She Figures 2015 European Commission-Books Pdf

SHE FIGURES 2015 European Commission
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION,Directorate General for Research and Innovation. Directorate B Open Innovation and Open Science,Unit B 7 Science with and for Society. E mail RTD SIS7 SHE FIGURES 2015 ec europa eu,European Commission. B 1049 Brussels,EUROPEAN COMMISSION,SHE FIGURES 2015. 2016 Directorate General for Research and Innovation. Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers. to your questions about the European Union,Freephone number.
00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11, The information given is free as are most calls though some operators phone boxes or hotels may charge you. LEGAL NOTICE, Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which. might be made of the following information, The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views. of the European Commission, More information on the European Union is available on the internet http europa eu. Luxembourg Publications Office of the European Union 2016. Print ISBN 978 92 79 48372 1 doi 10 2777 064694 KI 04 15 386 EN C. PDF ISBN 978 92 79 48375 2 doi 10 2777 744106 KI 04 15 386 EN N. European Union 2016, Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Images shooarts 129463322 and foxie 143479270 Source Shutterstock com. SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation 3. Working towards gender equality is an essential part of European research and innovation policy Since. 2003 the She Figures have monitored new developments related to careers decision making and most. recently how the gender dimension is considered in research and innovation content. More and more European women are excelling in higher education and yet women represent only a third. of researchers and around a fifth of grade A top level academics Although the number of female heads. of higher education institutions rose from 15 5 in 2010 to 20 in 2014 there is clearly still a long way. to go before we reach gender equality in European research and innovation professions. Therefore I want to encourage research organisations to be the agents of change taking practical steps. to eliminate any remaining bias which prevent or hinder women from entering or fulfilling their potential. in research careers To this end this edition of the She Figures introduces new specific indicators on. gender equality progress in research organisations. I am pleased to note that political support for gender equality in European research and innovation. continues to find new momentum In December 2015 the Council of the European Union invited Member. States to set targets for gender balance among full professors and in research decision making bodies. I am therefore hopeful that the next edition of our She Figures will show further tangible progress as. a result of that clear political signal, The She Figures 2015 now also consider new areas such as patent applications and scientific publications. for the first time For example exploring to what extent the gender dimension is considered in scientific. articles The findings indicate that there is still much room for improvement. After close cooperation between the European Commission Member States and the countries associated. to Horizon 2020 the She Figures 2015 contains a wealth of national and EU level data I recommend. the findings for the careful consideration of policymakers research organisations and anyone working or. interested in European research and innovation, With the evidence before us Europe s research and innovation community must continue to take practical. steps to honour our gender equality commitments Ultimately we will only have the best research in. Europe when Europe provides the equal opportunities for its best researchers. Carlos Moedas,European Commissioner,for Research Science and Innovation. 4 SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation. Acknowledgements, Producing the She Figures 2015 has only been made possible through the concerted effort and input of. many individuals I would therefore like to thank the following people who made significant contributions. to this publication, The members of the Helsinki Group on Gender in Research and Innovation for offering their feedback.
on policy and scientific aspects, The Statistical Correspondents of the Helsinki Group on Gender in Research and Innovation for. providing the data and metadata for the Women in Science database as well offering additional. feedback on the text of the publication, Anna Rita Manca EIGE and Fernando Galindo Rueda OECD for providing scientific advice. ric Archambault David Campbell R mi Lavoie Beverley Mitchell Guillaume Roberge and Chantale. Tippett from Science Metrix Lucy Arora Katerina Mantouvalou and Nora Wukovits from ICF. International and Julie Callaert from KU Leuven for conceiving writing and editing the publication. and Helen Tomlinson for carrying out the stylistic editing of the text and proof reading. Corina Mihaela Niculet Bernard Felix and Piotr Ronkowski from Eurostat for offering technical advice. on data quality and methodological issues, Anca Dumitrescu Mich le Magermans Peter Whitten from the Directorate General for Research and. Innovation for their scientific input and practical support. Roberta Pattono Maria Allegrini Vera Fehnle Aurelia Vasile and Viviane Willis Mazzichi from the. Directorate General for Research and Innovation of the European Commission for their impetus and. overall co ordination of the project,Ana ARANO ANTELO. Head of Unit Science With and For Society,DG Research and Innovation.
SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation 5. Executive summary, She Figures 2015 investigates the level of progress made towards gender equality in research innovation. R I in Europe It is the main source of pan European comparable statistics on the representation of. women and men amongst PhD graduates researchers and academic decision makers The data also. sheds light on differences in the experiences of women and men working in research such as relative. pay working conditions and success in obtaining research funds It also presents for the first time the. situation of women and men in scientific publication and inventorships as well as the inclusion of the. gender dimension 1 in scientific articles, This publication is the fifth edition of the She Figures which has been updated and released every three. years since 2003 Despite progress She Figures 2015 reveals that a range of gender differences and. inequalities persist in research innovation as explained below. In recent decades there have been strides towards gender balance within the pool of higher education. graduates Chapter 2 Whilst women were once under represented at doctoral level in 2012 they. made up 47 of PhD graduates in the EU EU 28 and between 40 and 60 of PhD graduates in. all countries covered by the She Figures At the same time there are marked differences by sex when. it comes to the most popular subjects and educational pathways For instance men are more than two. times more likely than women to choose engineering manufacturing and construction whereas women. are twice as likely to pursue an education degree In 2012 women accounted for just 28 of PhD. graduates in engineering manufacturing and construction and only 21 of those graduating from. The under representation of women continues to characterise participation in science technology S T. occupations Chapter 3 For instance in more than half of the countries women are under represented. relative to men making up less than 45 of scientists and engineers At the level of the EU 28. women scientists and engineers made up 2 8 of the total labour force in 2013 whereas men made up. 4 1 However there has been some progress in this area the number of women amongst employed. scientists and engineers grew by an average of 11 1 per year between 2008 and 2011 at a faster rate. than the number of men which grew by 3 3 over the same period. Amongst researchers specifically the representation of women and men also remains uneven Chapter 4. In 2011 women in the EU accounted for only 33 of researchers EU 28 a figure unchanged since 2009. EU 27 In only eight out of 28 EU Member States did women account for more than 40 of researchers. Women in the EU have a stronger presence amongst researchers in the higher education and government. sectors In the business enterprise sector they make up close to one in five researchers 2011. She Figures 2015 reveals gender differences in the working conditions of researchers in the higher. education sector Chapter 5 Women are generally more likely than men to work part time and or to have. precarious contractual arrangements In the EU in 2012 13 5 of women in research were in part time. employment versus 8 5 of men and 10 8 had precarious contracts versus 7 3 of men However. the gender gap in part time employment rates is far lower amongst researchers in the higher education. sector than it is in the economy as a whole The gender pay gap persists in research in 2010 women s. average gross hourly earnings EU 28 were 17 9 lower than those of men in scientific research. development R D, 1 This means taking into account as relevant the biological characteristics and the social and cultural features of women and men. 6 SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation. In response to these issues research performing organisations have a unique role to play in developing. a working environment that supports gender equality particularly when it comes to career advancement. job quality and equal representation at the top levels The European Research Area ERA Survey points. the way to the actions that research organisations can take such as recruitment and promotion measures. targets to ensure gender balance in recruitment committees flexible career trajectories e g schemes. after career breaks work life balance measures and or support for leadership development According. to the ERA Survey of 2014 around 36 of research performing organisations RPOs indicated that they. had introduced gender equality plans in 2013, Striking gender inequalities persist when it comes to career advancement and participation in. academic decision making Chapter 6 In 2013 women made up only 21 of the top level researchers. grade A showing very limited progress compared to 2010 20 Despite significant progress in their. level of education relative to men over the last few decades women are increasingly under represented. as they move up the stages of an academic career At grade C level the difference with men stands at. 10 percentage points while at grade A level it reaches 58 percentage points This effect is even more. pronounced in the field of science and engineering where women represented only 13 of grade A staff. in 2013 A generational effect exists amongst grade A researchers in that women tend to occupy a higher. proportion of positions in the youngest age group 49 relative to the older age groups 22. In 2014 the proportion of women among heads of higher education institutions in the EU 28 rose. to 20 from 15 5 in the EU 27 in 2010 Within the EU 28 women make up 28 of scientific and. administrative board members and only 22 of board leaders. Women and men in research show different patterns in terms of their research innovation outputs. Chapter 7 Men in the EU tend to have greater success in funding applications in national programmes. outstripping women by 4 4 percentage points in 2013 success rate for men 31 8 rate for women. Women are less likely than men to hold the corresponding author role in scientific publications or to apply. for patents Between 2010 and 2013 just 9 of patent applications in the EU registered a woman. as the inventor However as corresponding authors women and men appear to have relatively similar. scores when it comes to the expected impact of their papers and their propensity to co author papers. with international partners i e papers published by authors from at least two countries located within. the EU and or beyond, In the period spanning from 2010 to 2013 the propensity to integrate a gender dimension in research.
