Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling And Validation-Books Pdf

Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation
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Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. Table of Contents, Introduction 5, Guideline Criteria 5. Power Flow Modeling 6, Dynamic Modeling 6, Model Validation Procedure 7. More Information 7, Background 8, 1 Power Flow Representation 11. 1 1 Central Station Solar PV Systems 11, Implications of Collector System Equivalencing 13. Interconnection Transmission Line 13, Solar PV Plant Substation Transformer 13.
Plant Level Reactive Compensation 13, Equivalent Collector System 13. Equivalent Inverter Pad Mounted Transformer 16, Equivalent Generator Representation 16. 1 2 Representation of Distribution Connected Solar PV Systems 21. 1 3 Modeling during post transient power flows 22, 2 Dynamic Modeling 23. 2 1 Active Power Frequency Control 23, 2 2 Reactive Power Voltage Control 23. 2 3 Fault Ride Through and Representation of Protection Limits 23. 3 WECC Generic Models 25, 3 1 Technical Specifications for the WECC Generic Models 25.
3 2 WECC Generic Model for Large scale solar PV Plants 26. Model Structure 26, Model Invocation 27, Scaling for the Solar PV Plant Size and Reactive Capability 28. Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. Reactive Power Voltage Controls Options 28, Active power control options 30. Current Limit Logic 30, Representation of Voltage and Frequency Protection 30. Momentary cessation 31, Consideration for modeling solar PV and battery storage hybrid plant 32. 3 3 WECC Generic Model for Distributed and Small Solar PV Plants 33. 4 Model Parameterization and Validation 34, 4 1 Data Collection 34.
4 2 Defining the Mode of Operation 35, Setting the REPC Model Flags 35. Setting the REEC Model Flags 36, Setting the REGC Model Flags 41. 4 3 Valid Model Parameter Flag Combinations 41, Strictly Local Control No REPC Module 42. Plant Level Control Model Includes REPC Module 42, 4 4 Dynamic Model Invocation Considerations 45. REPC Module Invocation Considerations 45, 4 5 Populating Model Parameters 46.
Dynamic Model Parameter Sensitivity 47, Real Power Response to Voltage Variations 47. Real Power Response to Frequency Variations 47, Reactive Power Response to Voltage Variations 47. Reactive Power Response to Frequency Variations 48. Properly Coordinated Plant Control and Inverter Control 48. Parameter Estimation Example 48, Importance of Power Flow Representation 52. Model Performance for Various Disturbances 52, 5 Conclusion 54. Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. 6 Appendix 55, 6 1 Short Circuit Ratio Fundamentals 55.
6 2 REGC A Block Diagram and Model Parameters 57, 6 3 REEC A Block Diagram and Model Parameters 61. 6 4 REPC A Block Diagram and Model Parameters 64, 6 5 SAMPLE SOLAR PV POWER PLANT DATA REQUEST 66. Version History 68, Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. Introduction, Along with development of the second generation generic renewable energy system RES dynamic. models WECC Modeling and Validation Work Group has set up several guidelines for modeling bulk. power system BPS connected solar PV plants, Central Station Photovoltaic Power Plant Model Validation Guideline dated June 17 2015.
WECC solar PV Power Plant Dynamic Modeling Guide dated April 2014. WECC Guide for Representation of Photovoltaic Systems in Large Scale Load Flow Simulations. dated August 2010, The second generation RES models represent most of the solar PV plants in the Western. Interconnection The guidelines above have been referred to extensively in producing the models for. the solar PV plants However recent solar PV tripping events1 due to system disturbance revealed. some weakness of the modeling approach At the same time FERC has imposed new technical. requirements on solar PV generating resources such as FERC Order 827 and FERC Order 824 The. modeling guidelines need an update to include lessons learned and consider alignment with the. technical requirements, This document examines the representation of BPS connected solar PV plants in both power flow and. dynamic data sets for BPS studies The document outlines modeling techniques for all solar PV. resources in the transmission and distribution systems It also shows best practices for model. validation of utility scale solar PV systems 20 MVA connected to the transmission network 60 kV. Guideline Criteria, This is a consolidated document that augments and updates the following guidelines 2. Central Station Photovoltaic Power Plant Model Validation Guideline dated June 17 2015. WECC Solar Plant Dynamic Modeling Guide dated April 2014. 1 NERC disturbance reports, https www nerc com pa rrm ea Pages April May 2018 Fault Induced Solar solar PV Resource Interruption. Disturbances Report aspx, https www nerc com pa rrm ea Pages October 9 2017 Canyon 2 Fire Disturbance Report aspx.
https www nerc com pa rrm ea Pages 1200 MW Fault Induced Solar Photovoltaic Resource Interruption. Disturbance Report aspx, 2Approval of this guideline will supersede the listed guidelines the latest technical guidance should be used for. modeling BPS connected solar PV resources, Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. WECC Guide for Representation of Photovoltaic Systems in Large Scale Load Flow Simulations. dated August 2010, The audience for this guideline includes solar PV plant owners who perform model validation and. transmission planners who verify validation data and develop interconnection wide base cases of their. planning areas, Power Flow Modeling, Each central station solar PV plant 20 MVA and connected to 60 kV and above is modeled explicitly. in the power flow model The power flow model includes. An explicit representation of the interconnection transmission line. An explicit representation of all station transformers. An equivalent representation of the collector systems. An equivalent representation of inverter pad mounted transformers with a scaled MVA rating. An equivalent representation of generators scaled to match the total capacity of the plant and. An explicit representation of all plant level reactive compensation devices either as. shunts fixed or switchable or as generators FACTs devices if applicable. The small or distribution connected in front of the meter solar PV plants may be aggregated at a high. voltage bus represented in the power flow The power flow representation includes. A pseudo transmission line jumper from the aggregated generator to the point of delivery. The aggregated generator matching the total capacity of multiple plants that can be delivered to. the point of delivery, The behind the meter distributed solar PV are represented as aggregated distributed generation part of.
