Simulation Verification And Automated Composition Of Web-Books Pdf

Simulation Verification and Automated Composition of Web
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composition tools and as a stand alone tool for simulation testing An atomic process is a non decomposable Web accessible. verification and automated composition of Web services program It is executed by a single e g http call and returns a. response It does not require an extended conversation between. the calling program or agent and the Web service, Critical to the vision of the semantic Web is the provision of a daml Class rdf ID AtomicProcess. markup language or in artificial intelligence AI terminology a daml subClassOf rdf resource Process. knowledge representation language that has a well defined daml Class. semantics to enable unambiguous computer interpretation The An example of an atomic process is the LocateBook service. language must also be sufficiently expressive to describe the that takes as input the name of a book and returns a description of. properties and capabilities of Web services Over the last several the book and its price if the book is in Congo s catalogue. years a number of semantic Web markup languages have been. proposed These include XML RDF and RDF S and most daml Class rdf ID LocateBook. recently DAML OIL 13 17 30 We have adopted DAML OIL rdfs subClassOf. as our content language for describing Web services and in rdf resource process AtomicProcess. daml Class,particular we have adopted DAML S, In contrast a composite process is composed of other composite. DAML OIL is an AI inspired description logic based language. or atomic processes through the use of control constructs These. for describing taxonomic information The DAML OIL language. constructs are typical programming language constructs such as. builds on top of XML and RDF S to provide a language with. sequence if then else while fork etc that dictate the ordering. both a well defined semantics and a set of language constructs. and the conditional execution of processes in the composition. including classes subclasses and properties with domains and. We provide a subset of the markup below, ranges for describing a Web domain DAML OIL can further. express restrictions on membership in classes and also restrictions daml Class rdf ID CompositeProcess. on domains and ranges including cardinality restrictions daml intersectionOf. rdf parseType daml collection, DAML S is a DAML OIL ontology for Web services developed daml Class rdf about Process. by a coalition of researchers1 under the auspices of the DARPA daml Restriction daml minCardinality 1. Agent Markup Language DAML program The latest release of daml onProperty rdf resource composedOf. this ontology is located at 8 and an earlier version is described daml Restriction. daml intersectionOf, 9 The DAML S ontology describes a set of classes and daml Class.
properties specific to the description of Web services The upper. ontology of DAML S comprises the service profile for describing rdf Property rdf ID composedOf. service advertisements the process model for describing the rdfs domain rdf resource CompositeProcess. actual program that realizes the service and the service grounding rdfs range rdf resource ControlConstruct. for describing the transport level messaging information rdf Property. associated with execution of the program The service grounding. is akin to the Web Service Description Language WSDL An example of a composite process might be the Find n Buy. service that composes LocateBook together with order request. It is the process model that provides a declarative description of and financial transaction services The composition constructs. the properties of the Web accessible programs we wish to reason allow for multiple different execution pathways to termination. about To illustrate the salient features of the DAML S process depending in this case on whether the book is sold by Congo is. model we use the example of a fictitious book buying service in stock and whether the user wishes to buy it. offered by the Web service provider Congo Inc The Congo. example was described in the original release of DAML S and its Associated with each process is a set of properties Using a. markup can be found at http www daml org services We use a program or function metaphor a process has parameters to which. variant of it here for illustration purposes it is associated Two types of parameters are the DAML S. properties input and conditional output, The process model conceives each program as either an atomic or. composite process It additionally allows for the notion of a rdf Property rdf ID parameter. simple process which is used to describe a view abstraction or rdfs domain rdf resource Process. rdfs range, default instantiation of the atomic or composite process to which rdf resource http www daml org Thing. it expands We focus here on atomic and composite processes rdf Property. daml Class rdf ID Process rdf Property rdf ID input. daml unionOf rdf parseType daml collection rdfs subPropertyOf rdf resource parameter. daml Class rdf about AtomicProcess rdf Property,daml Class rdf about SimpleProcess. daml Class rdf about CompositeProcess An input for LocateBook might be the name of the book. daml unionOf,daml Class rdf Property rdf ID bookName. rdfs subPropertyOf,rdf resource process input, DAML Services Coalition A Ankolekar M Burstein J Hobbs rdfs domain rdf resource LocateBook.
O Lassila D Martin D McDermott S McIlraith S Narayanan. M Paolucci T Payne K Sycara H Zeng, rdfs range rdf resource xsd string 2 rdf Property rdf ID precondition. rdf Property rdfs domain rdf resource Process,rdfs range. Inputs can be mandatory or optional In contrast outputs are rdf resource http www daml org Thing. generally conditional This is important For example when you rdf Property. search for a book in the Congo catalogue the output may be a. detailed description of the book if Congo carries it or it may be a Conditional effects characterize the physical side effects. Sorry we don t carry message Such outputs are characterized execution of a Web service has on the world An example of a. as conditional outputs We define a conditional output class that conditional effect for a BuyBook service might be. describes both a condition and the output based on this condition Own bookName when InStock bookName Note that. An unconditional output has a zero cardinality restriction on its not all services have physical side effects in particular services. condition that are strictly information providing do not The DAML S. markup for conditional effects is analogous to that for conditional. rdf Property rdf ID output outputs,rdfs domain rdf resource parameter. rdfs range rdf resource ConditionalOutput,rdf Property 3 THE SEMANTICS OF DAML S. The DAML S DAML OIL ontology provides a set of, daml Class rdf ID ConditionalOutput distinguished classes and properties for describing the content and.
