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System Programming
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directly put into their assigned memory locations After completion of. assembly process assign starting address of the program to the location. counter The typical example is WATFOR 77 it s a FORTRAN compiler. which uses such load and go scheme This loading scheme is also. called as assemble and go, Advantages, This scheme is simple to implement Because assembler is placed at one. part of the memory and loader simply loads assembled machine. instructions into the memory, Disadvantages, In this scheme some portion of memory is occupied by assembler which. is simply a wastage of memory As this scheme is combination of. assembler and loader activities this combination program occupies large. block of memory, There is no production of obj file the source code is directly converted. to executable form Hence even though there is no modification in the. source program it needs to be assembled and executed each time which. then becomes a time consuming activity, It cannot handle multiple source programs or multiple programs written. in different languages This is because assembler can translate one source. language to other target language, For a programmer it is very difficult to make an orderly modulator.
program and also it becomes difficult to maintain such program and the. compile and go loader cannot handle such programs, The execution time will be more in this scheme as every time program. is assembled and then executed, 2 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker. 2 General Loader Scheme in this loader scheme the source program is. converted to object program by some translator assembler The loader. accepts these object modules and puts machine instruction and data in an. executable form at their assigned memory The loader occupies some. portion of main memory, Advantages, The program need not be retranslated each time while running it This is. because initially when source program gets executed an object program. gets generated Of program is not modified then loader can make use of. this object program to convert it to executable form. There is no wastage of memory because assembler is not placed in the. memory instead of it loader occupies some portion of the memory And. size of loader is smaller than assembler so more memory is available to. It is possible to write source program with multiple programs and. multiple languages because the source programs are first converted to. object programs always and loader accepts these object modules to. convert it to executable form, 3 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker. 3 Absolute Loader Absolute loader is a kind of loader in which. relocated object files are created loader accepts these files and places. them at specified locations in the memory This type of loader is called. absolute because no relocation information is needed rather it is. obtained from the programmer or assembler The starting address of. every module is known to the programmer this corresponding starting. address is stored in the object file then task of loader becomes very. simple and that is to simply place the executable form of the machine. instructions at the locations mentioned in the object file In this. scheme the programmer or assembler should have knowledge of. memory management The resolution of external references or linking. of different subroutines are the issues which need to be handled by the. programmer The programmer should take care of two things first. thing is specification of starting address of each module to be used If. some modification is done in some module then the length of that. module may vary This causes a change in the starting address of. immediate next modules its then the programmer s duty to make. necessary changes in the starting addresses of respective modules. Second thing is while branching from one segment to another the. absolute starting address of respective module is to be known by the. programmer so that such address can be specified at respective JMP. instruction For example, Line number, 1 MAIN START 1000.
1 JMP 5000, 16 STORE instruction at location 2000, 4 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker. 1 SUM START 5000, 20 JMP 2000, In this example there are two segments which are interdependent At line. number 1 the assembler directive START specifies the physical starting. address that can be used during the execution of the first segment MAIN. Then at line number 15 the JMP instruction is given which specifies the. physical starting address that can be used by the second segment The. assembler creates the object codes for these two segments by considering. the stating addresses of these two segments During the execution the. first segment will be loaded at address 1000 and second segment will be. loaded at address 5000 as specified by the programmer Thus the problem. of linking is manually solved by the programmer itself by taking care of. the mutually dependant dresses As you can notice that the control is. correctly transferred to the address 5000 for invoking the other segment. and after that at line number 20 the JMP instruction transfers the control. to the location 2000 necessarily at location 2000 the instruction STORE. of line number 16 is present Thus resolution of mutual references and. linking is done by the programmer The task of assembler is to create the. object codes for the above segments and along with the information such. as starting address of the memory where actually the object code can be. placed at the time of execution The absolute loader accepts these object. modules from assembler and by reading the information about their. starting addresses it will actually place load them in the memory at. specified addresses, The entire process is modeled in the following figure. 5 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker, Thus the absolute loader is simple to implement in this scheme. l Allocation is done by either programmer or assembler. 2 Linking is done by the programmer or assembler, 3 Resolution is done by assembler.
