Syndrome Of Low Triiodothyronine In Chronic Fluorosis-Books Pdf

SYNDROME OF LOW TRIIODOTHYRONINE IN CHRONIC FLUOROSIS
18 Feb 2020 | 27 views | 0 downloads | 9 Pages | 537.78 KB

Share Pdf : Syndrome Of Low Triiodothyronine In Chronic Fluorosis

Download and Preview : Syndrome Of Low Triiodothyronine In Chronic Fluorosis


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Syndrome Of Low Triiodothyronine In Chronic Fluorosis



Transcription

International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article, Fluoride is a microelement for human health but has been listed among the most significant endotoxins. that appear in natural environment as after effects of industrial activity of humans Fluoride ions after. absorption to the blood from gastro intestinal tract or the lungs easily penetrate to the cells through. membranes Birkner et al 2008 and affects different mechanisms Wu et al 2008 It is known to. accumulate not only in bones and teeth but also in soft tissues Cinar and Selcuk 2005 Fluoride can. affect the hormone secretion of the thyroid Hu et al 2007 wang et al 2009 Shashi and Singla 2009. Excessive long term intake of fluoride is a significant risk factor for the development of thyroid. dysfunction Yaming et al 2005 To date there are few data on the thyroid function in patients with. chronic fluoride toxicity and there are no data available on low T3 syndrome in fluorotoxicity except in. workers of chronic occupational exposure Mikhailets et al 1996 and in children with high fluoride in. drinking water Susheela et al 2005, The present study examined the thyroid function and low T3 state in a group of patients exposed to. different concentration of fluoride in drinking water This study was approved by the institution Human. Ethics Committee of our institution,MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study Design, A total of 279 adults aged 22 47 mean age 34 80 9 40 of both the sexes were randomly selected out. of which 139 from fluoride endemic areas of Bathinda district Punjab India and 140 from non fluorotic. areas as control group,Blood Sampling and Processing.
Fasting venous blood samples were collected from the selected patients and controls in non heparinized. vacutainers and left for 20 minutes to allow clotting Clear sera were obtained by centrifugation at 2000. rpm for 15 minutes and stored at 20 C for further biochemical analysis. Biochemical Assays, Thyroid function was evaluated by measuring serum levels of TSH T3 T4 and reverse T3 rT3 with a. direct enzyme immune assay Biocheck Inc California and BioMontecelio Italy The protein levels in. serum of control and fluorotic patients were determined by method of Lowry et al 1951 albumins. was estimated by modified Bromocresol Green method McPherson and Everard 1972. The estimation of fluoride in water and serum was done by using Orion ion selective electrode EA940. Boston MA USA On the basis of water fluoride concentration the study areas were divided into five. subgroups viz control 0 65 1 00 mg l A I 1 01 4 00 mg L A II 4 01 8 00 mg L A III 8 01 12 00. mg L and A IV 12 01 16 00 mg L,Data Analysis, All the data was expressed as mean standard deviations S D One way analysis of variance ANOVA. with post hoc analysis was used to compare the variables in different groups Association between. variables was assessed by Pearson s bivariate cofficient of correlation Two sided P values of 0 05 were. considered statistically significant The statistical program used was SPSS for windows version 16 0. Statistical Package for Social Sciences Inc Chicago Illinois USA. Thyroid Hormone Levels, One way ANOVA analysis revealed significant F 4 278 22 794 P 0 001 decline in the mean level of. serum TSH in patients of study groups A I to A III fluoride exposure 1 01 12 00 mg L and elevation in. study group A IV where the fluoride concentration was highest 12 01 16 00 mg L Fig 1 Tukey s LSD. multiple comparison test further revealed that the level of TSH altered significantly q 1 59 to 1 08. 95 CI 2 73 to 4 91 P 0 05 0 001 among fluorotic patients of all study groups as well as compared. to control group, International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article, The mean serum level of T3 and T4 showed a significant P 0 001 decrease in patients of fluorosis of all.