daml subClassOf capabilities of Web services The DAML OIL language in which. rdf resource http www daml org Thing it is specified has a well defined semantics however the. daml Class expressive power of DAML OIL is not sufficient to restrict. DAML S to all and only the intended interpretations Our. rdf Property rdf ID coCondition, rdfs comment objective in this section is to describe a semantics for that portion. The condition of the conditional output of DAML S that is relevant to our work on Web service. rdfs comment composition In particular we ascribe a semantics to the notion of. rdfs domain rdf resource ConditionalOutput atomic and composite processes. rdfs range rdf resource Condition, rdf Property One compelling way to do this as has been done with the. semantics of DAML OIL 13 is to describe DAML S in a more. rdf Property rdf ID coOutput, rdfs comment expressive language such as first order logic and to add a set of. The output of the conditional output axioms to this theory that constrains the models of the theory to. rdfs comment all and only the intended interpretations Since DAML S is. rdfs domain rdf resource ConditionalOutput actually a process modeling language and its relationship to other. rdfs range process modeling languages is important to interoperability an. rdf resource http www daml org Thing even more compelling way to ascribe a semantics to DAML S is. rdf Property, to map it to the US National Institute of Standard s NIST. Process Specification Language PSL 29 PSL is a process. In addition to the program or function metaphor it is also useful specification ontology described in the situation calculus a. to use an action event or process metaphor to conceive services mostly first order logical language for reasoning about. In this context we can consider services to have the properties dynamical systems 28 PSL s role is to serve as the lingua. precondition and conditional effect Preconditions and franca for all business and manufacturing process specification. conditional effects are described analogously to inputs and languages Once the DAML S language is stabilized we should. conditional outputs easily be able to translate the situation calculus description in. Section 3 1 into the PSL ontology 15, Preconditions specify things that must be true of the world in.
order for an agent to execute a service A precondition of every. process is that the agent knows the input parameters of the 3 1 From DAML S to Situation Calculus. process For example one precondition for LocateBook is that The situation calculus language we use 28 is a first order logical. the agent Knows bookName Stipulating knowledge language for representing dynamically changing worlds in which. preconditions pertaining to the input parameters is redundant with all of the changes are the direct result of named actions performed. the input parameters and are only distinguished as knowledge by some agent Situations are sequences of actions evolving from. preconditions in the semantics Many Web services that are an initial distinguished situation designated by the constant S0 If. embodied as programs on the Web only have these preconditions a y 3 is an action and s a situation the result of performing a in s. At the level of abstraction we are modeling Web services there is the situation represented by the function do a s Functions and. are no physical preconditions to the execution of a piece of relations whose values vary from situation to situation called. software on the Web In contrast Web accessible devices may fluents are denoted by a predicate symbol taking a situation term. have many physical preconditions such as bandwidth resources or as the last argument e g Own bookName s Finally Poss a s. battery power is a distinguished fluent expressing that action a is possible to. perform in situation s, Observe that the range of many properties is currently stipulated. as Thing or string Some of these ranges will be changed to. well formed formulae in first order logic as soon as that ontology Actions are parameterized a y Where possible we suppress. is complete the parameters for the sake of parsimony. The dialect of the situation calculus that we use includes a means I e the fluent F is true in do a s iff an action made it true i e. of representing knowledge In particular there is a distinguished F x a s or it was already true and an action did not make it. fluent K s s that describes the accessibility relation between false i e F x s F x a s. situations The notation Knows s denotes that the formula is Own bookName do a s. known in situation s e g Knows Owns On the Road s The a BuyBook bookName Instock bookName s. notation Kwhether s is an abbreviation for a formula indicating Own bookName s a SellBook bookName. that the truth value of is known I e Kwhether s, Knows s Knows s Finally the abbreviation Kref s Successor state axioms for knowledge are discussed in 28. abbreviates a formula indicating that the functional value of is. known The situation calculus is fully described in 28 We Preconditions and inputs DAML S preconditions for an atomic. dispense with further details and focus here on the salient features process are represented as well formed formula in the situation. relevant to this paper calculus Each precondition of an atomic process is expressed as. a necessary condition for actions in the situation calculus. Atomic processes in DAML S are actions a y in the situation Poss a s i. calculus The input parameters of an atomic process are the where i is a formula relativized to s E g. parameters y of action a E g the atomic process BuyBook is the Poss CheckGPS location s Charged GPSbattery s. parameterized action BuyBook bookName,For multiple preconditions this generalizes to. Conditional effects and outputs The conditional effects of an Poss a s 1 2 n. atomic process are represented in the situation calculus as positive. and negative effect axioms of the following form Just as outputs are treated as knowledge effects so too are inputs. Poss a s F x a s F x do a s treated as knowledge preconditions semantically The agent must. Poss a s F x a s F x do a s know the value of the inputs to the service before it can execute. the service For example in order to execute LocateBook the. F x a s contains all the different combinations of actions and agent must know the values of all the inputs Hence for every. conditions that would make fluent F e g Own bookName s input i of an atomic process a. respectively true false after execution of the action The following Poss a s Kref 1 s Kref n s. is an example of a positive effect axiom for the BuyBook se. service at www amazon com is an example of a composite service A number of software systems are available to facilitate manual composition of programs and more recently Web services Such programs which include a diversity of workflow tools 1 12 and more recently service composition aids such as BizTalk

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