4 Simply loading is done by the loader, As the name suggests no relocation information is needed if at all it is. required then that task can be done by either a programmer or assembler. Advantages, 1 It is simple to implement, 2 This scheme allows multiple programs or the source programs written. different languages If there are multiple programs written in different. languages then the respective language assembler will convert it to the. language and a common object file can be prepared with all the ad. resolution, 3 The task of loader becomes simpler as it simply obeys the instruction. regarding where to place the object code in the main memory. 4 The process of execution is efficient, Disadvantages. 1 In this scheme it is the programmer s duty to adjust all the inter. segment addresses and manually do the linking activity For that it is. necessary for a programmer to know the memory management. If at all any modification is done the some segments the starting. addresses of immediate next segments may get changed the programmer. 6 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker, has to take care of this issue and he needs to update the corresponding.
starting addresses on any modification in the source. Algorithm for absolute Loader, Input Object codes and starting address of program segments. Output An executable code for corresponding source program This. executable code is to be placed in the main memory. Method Begin, For each program segment, Read the first line from object module to. obtain information about memory location The, starting address say S in corresponding object. module is the memory location where executale, code is to be placed. Memory location S, Line counter 1 as it is first line While.
end of file, For the curent object code, 1 Read next line. 2 Write line into location S, 4 Line counter Line counter 1. Subroutine Linkage To understand the concept of subroutine. linkages first consider the following scenario, In Program A a call to subroutine B is made The subroutine B is not. written in the program segment of A rather B is defined in some another. program segment C, Nothing is wrong in it But from assembler s point of view while. generating the code for B as B is not defined in the segment A the. assembler can not find the value of this symbolic reference and hence it. will declare it as an error To overcome problem there should be some. mechanism by which the assembler should be explicitly informed that. segment B is really defined in some other segment C Therefore. whenever segment B is used in segment A and if at all B is defined in C. then B must be declared as an external routine in A To declare such. subroutine as external we can use the assembler directive EXT Thus the. statement such as EXT B should be added at the beginning of the. segment A This actually helps to inform assembler that B is defined. somewhere else Similarly if one subroutine or a variable is defined in. the current segment and can be referred by other segments then those. should be declared by using pseudo ops INT Thereby the assembler. 7 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker, could inform loader that these are the subroutines or variables used by.
other segments This overall process of establishing the relations between. the subroutines can be conceptually called a subroutine linkage. For example, MAIN START, At the beginning of the MAIN the subroutine B is declared as external. When a call to subroutine B is made before making the unconditional. jump the current content of the program counter should be stored in the. system stack maintained internally Similarly while returning from the. subroutine B at RET the pop is performed to restore the program. counter of caller routine with the address of next instruction to be. Concept of relocations, Relocation is the process of updating the addresses used in the address. sensitive instructions of a program It is necessary that such a. modification should help to execute the program from designated area of. the memory, The assembler generates the object code This object code gets executed. after loading at storage locations The addresses of such object code will. get specified only after the assembly process is over Therefore after. address of object code Mere address of object code relocation. There are two types of addresses being generated Absolute address and. relative address The absolute address can be directly used to map the. object code in the main memory Whereas the relative address is only. after the addition of relocation constant to the object code address This. kind of adjustment needs to be done in case of relative address before. actual execution of the code The typical example of relative reference is. addresses of the symbols defined in the Label field addresses of the data. which is defined by the assembler directive literals redefinable symbols. 8 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker, Similarly the typical example of absolute address is the constants which. are generated by assembler are absolute, The assembler calculates which addresses are absolute and which.
addresses are relative during the assembly process During the assembly. process the assembler calculates the address with the help of simple. expressions, For example, The expression A X means the address of variable X The meaning of. the above instruction is that loading of the contents of memory location. which is 5 more than the address of variable X Suppose if the address of. X is 50 then by above command we try to get the memory location. 50 5 55 Therefore as the address of variable X is relative A X 5 is. also relative To calculate the relative addresses the simple expressions. are allowed It is expected that the expression should possess at the most. addition and multiplication operations A simple exercise can be carried. out to determine whether the given address is absolute or relative In the. expression if the address is absolute then put 0 over there and if address is. relative then put lover there The expression then gets transformed to sum. of O s and l s If the resultant value of the expression is 0 then expression. is absolute And if the resultant value of the expression is 1 then the. expression is relative If the resultant is other than 0 or 1then the. expression is illegal For example, In the above expression the A Band C are the variable names The. assembler is to c0l1sider the relocation attribute and adjust the object. code by relocation constant Assembler is then responsible to convey the. information loading of object code to the loader Let us now see how. assembler generates code using relocation information. Direct Linking Loaders, The direct linking loader is the most common type of loader This type of. loader is a relocatable loader The loader can not have the direct access to. the source code And to place the object code in the memory there are. two situations either the address of the object code could be absolute. 9 Dr Shaimaa H Shaker, which then can be directly placed at the specified location or the address. can be relative If at all the address is relative then it is the assembler who. informs the loader about the relative addresses, The assembler should give the following information to the loader.
1 The length of the object code segment, 2 The list of all the symbols which are not defined 111 the current. System Programming Loaders and Linkers Introduction In this chapter we will understand the concept of linking and loading As discussed earlier the source program is converted to object program by assembler The loader is a program which takes this object program prepares it for execution and loads this executable code of the source into

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