content measured in scientific articles in the EU 28 ranged from virtually zero in agricultural sciences. engineering and technology and natural sciences to over 6 in the social sciences This proportion. increased in the EU faster than worldwide over the period spanning from 2002 to 2013 Although the. proportion of publications with a gender dimension is highest in the social sciences between 2002 and. 2013 the growth rate was lowest in this field Conversely engineering and technology had one of the. lowest proportions of publications with a gender dimension 0 1 in 2010 2013 but the highest growth. rate between 2002 and 2013 14, SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation 7. Table of contents,Chapter 1 Introduction 18,Chapter 2 The pool of graduate talent 20. Chapter 3 Participation in science and technology S T occupations 42. Chapter 4 Labour market participation as researchers 61. Chapter 5 Working conditions of researchers 100, Chapter 6 Career advancement and participation in decision making 126. Chapter 7 Research and innovation outputs 149, Appendix 1 Correspondence table between different editions of the she figures 181. Appendix 2 Methodological notes 186, Appendix 3 List of statistical correspondents of the helsinki group on Gender.
in research and innovation 212, 8 SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation. LIst of tables and figures, Figure 2 1 Proportion of women ISCED 6 graduates 2012 21. Figure 2 2 Proportion of women PhD graduates 2012 22. Table 2 1 Evolution of the proportion of women ISCED 6 and PhD graduates 2004 and 2012 23. Figure 2 3 Compound annual growth rate of ISCED 6 graduates by sex 2002 2012 25. Table 2 2 Proportion of women ISCED 6 graduates by broad field of study 2012 26. Table 2 3 Proportion of women PhD graduates by broad field of study 2012 27. Figure 2 4 Distribution of ISCED 6 graduates across broad fields of study by sex 2012 29. Table 2 4 Evolution of the proportion of women ISCED 6 graduates by narrow field. of study in natural sciences and engineering fields EF4 and EF5 2004 and 2012 31. Table 2 5 Evolution of the proportion of women PhD graduates by narrow field of study. in natural sciences and engineering fields EF4 and EF5 2004 and 2012 33. Table 2 6 Compound annual growth rates of ISCED 6 graduates by narrow field of study. in natural sciences and engineering by sex 2002 2012 34. Annex 2 1 Number of ISCED 6 graduates by sex 2008 2012 36. Annex 2 2 Number of PhD graduates by sex 2008 2012 37. Annex 2 3 Number of ISCED 6 graduates by broad field of study and by sex 2012 38. Annex 2 4 Number of PhD graduates by field of study and by sex 2012 39. Annex 2 5 Number of ISCED 6 graduates by narrow field of study and by sex. in natural sciences and engineering EF4 and EF5 fields 2012 40. Annex 2 6 Number of PhD graduates by narrow field of study and by sex. in natural sciences and engineering EF4 and EF5 fields 2012 41. SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation 9. Figure 3 1 Proportion of women in the EU 28 compared to total employment. the population of tertiary educated professionals and technicians HRSTC and the. population of scientists and engineers in 2013 and compound annual growth. rate for women and men 2008 2013 43, Figure 3 2 Tertiary educated and employed as professionals and technicians HRSTC as. a percentage of tertiary educated HRSTE population by sex 2013 44. Figure 3 3 Proportion of scientists and engineers in total labour force by sex 2013 46. Figure 3 4 Employment in knowledge intensive activities KIA 2013 47. Figure 3 5 Employment in knowledge intensive activities business industries KIABI 2013 48. Figure 3 6 Distribution of R D personnel across occupations in all sectors HES GOV BES. by sex 2012 49, Figure 3 7 Distribution of R D personnel across occupations for the higher education sector. by sex 2012 51, Figure 3 8 Distribution of R D personnel across occupations for the government sector.