Dynamic Modeling, The dynamic model of a central station solar PV plant explicitly modeled in the power flow includes. A generator converter module representing the typical solar PV inverter in the plant scaled up. to match the plant s aggregate nameplate rating, A local electrical control module which translates real and reactive power references into. current commands, A plant level control module which sends real and reactive power references to the local. electrical controller if the plant level control is put in place. Frequency and voltage protection modules which show inverter protection settings under. abnormal frequency and voltage conditions, Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. The dynamic model of solar PV plants connected at the distribution system represented by an. aggregated generator in the power flow includes, Stand alone DER A model or PVD1 3 model.
Behind the meter distributed solar PV resources are modeled by the DER A component of the. composite load model, Model Validation Procedure, The steps of a successful model validation procedure are. Gather available data from commissioning tests field tests and grid disturbances. Clearly define the mode of operation or control mode of the plant. Work with the inverter manufacturer system integrator or plant operator to determine as. many model parameters as possible beforehand, Minimize the set of dynamic model parameters that are available for tuning or parameter. estimation and, Use proper engineering analyses including tests and tuning to bring measured and simulated. data into agreement, More Information, WECC Generating Unit Model Validation Policy https www wecc org Administrative WECC. Generating Unit Model Validation Policy pdf, WECC Generating Facility Data Testing and Model Validation Requirements.
https www wecc org Reliability WECC Gen Fac Testing and Model Validation Rqmts v 7 13. WECC Data Preparation Manual https www wecc org Reliability 2020 WECC Data. Preparation Manual pdf, NERC reliability guideline on power plant model verification for inverter based resources. https www nerc com comm PC Reliability Guidelines DL PPMV for Inverter. Based Resources pdf, 3PVD1 models were used before the approval of DER A model For newly interconnecting solar PV plants at the. distribution system DER A must be used, Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. Background, The composition of the generation fleet in the Western Interconnection is rapidly changing As. renewable energy plants have increased in capacity standards and policies have been developed to. ensure power flow and dynamic data sets accurately represent the plants In particular the latest. versions of NERC MOD 026 and MOD 027 apply to all BES generating facilities with an aggregate. nameplate rating of 75 MVA or larger The standards which are subject to enforcement require. accurate representation of a BES generating facility s reactive power response to system voltage. variations and its real power response to system frequency variations Although these standards only. apply to facilities with an aggregate nameplate rating of 75 MVA or larger WECC policy is more. stringent It requires the submission of the same data for all plants connected to the transmission. system 60 kV and above with an aggregate nameplate rating of 20 MVA or larger The WECC. Generating Unit Model Validation policy requires generating facility data to be updated at least once. every five years, As the penetration of solar PV generation increases the dynamic response of the system changes in.
part due to a decline in inertia provided by thermal power plants To conduct accurate planning. studies and ensure the grid operates reliably variable generation must be modeled with the same. precision as synchronous generation The goal is for the time domain simulation to match reality as. closely as possible Over many years and with input from manufacturers the WECC Renewable. Energy Modeling Task Force REMTF has developed a suite of generic models for renewable energy. plants and established guidelines for modeling solar PV plants. Central Station Photovoltaic Power Plant Model Validation Guideline dated June 17 2015. WECC solar PV Power Plant Dynamic Modeling Guide dated April 2014. WECC Guide for Representation of Photovoltaic Systems in Large Scale Load Flow Simulations. dated August 2010, These guidelines have been used extensively in producing the models for the solar PV plants. However recent tripping events due to system disturbance revealed some weakness of the modeling. approach At the same time the technology is advancing and there are new technical requirements for. solar PV generating resources The modeling guidelines need an update to include lessons learned and. consider alignment with the technical requirements. Figure 1 shows the typical solar PV plant topology The models in BPS studies consist of two parts. A power flow model based on station equipment and an equivalent representation of the. collector system and, A dynamic model representing a scaled up version of the typical solar PV inverter in the plant. To accurately capture the behavior of a solar PV plant both the power flow representation and. dynamic model must be configured correctly using sound engineering judgment and due diligence. Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Modeling and Validation Guideline. Figure 1 Typical Solar PV Power Plant Topology, For every central station solar PV plant the power flow model used in planning studies must include. an explicit representation of the station transformer s and an equivalent representation of the collector. system The impedance of the collector system and the inverter pad mounted transformer are non. negligible and should be included in the power flow model Equivalent solar PV inverters must not be. connected directly to a high voltage bus or to the low voltage side of a substation transformer. Over the period of interest for planning studies the behavior of a utility scale solar PV inverter is. driven primarily by its software or firmware and application specific control settings A key. simplifying assumption of the generic models created by the REMTF is that the dynamics associated. with the DC side of the inverter are neglected This was a conscious decision made with industry input. In many cases the dynamics associated with the DC side of the inverter are dominated by high. frequency content which is beyond the interest of bulk power system studies. The dynamic model for a central station solar PV plant includes 2 or 3 modules and has between 45 and. 75 unique parameters depending on whether a plant controller is in place The resulting model has a. WECC solar PV Power Plant Dynamic Modeling Guide dated April 2014 WECC Guide for Representation of Photovoltaic Systems in Large Scale Load Flow Simulations dated August 2010 The second generation RES models represent most of the solar PV plants in the Western Interconnection The guidelines above have been referred to extensively in producing the models for the solar PV plants

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