study groups Fig 1, Figure 1 Serum levels of thyroid hormones in fluorotic patients suffering from. Low T3 syndrome in different study groups, One way ANOVA with post hoc analysis demonstrated a highly significant F4 278 825 067 P 0 0001. variance in the level of T3 in control and fluorotic patients with concomitant increase in water fluoride. level A I to AIV Tukey s LSD multiple comparison test revealed that the level of T3 decreased. significantly q 50 13 to 60 05 95 CI 29 23 to 89 06 P 0 001 in all fluorotic patients Bonferroni. multiple comparison analysis illustrated that the mean level of serum T4 declined significantly t 5 44 to. 2 36 95 CI 1 33 to 11 75 P 0 05 0 001 in fluorotic patients of all study groups as well as compared. with control However differences between study groups A I and A II were not statistically significant. Patients affected with fluorosis exhibited highly significant F 4 278 989 363 P 0 001 increase in mean. serum level of rT3 Fig 1 The maximum effect on the concentration of rT3 was seen in study group A. IV exposed to 12 01 16 00 mg L of fluoride Tukey s LSD multiple comparison test revealed that the. level of rT3 increased significantly q 133 77 to 165 26 95 CI 156 75 to 133 50 P 0 05 0 001 in. fluorotic patients from all the study groups as well as compared with control. Subject Characteristics by Rt3 Tertile, The study subjects were divided into three tertiles based on serum concentration of rT3 The lowest tertile. within normal reference range has concentration of rT3 250 ng dl n 140 middle tertile has. concentration of rT3 250 350 ng dl n 72 and highest tertile has concentration of rT3 350 ng dl n. 67 as shown in Table 1 The concentration of rT3 was significantly P 0 05 increased in all tertiles with. advancing age The one way ANOVA followed by Post hoc Tukey s LSD multiple comparison showed. significant F4 278 103 625 q 1 35 to 2 54 95 CI 10 46 to 11 28 P 0 05 0 001 alterations in the. level of TSH in all the tertiles, The level of T3 was significantly F4 278 1957 35 p 0 0001 declined in middle as well as highest. tertiles as compared to lowest tertile Tukey s multiple comparison test also exhibited a significant q. 55 28 to 4 77 95 CI 322 55 to 447 01 P 0 001 decrease in T3 concentration in both middle and. highest tertiles as well as compared with lowest tertile. A highly significant P 0 001 decrease was recorded in mean serum level of T4 in patients affected with. low T3 syndrome in middle tertile The patients of highest tertile had T4 levels within the lower limit of. reference range One way ANOVA with Post hoc Tukey s LSD multiple comparison test described the. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article, significant F4 278 125 070 q 4 47 to 2 36 95 CI 20 16 to 27 59 P 0 05 variance in the serum.
level of T4 in all these tertile groups with increase in the serum rT3 concentration. The ratio of TSH T3 F4 278 46 81 and TSH T4 F4 278 63 66 showed highly significant P 0 001. increase in middle and highest tertile in comparison to the lowest tertile Tukey s LSD multiple. comparison test revealed that increase in the ratio of TSH T3 and TSH T4 in both middle as well as. highest tertile groups positively differed q 0 217 to 0 16 95 CI 2 281n to 2 255 q 1 88 to. 0 32 95 CI 15 29 to 15 37 P 0 05 0 001 respectively among the groups as well as compared with. lowest tertile, One way ANOVA with post hoc analysis described a extremely significant F4 278 198 011 q 1 44 to. 2 54 95 CI 19 59 to 27 16 P 0 001 decrease in ratio of T3 T4 in middle and highest tertile with. increase in the serum rT3 concentartion Table 1, Table 1 Various characteristics of fluorotic patients of low T3 syndrome by rT3 tertile. Lowest tertile Middle tertile Highest tertile,Variables rT3 250 rT3 250 350 rT3 350. n 140 n 72 n 67,TSH IU ml 3 82 1 03 2 47 0 85 5 02 1 25. T3 ng dl 115 98 10 28 60 70 4 11 55 93 2 67,T4 g dl 11 45 2 45 6 98 1 17 9 09 1 54.
TSH T3 0 033 0 001 0 25 0 002 0 41 0 005,TSH T4 0 33 0 01 2 21 0 85 2 53 0 95. T3 T4 10 13 1 65 8 69 1 02 6 15 0 86, Fluorotic patients affected with low T3 syndrome exhibited highly significant P 0 001 decrease in the. mean serum levels of total proteins TP albumins AL and globulins GL The maximum effect of. fluoride was observed in study group A IV Fig 2, Figure 2 Mean serum levels of proteins in control and fluorotic subjects of different study group. The fluorotic patients with elevated levels of rT3 and low T3 depicted a highly significant F TP 4 278. 251 325 FAL 4 278 91 19 FGL4 278 227 385 p 0 001 variance to the null hypothesis with increase in. water fluoride concentration Bonferroni multiple comparison test illustrated that the mean serum levels. of proteins TP AL GL decreased significantly t TP 0 47 to 2 73 95 CI 7 53 to 9 97 P 0 001. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article, tAL 1 49 to 1 85 95 CI 3 33 to 6 22 P 0 001 tGL 0 64 to 1 54 95 CI 3 99 to 5 773 P 0 001. in fluorotic patients of low T3 state of all the endemic fluorosis areas as well as compared with control. Serum Fluoride, The concentration of serum fluoride in fluorotic patients affected with low T3 syndrome exhibited a.
