Survival Of Pathogenic Micro Organisms And Parasites In-Books Pdf

Survival of pathogenic micro organisms and parasites in
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Several hundred diseases are transmitted among animals and more than 150 of. them can be passed on to h u m a n beings as zoonoses S L Diesch unpublished. findings The pathogens causing most of these diseases are either excreted directly. by the affected animals or indirectly spread into the environment by vectors such. as nasal pharyngeal vaginal placental or lochial secretions faeces urine milk sperm. dermal and mucosal desquamations and secretions carcasses blood slaughterhouse. offal meat and meat products milk and milk products eggs and egg products from. dairies solid and liquid manures FYM slurries In all of these conditions the pathogens. are excreted and end up during indoor keeping of livestock on the floor and thus in. the manure even if the pathogen is not excreted by the faecal route The floor of animal. houses with their installations for collecting faeces and urine thus acts as the collecting. basin for all pathogens which are spread by the animals of a given establishment In. every case of a clinically diagnosable transmissible disease dung and slurry must be. considered as infectious and an inanimate vector for the pathogen To make matters. worse there is especially in the case of salmonellosis a tendency for these pathogens. to occur in slurries of livestock which have never shown any sign of clinical illness. After the second and third microbiological examination of the same slurries the. salmonellas are not isolated again 33 42 47 Similar conditions may also be found. in the course of subclinical infections with other pathogenic agents But such incidents. risk developing into multifactorially caused diseases whereby normally harmless. infections may lead to clinically recognisable symptoms of disease released by non. microbial factors When they exist in a population for months or even years a gradual. accumulation of infectious agents will result if further factors are added in the outbreak. of a dangerous multifactorial disease, Today this type of disease holds a special threat for larger and specialised livestock. establishments with a lack of population heterogeneity such as premises for fattening. of only pigs or calves or broilers The danger lies in the fact that in most cases the. owner of such an establishment does not recognise the infection and therefore does. not take any action to prevent a spread of the pathogens in his surroundings Hence. he is not informed about the infective potential of the excretions of his animals and. the manure to be utilised o n his fields, For more than two decades salmonellosis has spread steadily among man and. animals in many countries In some areas more than one third of pigs and more. than one half of broilers produced for slaughter are infected with salmonellas. This is the reason why manure from larger production units generally should be. regarded as infected and disposed of by means of certain safety measures. The spread of many classical h u m a n diseases such as cholera typhoid fever or. bacillary dysentery has been controlled by insulating man from human excreta through. improvements in personal hygiene and the use of sewage and water treatment. processes In areas of the world where such improvements have not been made or. where available systems are inefficient these diseases remain endemic The treatment. of animal excrements with methods used for the purification of municipal sewage. is with the exception of a few gigantic intensive units in various parts of the world. generally considered too expensive and unsuitable for farm animal excreta It is. therefore necessary to find simple methods to minimise the environmental hazards. of n o r m a l manure which is only possibly infected and more sophisticated methods. to treat manures which are certainly infected in order to render them innocuous for. further utilisation as fertilisers or for other purposes 58. Sewage sludge, The terms sewage sludge and sludge used in this chapter are defined as all. aqueous matter which is separable from municipal wastewater except screenings. sievings and grit Sludge consists of the particulate matter in raw sewage wastewater. like faeces food leftovers paper cellulose diapers etc the excess sludge of. biological treatment steps and sludge from trickling filters which is to say sludge. consists mainly of organic material The water content is between 90 99 Sludge. is a good growing medium for bacteria as it rather quickly putrefies and needs to. be stabilised before further utilisation or deposition. It is known that sewage and sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. plants do contain pathogenic agents These germs derive from humans who use the. sewerage systems and who suffer from acute or latent infections or from known and. often unknown permanent excretors of pathogens e g salmonellosis The spectrum. and quantity of pathogens are extended by other sources connected to the sewerage. system like hospitals abattoirs livestock markets and related activities. It is known too that a certain part of the h u m a n population companion animals. and livestock are always afflicted with an infectious disease In view of the fact that. it is nowadays possible to isolate pathogens from raw municipal sewage without great. effort it seems pointless to speculate about the percentage of infected individuals. Since a variety of fairly intangible factors play a role the estimates vary considerably. around the factor 10 0 5 5 of the population using the sewers. Pathogens are excreted from infected individuals via faeces urine secretions or. excretions of the nose pharynx vagina mucous membranes and skin depending. on the type of infection and reach the sewage treatment plants from sewers and. sanitary installations in homes It is therefore understandable that for epidemiological. surveys some authors consider microbiological examination of wastewater as reflecting. the epidemiological situation of the population in certain catchment areas Sewage. sludges usually do contain considerable amounts of pathogens even after the. purification processes 57, Farmers in industrialised countries are increasingly exercising restraint in the. agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge because they feel it a threat to their livestock. especially when the animals are grazing or fed with green feed In view of the steady. increase of latent infections with salmonellas and agents of multifactorial diseases. in the intensive production of poultry pigs and calves farmers want to seal their. farms off from further danger of infection In recent years many farmers have come. to believe that their soil was being slowly but surely turned into the rubbish bin of. the nation The following pages will discuss whether and to what extent fears regarding. the danger for livestock of infection from sewage sludge are justified and what. measures can be taken to eliminate or minimise the possible dangers. P A T H O G E N I C A G E N T S IN E X C R E T A A N D MANURE. Theoretically the bacteria involved in cases of bacterial infection can occur in. the excreta and m a n u r e of infected animals An expert group of the Commission. of the E u r o p e a n Communities CEC has listed those bacteria 1 which may be of. particular concern for animal a n d o r h u m a n health under European conditions when. they are present in animal excreta and manure Table I. Bacteria of epidemiological concern in livestock excretions and manure. Salmonella spp Escherichia coli including enteropathogenic. strains and normal gut E coli,Brucella spp multiply resistant to antibiotics.
