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20 RAMADAN ABD ALLA, INTRODUCTION In the recent years several studies on. corroded glass are of chemical and,The mentioned glass objects were. treatment interests have been performed on,delegated from the Department of. which the present study based and the,Antiquities of Jordan Irbid Archaeological. following principles are established,Museum to the Museum of Jordanian.
Heritage in Yarmouk University in 1988 1 In the past new conservation treatments. Since this date they are displayed together were applied directly to archaeological. in the ground floor of the later museum with material This is now considered. other metal stone and pottery objects in the inappropriate so a standardized testing. hall no 3 inside the case no 3 Based on the procedure must be established The. stylistic and technological considerations treatment must not damage the object. except the nursing glass no A00 that dated The treatment must be reversible The. to Roman Byzantine period in Mesopotamia long term effects are known Faltermeier. the other three objects were attributed and 1998, dated to the Roman period 1st 4th cent 2 The correct conservation treatment must. AD Archaeologists presume that they may be used to safely arrest the decay of the. be obtained from ruins of Tabaqat Fahl Pella object and minimize any risk of damage. the ancient Roman city in northern Jordan to the object in application of the. which was a part of the region of Decapolise conservation treatment Caple 2003. a union of the Roman cities in Jordan Abd 3 In the case of corroded glass it is. Alla 2006 In June 2006 they were important to understand that cleaning. delivered to the Conservation Department of means the removal of soil or deposits and. the same University where they seemed to encrustation but not removal of any. me a good example of objects of completely opaque weathering crust or a patina. corroded glass which has a protective action and, The aim of the present work was to archaeological feature this is destruction. operate a scientific technique for stabilizing for it is removing some of original artifact. the corrosion process and treating these Its removal means that the original. corroded glasses with suitable mechanical surface of the glass is destroyed and the. and visual properties Solving this task is thickness of the piece an important. the more important as there are many glass parameter technologically and for. objects in the museums in danger of being reconstruction is altered Removal will. lost through continuous corrosion and reveal a core of glass and unintentionally. aging remove evidence of the object s past,Cronyn 1990 and Abd Alla 2005. STABILIZATION AND TREATMENT OF CORRODED GLASS OBJECTS 21. Museum Pervious Acquisition Source Description Photo. No A301 No J13669 Loan Department of Glass plate ring base. Antiquities of Jordan Irbid blue green color,Archaeological Museum Roman period. No A612 No 1599 Loan Department Glass vase,of Antiquities of oval body shape.
Jordan Irbid concave base,Archaeological Museum polychrome color. Roman period, No A613 No 1717 Loan Department of Glass vase rounded. Antiquities of body high wide neck,Jordan Irbid concave base. Archaeological Museum polychrome color,Roman period. No A00 Loan Mr Lutfi Al Soumi A nursing bottle rounded. collection Syria body with a side hole,high wide neck concave.
base polychrome color,Roman Byzantine period, Table 1 The registration data of the glass objects. Adapted from the Documentation Dept of the Museum of Jordanian Heritage. EXPERIMENTAL WORK the underlying glass core has become so. weakened through deterioration that pieces, Optical examination are falling away A trace of soil deposits and. The preliminary examination by the dirt were observed inside the hollow objects. critical eye and a magnifying hand lens no A612 A613 and A00 Furthermore. x10 indicate that these glasses are varied remains of weathering crusts which flaked. in their decay rate and corrosion nature It away from the interior surfaces also. seems likely that the weathering crusts observed and collected for chemical. found on the object no A301 and A612 are analyses microscopic examination and. an extreme form of the stone like experimenting the materials and methods. weathering extremely hard and flinty of treatment,Whereas the surfaces of the objects no. A613 and A00 are covered by a thick Microscopic examination. opaque blackened enamel like weathering Some invaluable corrosion crusts flaked. surface which in some areas has flaked away and separated from the glass surfaces. away to reveal an iridescent layer beneath a were collected and investigated by scanning. variegated coloration of the glass surface electron microscopy SEM model Quanta. The corroded surfaces had become very soft 200 in the Department of Earth Sciences. powdery and easy to destroy Furthermore Yarouk University in Jordan SEM was. 22 RAMADAN ABD ALLA, Fig 1 A secondary electron image of a cross Fig 2 A backscattered electron image of fragile. section through corroded crusts from the glass crusts of glass bottle A612 showing large areas of. plate A301 showing deterioration proceeding the weathering crusts be destroyed and rich in. from the surface to the interior dissolution voids. Fig 