stepwise increase in all the study groups One way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey s LSD multiple. comparison test showed significant F4 278 11 431 q 0 30 to 0 56 955 CI 1 66 to 0 67 P 0 001. increase in serum fluoride concentration of all the study groups There was a highly significant P 0 001. positive relationship between fluoride in water and serum r 0 92 Furthermore the fluoride levels in. serum increased gradually as drinking water fluoride level increased. Correlation Analysis, We compared levels of water fluoride serum fluoride thyroid function hormones and rT3 among all. patients from different study groups A significant P 0 01 positive relationship was observed between. the concentration of fluoride in drinking water and serum TSH r 0 98 fig 3 and rT3 r 0 77 P 0 04. Fig 4 Linear regression analysis indicated that drinking water fluoride is a strong predictor of alterations. in serum fluoride y 0 165x 0 119 R2 0 991 T3 y 12 5x 109 4 R2 0 63 T4 y 2 083x 11 05. R2 0 733 TSH y 8 084x 5 962 R2 0 96 rT3 y 35 60x 235 8 R2 0 661. Figure 3 Correlation between water F and TSH in different study groups. rT3 Water F,400 y 35 60x 235 8,Water Fluoride mg L. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6,Study group, Figure 4 Correlation between water F and rT3 in different study groups. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article,Serum F T3 ng dl,0 7 y 0 165x 0 119 120. Serum Fluoride mg L R 0 991,Serum T3 ng dl,y 12 54x 109 4 40.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6,Study group, Figure 5 Correlation between serum F and T3 in different study groups. Serum T4 ug dl Serum F,Serum Fluoridee mg L,y 2 083x 11 05 0 8. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6,Study group, Figure 6 Correlation between serum F and T4 in different study groups. 450 rT3 T3 ng dl 140,y 35 60x 235 8,400 R 0 661 120. 150 y 12 54x 109 4,100 R 0 632,0 1 2 Study 3gropus 4 5 6.
Figure 7 Partial correlation between T3 and rT3 in different study groups. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article, Simple linear correlation and regression analysis showed that lower levels of T3 and T4 were strongly. associated with the increase in the level of serum fluoride in different study groups A significant. P 0 03 inverse relationship was found between level of fluoride in serum and T3 r 0 82 fig 5 T4. r 0 88 Fig 6 Linear regression analysis indicated the extremely significant P 0 001 negative causal. relationship between serum T3 and rT3 where negative partial correlation was existed in both P 0 001. The regression equation for serum T3 and rT3 was y 35 60x 235 8 R 2 0 661 This R square indicated. that the serum T3 was a strong predictor of alteration in rT3 in different study areas with increase in water. fluoride concentration Fig 7,DISCUSSION, In the present study it was observed that the water fluoride concentration was significantly higher in study. groups as compared to control group It was also clear from the observation that fluoride in drinking. water is the main source of the fluoride intake as reported by the other workers Xiang et al 2004 Xiang. et al 2005 Xiang et al 2009 Therefore it was quite easy to explore the exact relationship between the. drinking water fluoride and the serum concentration of TSH and thyroid hormones T3 and T4. The present study demonstrates significant relationship between the drinking water fluoride serum. fluoride and the serum concentration of TSH T3 T4 and rT3 of four study areas and control rT3 is an. isomer of T3 with no demonstrated biological activity It results from the transformation of T 4 through. inner ring deiodination by Type I and Type III deiodinases in peripheral tissue In contrast outer ring. deiodination by Type I and Type II deiodinases leades to activation of T4 into T3 Moreno et al 1994. Bianco et al 2002 Increased rT3 is considered as a part of euthyroid sick