Bacillus anthracis,Leptospira spp,Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Treponema hyodysenteriae,Mycobacterium spp in particular. M tuberculosis M bovis Chlamydia spp,M avium complex M paratuberculosis Rickettsia spp. and the atypical mycobacteria, Outbreaks involving some o f these organisms are subject to specific regulations in different countries which include. control o f the movement and utilisation o f excreta and manure f r o m infected enterprises. Since a b r o a d variety of pathogenic bacteria can be excreted by infected animals. it may be assumed that a similar number of organisms can at some time be found. in their excretions and manure Under practical conditions the number will be limited. by many factors and the variety of pathogens actually isolated is comparatively small. T h e kind of bacteria isolated will vary with the geographical location of the farm. and the animal species Also the physical and chemical composition of the manure. may determine the types of pathogen present Thus leptospires which are sensitive. to extremes of p H may be isolated only from slurries with a p H a r o u n d neutral. Isolations and occurrence will also depend upon the age of the slurry and its dry matter. content as well as on the number of organisms gaining access to the m a n u r e which. will obviously affect the possibility of pathogens being present and the outcome of. attempts at isolation Another important factor is the ease with which small numbers. of pathogens may be isolated M a n u r e naturally contains an excess of 1010 bacteria. per ml from which the pathogenic bacteria must be separated Small numbers of. Enterobacteriaceae e g salmonellas may be isolated because very sensitive enrichment. and identification techniques are available Other bacteria like those causing anthrax. brucellosis mycobacteriosis and leptospirosis will be isolated only if larger numbers. are present and when reliable isolation techniques for the respective pathogen are. available Therefore the number of occasions on which a pathogen has been isolated. from m a n u r e obviously cannot give a true reflection of its occurrence and it seems. justifiable t o assume that any organism which is voided in the faeces and urine of. animals or other body fluids and excretions may be found in manure Very few surveys. have been carried out to assess the actual prevalence of pathogens and those which. can be referred to have usually concentrated on salmonellas although other organisms. have occasionally been isolated 6 2 1 35 36 37 40, The number of pathogens contained in cattle and pig m a n u r e is probably low.
Surveys in the United Kingdom did not reveal concentrations of salmonellas above. 10 per ml But the concentrations may also be higher because even apparently. healthy cattle may excrete up to 10 salmonellas per gram of faeces 34 and a similar. n u m b e r of leptospires may be excreted in the urine of infected cattle 27 Excretion. at this level by only a few animals of a herd could render m a n u r e a potent source. of pathogenic organisms Pathogens have also been found in poultry m a n u r e but. such reports are few This may relate to the manner in which poultry waste is collected. It usually tends to be a solid or semi solid material which remains aerobic and is readily. composted Pathogens like salmonellas colibacteria pasteurellas and hemolytic. streptococci are killed rapidly under these conditions 48 Others like listerias or. clostridias m a y withstand the adverse conditions involved The type of waste may. also affect the longevity of organisms since salmonellas are killed m o r e rapidly in. built up than in fresh litter and this may affect the frequency of isolation 58 In. a recent investigation the tenacity of Salmonella typhimurium in faeces of laying hens. was studied in five different types of housing intensive floor husbandry without litter. floor h u s b a n d r y with litter battery without aeration of the droppings belt battery. cages with aeration of the droppings belt and sloping floor and two types of middens. covered midden for the battery cages without belt aeration covered midden for the. battery with belt aeration The tenacity of 5 typhimurium varied between 2 and. 175 days depending on the h u s b a n d r y system 2 days in the sloping floor system. and 175 days in the midden from the battery with aerated droppings belt. Relevant environmental factors were temperature and the dry matter content of the. m a n u r e 50, Information about the occurrence and tenacity of viruses in animal excrements. is not as a b u n d a n t as in the case of bacterial infections According to a survey. on the excretion of viruses by farm livestock based on research in N o r t h America. Table II it seems a likely supposition that these findings are valid not only for. N o r t h America but with local variations for most parts of the world A n o t h e r. compilation gives details about the presence of various animal viruses in faecal. matter Table III But as these two tables show a considerable number of virus. genera are already k n o w n to be excreted in the faeces of livestock and other. animals Only in recent years have improvements in the isolation techniques for. viruses from heavily contaminated material led to remarkable successes in. identifying viruses in faecal matter This development has m a d e it possible t o. consider excrements and the spent air of animal houses in epidemiological. discussions, Enteroviruses are relatively tenacious in slurry Quantitative investigations in slurry. samples with direct isolation of viruses showed a virus titre of about 10 T C I D 5 0. per litre whereas in samples which yielded enterovirus only after concentration. about 50 100 T C I D 5 0 per litre were found 19 Infections of pigs with parvovirus. Rev sci tech Off int Epiz 1991 10 3 813 846 Survival of pathogenic micro organisms and parasites in excreta manure and sewage sludge

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