3 A backscattered electron image of corroded Fig 4 A secondary electron image of a cross section. crusts of glass bottle A613 showing the through corroded crusts of the bottle A00 The. weathered layers be destroyed and losses its distinction between original glass leached layer. glassy nature and surface crust cannot easily be made. operated in both backscattered and planar and highly fractured forms Large. secondary electron modes to examine both areas of the weathering crusts were. the compositional phases and the surface destroyed and rich in dissolution voids and. structure of the glass material From SEM microcracks Addition to that other aspects. observation of the corroded glasses it can of sugar like surface flaking and highly. be seen that all the glass surfaces seem to be fissured nature of decayed crusts were also. inhomogeneous pitted curviplanar surface observed Figures 1 and 4 shows secondary. STABILIZATION AND TREATMENT OF CORRODED GLASS OBJECTS 23. electron images of magnified sections to the inappropriate displaying in the. through corroded crusts from glass bottles museum There is an obvious change in the. no A301 and A00 showing deterioration compositions of the outer weathering crusts. proceeding from the surface to the interior in comparison with the interior glass cores. In all that cases no presence of crystals or underlying them i e sodium and potassium. devitrification was observed Abd Alla content decreases Na2O avg 2 59 and. 2007 K2O avg 1 08 and Silica content,increases SiO2 avg 78 29.
EDX analysis, An energy dispersive X ray instrument METHODS OF TREATMENT. model Philips XL30 with accelerating,voltage 30 K V attached with the. The glass surfaces of all the objects were,mentioned SEM system was used for. very brittle and easy to flake off and on the,determination of the chemical composition. surfaces were found several cracks In,of corroded glasses Analyses results given.
addition no thick cores of original glass,in Table 2 indicate that these glasses. were found which excluded the use of,identified as potash lime silica K2O CaO. mechanical methods to remove soil deposit,SiO2 glass and characterized by high. and dirt As the water and moisture are the,potassium and magnesium content This. most important factors initiating and,composition indicates also that they made.
sustaining forms of glass decomposition,with plant ash soda as a source of alkali. even damage caused by dehydration is,Furthermore it is in agreement with the. consequence of previous attack by water,results of recent studies of Al Ahmed and. Newton 1989 therefore wet cleaning,Al Muheisen 1995 Brill 1999 and. using water also excluded hence chemical,Abd Alla 2006 about the chemical.
cleaning using organic solvents had to be,composition of the Roman and Byzantine. applied here Cotton swabs saturated with,glass in Jordan and Mesopotamia. acetone topically used for delicate cleaning,Chemically these glasses are completely. work Sease 1994 This cleaning method,decomposed due to attacking of the. has two advantages it does not damage the,intensive deterioration factors especially.
glass surface and the visual appearance of,water for long time in the ground and due. surface iridescence not destroyed, Table 2 The chemical compositions of weathering crusts of glass objects obtained by EDX analysis. 24 RAMADAN ABD ALLA, Stabilization this process was carried out of the four. According to the American Institute for glasses through the following tow. Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works procedures. AIC definitions of conservation,1 Chemical stabilization. terminology stabilization scientifically,The chemical stabilization were carried.
means treatment procedures intended to,out of the four glasses through creating a. maintain the integrity of cultural property,chelation process using the chelating agent. and to minimize deterioration Caple,ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid EDTA. 2000 mentioned that stabilization is the,HOOCCH2 2NCH2 According to several. act of preservation by causing the creation,successful experiments had previously been.
or slowing to a minimum rate of the decay,carried out in similar cases it is generally. process This requires the identification of,accepted as the most effective chelating. the cause of decay and its mitigation which,agent recommended for cleaning. can be achieved through preventive or,encrustations on glass surface and acts. interventive conservation Any stabilization,chemically to inhibit or prevent further.
treatment normally seeks to retain the,glass corrosion depending on its. object s present visual form Decay and,concentration and pH value It was more. stabilization processes occur in three,effective at neutral pH with low. categories biological chemical and,concentrations around 5 10 Paul. physical Stabilization processes can be,1978 Ernesberger 1978 Newton 1989.
achieved through these categories as,Calt and Spare 2004 and Abd Alla 2005. follows biological immobilize organisms,A neutral solution of disodium salt of EDTA. by removing reaction agent O2 H2O heat,pH 7 at 5 concentration was applied for. light chemical remove reaction agents,all the glasses by brushing technique the. O2 H2O heat light catalysts and,use of soft paintbrush The aim of this.