syndrome This entity is. characterized by a constant decrease in serum T 3 and variable abnormalities of other thyroid hormone. levels McIver and Gorman et al 1997 As in the present study it was noted that the level of serum rT 3. was significantly P 0 001 higher T3 lower and of T4 normal to lower in fluorotic patients as compared. to control group This increase in rT 3 with increase in fluoride concentration may be due to decreased. metabolic clearance of rT 3 by 5 deiodinase or increased rT 3 production from 5 deiodenation of T4 to rT3. The study showed a strong association between rT3 and fluoride concentration in water and in body. fluids This high rT3 syndrome might precede an overt low T3 syndrome or might be an equivalent of it. in the fluorotic patients This rT3 could deserve to be assessed in fluorotic subjects with normal TSH. It was suggested that rT 3 could be a reliable hormonal parameter to assess nutritional status Goichot et. al 1994 The elevated rT3 may reflect more than simply the nutritional status and also a poor overall. health status in endemic fluorotic areas As in the present study the level of total proteins globulins and. albumins were significantly P 0 001 lower than the control group indicative of poor health status of the. study group, D3 deiodinase converts T4 into the metabolic reverse T3 and further T 3 into 3 3 T2 D3 has only an inner. ring deiodinase IRD activity and an inactivating enzyme Fluoride is known to interfere with the activity. of the deiodinases Susheela et al 2005 Lin et al 1991 found increased reverse T 3 levels formed by. excessive D3 activity in children The balance of active T 3 and inactive rT3 in the serum reflects thyroid. hormone economy, A decrease in T3 concentration which increases with increase of the fluoride exposure and a more. advanced fluorosis stage is quite corresponds to hypothyroidism The low T 3 level syndrome is due to the. effect of fluoride on the peripheral conversion of T 4 toT3 at the cell target level although this effect may. be indirect or may result from the disruption of the functional activity of the other endocrine gland In the. present study low level T3 syndrome and increase in TSH was observed in cases of chronic fluoride. intoxication The highest frequency of low level T3 syndrome has been reported in industrial worker. affected with toxic liver damage Scoscia 2004 starvation or undernourishment Hennman et al 1988. The highest frequency of occurrence of the low T 3 concentration syndrome was seen in study group A IV. with highest level of fluoride in drinking water and may be associated with liver damage which is. frequently observed in fluorosis Liver must be playing a crucial role in causing low level T 3 syndrome. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article, because of peripheral deiodenation of T4 occuring in liver parenchyma Mikhailets et al 1996 The low.
level T3 syndrome reported in many acute and chronic pathological states and metabolic conditions. similar to starvation or undernourishment may result in lower metabolism which is aimed at energy. conservation, It may be concluded from the present study that abnormalities in thyroid function were characterized by a. decrease iodine absorption function of the thyroid a low level T 3 syndrome and a slight increase of the. TSH level in the different study groups It is also evidenced that fluoride in excess may be inducing. disease normally attributed to iodine deficiency The normal or optimal levels of iodine in the urine and. the low level of T3 with higher level of rT3 can serve as a diagnostic sign of chronic fluoride exposure. REFERENCES, Alder SM and Wartofsky L 2007 The nonthyroidal illness syndrome Endocrinology Metabolism. Clinical North America 36 657 672, Bianco AC Salvatore D Gereben B Berry MJ and Larsen PR 2002 Biochemistry cellular and. molecular biology and physiological roles of the iodothyronine selenodeiodinases Endocrinology 23 38. Birkner E Mamczar EG Kasperczyk S Kasperczyk A Pieta BS Fiolka JZ and Birkner B 2008. The influence of fluoride ions upon selected enzymes of protein metabolism in blood plasma of rabbits. with hypercholesterolemia Biological Trace Element Research 124 118 128. Cherem HJ Nellen HH Barabejski FG Chong MBA and Lifshitz GA 1992 Thyroid function and. abdominal surgery A longitudinal study Archieves Medical Research 23 143 147. Cinar A and Selcuk M 2005 Effects of chronic fluorosis on thyroxine triiodothyronine and protein. bound iodine in cows Fluoride 38 65 68, Coimbra A Reis Henriques MA and Darras VM 2005 Circulating thyroidhormone levels and. iodothyronine deiodinase activities in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following dietary exposure to. endosulfan and aroclor 1254 Comparative Biochemistry Physiology 141 8 14. Colborn T 2002 Clues from wildlife to create an assay for thyroid system disrupters Environmental. Health Perspective 110 363 367, Goichot B Schlienger JL Grunenberger F Pardignac A and Sapin R 1994 Thyroid hormone.
