western equivalent of the Indian notation in Example 2 Please. listen to the following recording of the pallavi section of Vanajakshiro so you can. compare the performance with the Western notation, Any attentive listener will have noted a great discrepancy between the recording and the. notation This is not due to mistakes in the notation but due to the nature of notes in. Carnatic music This renders Western habits of reading pitch notation ineffective so the. notation seems foreign to the heard music As I will demonstrate later this makes it. difficult for the inexperienced Western listener to parse and hierarchize Carnatic pitch. relations correctly 7, Perhaps one can compare it to lead sheet used in Western popular music and jazz. This is not a major problem in hearing Hindustani music and is therefore one of the salient differences. between Carnatic and Hindustani music, Tana Varnam s An Entry Into R ga Delineation In Carnatic Music. Example 3 Western translation, Example 3 Westernof Panchapakesa.
translation Iyer s Indian notation, of Indian notation. Vanajakshiro, Ramnad Sreenivasa Iyengar, Va na ja kshi ro ee vi ra ha mo rva ne. Va su de vu ni tho di de ne, Anupallavi, 42 J j j 22 j. Vi na ve Na ga pu ra mu na, Audio Example 1 Vanajakshiro. But before dealing with this pitch issue let us listen to a portion of the tapes to see. how varnams are taught The next recording documents the beginning of Rajeswari s. teaching of the other varnam Viriboni in Bhairav r ga and Ata t la I have deleted a. bit of the exposition for reasons of space, Audio Example 2.
You will note that Rajeswari sings manageable parts of the varnam with the students. repeating what they hear as best they can which varies from adequate to good This. means that although the composition is sung in time the t la is suspended Another. Anaytical Approaches To World Music Vol 1 No 1 2011. important deviation from the performed composition is that Rajeswari sings the varnam. using sargam rather than the text This makes it clear what pitch is in play from note to. note even though the articulation of these pitches seems highly ornamented I say seems. highly ornamented because the notes in Indian music practice are not strictly. distinguished from their articulation which involves many different kinds of precisely. timed slides and oscillations 8 After Rajeswari has taught the smaller phrases of a section. of the varnam she goes back to repeat these phrases joined together to make longer. passages with the students singing each longer phrase after her On a third or fourth pass. she sings the entire section with the students following suit The next phase is to return to. repeat this process of grouping a section of the varnam into smaller parts and building up. to the whole section but now singing the text of the varnam rather than the sargam Only. after this is done does she move on to the next section of the varnam Since Viriboni is. a long composition it takes over an hour to complete the teaching. From the tape it is clear that this teaching involves no verbal discourse only the rote. memorization of the composition This is traditional music pedagogy however in a less. idealized teaching situation the teacher will not go on to the next phrase until the student. has completely mastered all the details of the one at hand This may involve many. repetitions of the phrase by the teacher each followed by the student 9 But even in this. non verbal setting it is interesting to study how the teacher groups the varnam into parts. which suggests how expert musicians mentally hierarchize this music. These types of pitch movements also distinguish Carnatic from Hindustani music In the latter genre the. movements are slower but no less precise and the movement that oscillates around a pitch center is. extremely rare, Nevertheless some teachers will lecture on a piece they are teaching demonstrating all the intricate. details of each phrase with verbal commentary, Tana Varnam s An Entry Into R ga Delineation In Carnatic Music. Using Panchapakesa Iyer s notation translated into Western musical notation in. Examples 4 and 5 I show Rajeswari s pedagogical partitioning of each varnam In these. examples brackets above the staff shows the grouping of the varnam when she sings it. using sargam and the brackets below show the grouping when there is text In the case of. the mukthaya swara sections there are no brackets below the staff since this section s. text is sargam, Example 4 notates Rajeswari s nested partitioning of the Kalyani varnam. Vanajakshiro The example shows there are different groupings when Rajeswari. teaches the varnam with sargam versus with the text however in each case the. partitioning is well formed from the smallest phrases to the longest In the sargam. partitioning the groupings are first equal to four beats each half the length of the t la. Adi On the next pass through the varnam s sections the groupings are complete t la. lengths then two t la lengths the length of each section of the varnam The texted. partitioning is more variously partitioned especially on the most local level It tends to. follow the setting of the text but doesn t always break at word boundaries but at. syllables Looking at the top line of Example 4 we see the text groupings are of the. following lengths in eighth notes 6 8 7 6 and 5 This teaches the student how the. syllabification conflicts with the t la beats and divisions in a subtractive series of. durations following the initial duration of six eighth notes The groupings of the second. line are 10 12 and 10 eighth notes Each of these groupings is broken exactly in half by. the syllables thus we have 5 5 6 6 and 5 5 The last grouping is a little more. complicated being divided by the syllables into subgroupings of 2 3 and 4 1 eighth. notes We see that pedagogical partitioning of the varnam shows the t la structure in the. Anaytical Approaches To World Music Vol 1 No 1 2011. Example Example 4 Pedagogical, 4 Pedagogical partitioning. partitioning of Vanajakshiro, of Vanajakshiro, Va na ja kshi ro ee vi ra ha mo rva ne.
Va su de vu ni tho di de ne, Anupallavi, Vi na ve Na ga pu ra mu na. Ve la yu Sou nda ra ra ju ni, Mukthaya Swaram, s r n s n d n s n d p m g d s r s p m d p n d r s n d n. d g r n r n s d n p d n s g r s n d p m g r g m p d n. Tana Varnam s An Entry Into R ga Delineation In Carnatic Music. sargam grouping and the details of rhythmic syncopations and symmetries in the texted. Tana Varnam s An Entry into R ga Delineation in Carnatic Music Robert Morris ga delineation in either Hindustani or Carnatic music continues to be a major topic in Indian music Previous research has shown that the nature of r ga is complex multi faceted and difficult to generalize into a single definition Almost any given r ga is much more than an ascending and descending scale and a

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