Physical eliminate reaction agents force,treatment was to arrest the continuity of. H2O consolidate protect or support,corrosion reactions and to prevent any. However the stabilization of the glass as of,expected devitrification to occur This. all materials falls into two main categories,treatment successfully carried out no. damage of weathering crusts was observed,a Active stabilization.
and the visual appearance of iridescence not,This process means the treatment of. glass to arrest decay and to stabilize them, where possible There are several aims 2 Physical stabilization. involved in the active stabilization of As the glass objects are completely. weathered glass First water must be corroded or decomposed and their surfaces. removed without the crust shrinking are fragile and liable to crumble or flake. exfoliating crumbling second the crust upon drying or handling therefore. must be consolidated third it must be consolidation of these objects became. reaffixed to any glass core remaining and necessary to undertaken There are several. fourth where possible transparency must aims involved in the consolidation process. be reintroduced The last aim needs of these corroded glasses First to. qualifying where glass shows slight strengthen the underlying glass core. iridescence this type of crust is said to be a second consolidate the weathering crusts. patina giving beauty to the object However third reaffixed the flaked layers to any glass. STABILIZATION AND TREATMENT OF CORRODED GLASS OBJECTS 25. core remaining beneath and fourth b Passive stabilization. reintroduce transparency to thin Passive stabilization means the control. weathering crusts where the glass shows of the surrounding environment to prevent. slight iridescence further decay The stabilization of the. Paraloid B 72 is an acrylic resin that is a environment is often outside the area of a. good all purpose consolidant It is a conservator s immediately responsibility. colorless durable stable resin with a Tg of He should however be consulted as to. 40 C and a refractive index of 1 49 and suitable environment for antiquities and. when applied properly should not should thus be in position to advise upon. appreciably alter the appearance of the the correct conditions and methods of. material to which it has been applied storage and display The prevention of. Horie 1987 Newton 1989 Cronyn 1990 further damage and decay represents the. and Sease 1994 A diluted solution of minimum type of conservation especially if. paraloid B 72 3 dissolved in acetone has the reversible techniques are not available at. been applied by a fine spraying technique the time Prevention of decay may only. for each glass object spraying is a very save entail the remove of glass from an. technique and compatible for such fragile unsatisfactory environment Newton. glasses After 24 hours they were 1989, reconsolidated using a concentrated solution According to the research work. of paraloid B 72 5 to emphasis the performed by Al Ahmed and Khasawneh. process of consolidation and act as a 2006 to evaluate and study the. coating film on the glass surface to protect it environmental conditions in the museum of. from the effect of environmental conditions Jordanian heritage they claimed that these. especially the effect of moisture and relative conditions does not completely standard. humidity that raises constantly in the and should be more controlled Their. museum all year long Al Ahmed and measurements found that there are. Khasawneh 2006 constant frequentations in temperature and. 5 A301 6 A612 7 A613 8 A00, Figs 5 8 The glass objects after treatment processes the weathered crusts are stabilized chemically and. physically and the visual appearance of iridescence not altered or destroyed. 26 RAMADAN ABD ALLA,CONCLUSION,In the present work a scientific.
approach for treating corroded glass objects,displayed in the museum of Jordanian. heritage was done This extensive work not,only describes the nature of conservation. process but also provides an ethical,framework to which the conservation of. glass objects as divers as old materials In,addition the implementation of conservation. comprises the technical investigation,stabilization and conservation of glass.
objects To be successful it depends on the,conservator knowing what the object is. where it comes from the materials of which,the object is composed the decay. mechanism of those materials and a variety,of measures which could be implemented. to clean stabilize and preserve the object,However conservation of completely. corroded glass represents a complicated,problem many difficulties are facing glass.