status and nutrient intake in the free living elderly Interest of reverse triiodothyronine assessment. European Journal Endocrinology 130 244 252, Henneman G Doctor R and Krenning EP 1988 Causes and effects of the lowT3 syndrome during. caloric deprivation and non thyroidal illness An overview Acta Medical Austriaca 15 42 45. Holland FW Brown PS Weintraub BD and Clark RE 1991 Cardiopulmonary and bypass and. thyroid function a euthyroid sick syndrome Annals Thoracic Surgery 52 46 50. Hu A Liu X and Qin Y 2007 Effect of fluoride on triiodothyronine and thyroxin in mice Journal. Bengbu Medical College 32 392 394, Kelly GS 2000 Peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones A review Alternative Medicine Review 5. Lin FF Zhao HX Lin J Jiang JY and Maimaiti K 1991 ICCIDD newsletter 7. Lowry OH Rosenbrough NJ Farr AL and Randall RJ 1951 Protein measurement with the folin. phenol reagent Journal Biological Chemistry 193 265 275. McIver B and Gorman CA 1997 Euthyroid sick syndrome an overview Thyroid 7 125 132. McPherson IG and Everard DW 1972 Serum albumin estimation modification of the bromcresol. green method Clinical Chemistry Acta 37 117 121, Mikhailets ND Balabolkin MI Rakitin VA and Danilov IP 1996 Functional state of thyroid under. extended exposure to fluorides article in Russian Prob Endokrinology 42 6 9. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN 2277 2103 Online. An Online International Journal Available at http www cibtech org jms htm. 2013 Vol 3 1 January April pp 152 160 Shashi and Singla. Research Article, Moreno M Berry MJ Horst C Thoma R Goglia F Harney JW Larsen PR and Visser TJ 1994. Activation and inactivation of thyroid hormone by type I iodothyronine deiodinase FEBS Letters 344. Scoscia E Baglioni S Eslami A Iervasi G Monti S and Todisco T 2004 Low triiodothyronine T3. state a predictor of outcome in respiratory failure Results of a clinical pilot study European Journal. Endocrinology 151 557 560, Shashi A and Singla S 2009 Thyroid function derangements in patients of Bathinda district suffering.
from fluorotoxicosis Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communication 2 65 70. Susheela AK Bhatnagar M Vig K and Mondal NK 2005 Excess fluoride ingestion and thyroid. hormone derangements in children living in Delhi India Fluoride 38 98 108. Van den Beld AW Visser JT Feelders RA Grobbee DE and Steven WJ 2005 Thyroid hormone. concentrations diseases physical function and mortality in elderly men Journal Clinical Endocrinology. Metabolism 90 6403 6409, Vexiau P Perez CP Socie G Devergie A Toubert ME Aractingi S and Gluckman F 1993 The. euthyroid sick syndrome incidence risk factor and prognostic value soon after allogeneic bone marrow. transplantation British Journal Hematology 85 778 782. Wang H Yang Z Zhou B Gao H Yan1 X and Wang J 2009 Fluoride induced thyroid dysfunction. in rats roles of dietary protein and calcium level Toxicology industrial Health 25 49 57. Wu C Gu X Wu Y and Wang J 2008 Effects of fluoride and arsenic on serum thyroid hormones in. rats Journal Herbal Medicine Toxicology 2 39 43, Xiang Q Chen L Liang Y Wu M and Chen B 2009 Fluoride and thyroid function in children in two. villages in China Journal Toxicology Environmental Health Science 1 54 59. Xiang QY Chen LS Chen XD Wang CS Liang YX and Liao QL 2005 Serum fluoride and. skeletal fluorosis in two villages in Jiangsu Province China Fluoride 38 178 184. Xiang QY Liang YX Chen BH Wang CS Zhen SQ and Chen XD 2004 Serum fluoride and dental. fluorosis in two villages in china Fluoride 37 28 37. Yaming G Hongmei N Shaolin W and Jundong W 2005 DNA damage in thyroid gland cells of rats. exposed to long term intake of high fluoride and low iodine Fluoride 38 318 323. Zoeller TR Dowling AL Herzig CT Iannacone EA Gauger KJ and Bansal R 2002 Thyroid. hormone brain development and the environment Environmental Health Perspective 110 355 361.