conservators especially during cleaning, Figs 9 and 10 Showing the current displaying of weathered crusts and treating iridescent. the glass objects in the Museum of Jordanian surfaces as well as stabilizing corrosion. Heritage after treatment reactions This problem was solved here by. carrying out the conservation process in a,balance of three activities investigation all. relative humidity RH throughout the the forms of analysis and examination. year However all weathered glass can be which uncover information about the. stabilized simply by keeping it in a RH of object s composition structure and damage. about 40 per cent above which the process state revelation cleaning and exposing the. of corrosion will be continue Tomson object to reveal its original form and. 1987 On the other hand we recommended function and preservation the act of. that these glass objects and all glass seeking to maintain the object in its present. collection in the museum should be form without any further deterioration. displayed together in special displaying This typically involved a full range of. cases and separated from the non glass preventive practices and the stabilization. objects In such state the suitable processes of interventive conservation. environmental conditions required for In all treatment procedures of corroded. preserving this glass collection can be glass objects the visual appearance of. controlled and standardized weathered or iridescent surface a. protective layer or a patina must not be,altered Stabilization can sometimes alter. STABILIZATION AND TREATMENT OF CORRODED GLASS OBJECTS 27. the visual form of an object e g darkening creating the approach of preventive. of a surface when consolidated or destroying conservation to improve the display system. the visual appearance of iridescence during and preserve the object in a stable and. the chemical treatments There is a balance appropriate conditions. to be struck between gaining a physically, stable robust glass object and the change in ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. visual appearance It can often be helpful to Thanks are due to Mr Wageeh. combine a number of different approaches Ebraheim from Department of Earth. to successfully stabilize corroded glass Sciences in Yarmouk University in Jordan. objects treating the glass object with for carrying out the SEM and EDX. chelating agent EDTA chemically to investigations The author is very grateful to. deactivate the corrosion process all the members of the Museum of. consolidation and coating of the decayed Jordanian Heritage in the same University. surface with acrylic resin Paraloid B 72 for their assistance during documenting and. physically to strengthen the fragile crusts conserving the glass collection. and protecting the weathered surface and,COMMERICAL PRODUCTS AND SUPPLIERS.
Paraloid B 72 Code 112390 Canada colors and chemicals 80 Scarsdale Road Don Milles Canda. EDTA Disodium ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid Na2 EDTA Sigma product No 4884 Swiss. Company for Chemicals 106 Nile Street Giza Egypt,REFERENCES. Abd Alla R 2005 Evaluation of the impact of chelating agent EDTA on the treatment of weathered. glass T Akasheh ed proceeding of The fourth international conference on Science. Technology in Archaeology and Conservation 7 11 December The Hashemite. University El Zarqa Jordan, Abd Alla R 2006 The raw materials of ancient Roman glass in Egypt and Jordan a comparative and. analytical study Adumatu vol 14 23 31, Abd Alla R 2007 Devitrification behavior of corroded glass Four cases study Mediterranean. Archaeology and Archaeometry Vol 7 No 1 1 9, Al Ahmed Z and Al Muheisen Z 1995 A chemical and technological study of Roman glasses. excavated from Yasileh archaeological site Jordan Mu tah vol 11 No 2 5 28. Al Ahmed Z and Khasawneh T 2006 Museum environmental control as a tool for preventive. conservation museum of Jordanian heritage as a case study proceeding of the 13th. international conference for building and construction Inter Build 15 19 June Cairo. Brill RH 1999 Chemical analyses of early glasses 1 Corning museum of glass press New York. Calt S and Spare S 2000 Smear layer removal by EDTA Endodontology vol 26 459 61. Caple C 2003 Conservation skills judgment methods and decision making Rutledge London. Carmela C Donald I 1996 Conservation of glass recovered from shipwreck sites Trinnial. meeting 11th of ICCOM Edinburgh 1 6 September 819 825. 28 RAMADAN ABD ALLA, Cronyon J 1990 The elements of Archaeological Conservation London.
Ernesperger F M 1959 Attack of glass by chelating agents Journal of American Ceramic society vol. 42 373 375, Faltermeier R 1998 A corrosion inhibitor test for copper based artifacts Studies in conservation vol. 44 121 128, Horie C V 1987 Materials for conservation Butterworth London. Newton R and Davison S 1989 Conservation of glass Butterworth London. Paul A 1978 Influence of complexing agents and nature of the buffer solution on the chemical. durability of glass Part I Theoretical discussion Journal of Glass Technology vol 19. Paul A and Youssefi A 1978b Influence of complexing agents and nature of the buffer solution on. the chemical durability of glass Part 2 EDTA ethyl alcohol and sugar in the leach. solution Journal of Glass Technology vol 19 166 170. Sease C 1994 Conservation manual for the field Archaeologist 3rd edition California. Tomson G 1987 The museum Environment Butterworth London.

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