Related Books

CURRICULUM OF MASS COMMUNICATION BS (4-YEAR)

CURRICULUM OF MASS COMMUNICATION BS 4 YEAR

Mr. Muhammad Iqbal Anjum, Assistant Professor, Mass Communication, G.C. University Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 Mr. Naseeb Ullah, Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, University of Balochistan, Quetta Sadia Mahmood, Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, University of Karachi Mr. M. Qasim Nizamani, Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, University of Sindh, Jamshoro ...

SYLLABUS AND STUDY SCHEME FOR - bzu.edu.pk

SYLLABUS AND STUDY SCHEME FOR bzu edu pk

SYLLABUS AND STUDY SCHEME FOR M.A. PAK-STUDIES Part-I (Session 2009-2011) PROPOSED SYLLABUS FOR M.A. PAK-STUDIES Part-I Paper-I (Compulsory) GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN (100 Marks)=(20% Assignments + 80% Theory) The course on the Geography of Pakistan is meant to educate the students in the areal dimensions and natural contents of their homeland. The course has been developed under two broad ...

Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration, Second Edition

Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration Second Edition

Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology edited by Theodore Millon, Paul H. Blaney, and Roger D. Davis Child and Adolescent Psychological Disorders: A Comprehensive Textbook edited by Sandra D. Netherton, Deborah Holmes, and C. Eugene Walker Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration, Second Edition edited by John C. Norcross and Marvin R. Goldfried. Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration Second Edition ...

TXTS R SAFE 4 2DAY: QUON V. ARCH WIRELESS AND THE FOURTH ...

TXTS R SAFE 4 2DAY QUON V ARCH WIRELESS AND THE FOURTH

txts r safe 4 2day: quon v. arch wireless and the fourth amendment applied to text messages alyssa h. dacunha*

Text-messaging practices and links to general spelling ...

Text messaging practices and links to general spelling

Text-messaging practices and links to general spelling skill: ... of the text-message spelling style known as textese ... (2day for today), ...

1 - HISTORY OF FLIGHT - BEA

1 HISTORY OF FLIGHT BEA

aeroplane registered G-SURG with Lycoming IO-320 160 HP engines Date and time 19 May 2015 at 17 h 45(1) Operator Private Place Bergerac (France) Type of flight General aviation Persons on board Pilot and four passengers Consequences and damage One passenger slightly injured, aeroplane severely damaged (1)Except where otherwise stated, times in this report are local French time (UTC + 2h). This ...

Fatigue failure of left main landing gear while taxiing ...

Fatigue failure of left main landing gear while taxiing

took place on 22 May 2015. The aeroplane had at this point logged a flight time of 1,579 h 05 minutes. On 28 September 2015, two months after the F-HFCM accident, Tecnam published SB No SB 214-CS, reducing the frequency of torque value checks to 50 hours for the main landing gear bolts. Subsequently, this shorter 50-hour interval was introduced into the P2002 JF maintenance programme. The same ...

Supplemental Questionnaire for Selected Positions

Supplemental Questionnaire for Selected Positions

SUPPLEMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE OMB No. 3206 0258 FOR SELECTED POSITIONS Standard Form 85P-S Revised December 2017 U.S. Office of Personnel Management 5 CFR Parts 731, 732, and 736 Page 1 INSTRUCTIONS This form is supplemental to SF 85P, Questionnaire for Public Trust Positions, but is used only after an offer of employment has been made and when the information it requests is job-related and ...

Green Government: Recycling and E-Waste Brochure

Green Government Recycling and E Waste Brochure

ly defined by the three Rs: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, which are: ... to grind up tree leaves and branches, which can be used as mulch in flowerbeds to pre-vent erosion. The USDA identifies the fol-lowing benefits of mulch: zzprotection from soil erosion; zzreduction of soil compaction from heavy rains; zzconservation of moisture; zzmaintenance of a more even soil tempera-ture; zzprevention of ...

BOOK TWO COLLISION COURSE - Scholastic Canada

BOOK TWO COLLISION COURSE Scholastic Canada

BOOK TWO COLLISION COURSE 3344365_i-vi_v1.indd i44365_i-vi_v1.indd i 33/9/11 6:23 PM/9/11 6:23 PM . look for more adventure from GORDON KORMAN Titanic Book One: Unsinkable Book Two: Collision Course Book Three: S.O.S. Kidnapped Book One: The Abduction Book Two: The Search Book Three: The Rescue On the Run Book One: Chasing the Falconers Book Two: The Fugitive Factor Book Three: Now You See ...