by sex 2012 52, Figure 3 9 Distribution of R D personnel across occupations for the business. enterprise sector by sex 2012 53, Figure 3 10 Distribution of researchers across economic activities NACE Rev 2. in the business enterprise sector 2012 55, Table 3 1 Proportion of women researchers by economic activity NACE Rev 2. in the business enterprise sector 2012 56, Annex 3 1 Number of R D personnel across occupations for the higher education sector. by sex 2012 57, Annex 3 2 Number of R D personnel across occupations.
for the government sector by sex 2012 58, Annex 3 3 Number of R D personnel across occupations for the business. enterprise sector by sex 2012 59, Annex 3 4 Number of researchers in the business enterprise sector by economic activity. NACE Rev 2 and by sex 2012 60, 10 SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation. Figure 4 1 Proportion of women researchers 2012 63. Figure 4 2 Compound annual growth rate for researchers by sex 2005 2011 64. Figure 4 3 Researchers per thousand labour force by sex 2012 65. Figure 4 4 Distribution of researchers across sectors by sex 2012 66. Figure 4 5 Proportion of women researchers in the higher education sector 2012 68. Figure 4 6 Proportion of women researchers in the government sector 2012 69. Figure 4 7 Proportion of women researchers in the business enterprise sector 2012 70. Figure 4 8 Compound annual growth rate for researchers in the higher education. sector by sex 2005 2012 72, Figure 4 9 Compound annual growth rate for researchers in the government sector GOV. by sex 2005 2012 73, Figure 4 10 Compound annual growth rate for researchers.
in the business enterprise sector 2005 2012 74, Figure 4 11 Distribution of researchers in the higher education sector. by sex and age group 2012 76, Figure 4 12 Distribution of researchers in the government sector by sex and age group 2012 78. Table 4 1 Dissimilarity Index for researchers in the higher education sector and government. sector 2012 80, Table 4 2 Evolution of the proportion of women researchers in the higher. education sector by field of science 2005 2012 81, Table 4 3 Compound annual growth rates of women researchers in the higher. education sector by field of science 2005 2012 83, Figure 4 13 Distribution of researchers in the higher education sector HES.
across fields of science 2012 84, Table 4 4 Evolution of the proportion of women researchers in the government sector. by field of science 2005 2012 86, Table 4 5 Compound annual growth rate of women researchers in the. government sector by field of science 2005 2012 88. Figure 4 14 Distribution of researchers in the government sector GOV across fields. of science 2012 90, Table 4 6 Evolution in the proportion of women researchers in the business enterprise. sector by field of science 2005 2012 91, Annex 4 1 Number of researchers by sex 2008 2012 93. SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation 11. Annex 4 2 Number of researchers in the higher education sector by sex 2008 2012 94. Annex 4 3 Number of researchers in the government sector by sex 2008 2012 95. Annex 4 4 Number of researchers in the business enterprise sector by sex 2008 2012 96. Annex 4 5 Number of researchers in the higher education sector. by field of science and sex 2012 97, Annex 4 6 Number of researchers in the government sector by field of science and sex 2012 98.
Annex 4 7 Number of researchers in the business enterprise sector BES. by field of science and sex 2012 99, Figure 5 1 Part time employment of researchers in the higher education sector. out of total researcher population by sex 2012 102. Figure 5 2 Precarious working contracts of researchers in the higher education. sector out of total researcher population by sex 2012 104. Figure 5 3 Sex differences in the international mobility of researchers during their PhD 2012 106. Figure 5 4 Sex differences in international mobility in post PhD careers per country 2012 107. Table 5 1 Gender pay gap in the economic activity Scientific research. development and in the total economy 2010 109, Table 5 2 Gender pay gap in the economic activity Scientific research. development and in the total economy by age group 2010 110. Figure 5 5 Proportion of women researchers in FTE and R D expenditure in purchasing. power standards PPS per capita researcher 2012 112. Figure 5 6 R D expenditure in purchasing power standards PPS per capita. researcher in FTE by sector 2012 113, Figure 5 7 Proportion of RPOs that adopted gender equality plans 2013 116. Figure 5 8 Proportion of research development personnel working. in RPOs who adopted gender equality plans 2013 117. Table 5 3 Implementation of gender equality measures in RPOs 2013 118. Annex 5 1 Number of RPOs and R D Personnel covered by ERA Survey 2014 121. Annex 5 2 Number of RPOs that adopted gender equality measures 2013 122. Annex 5 3 Total intramural R D expenditure for the BES GOV and HES sectors. in million PPS 2012 123, Annex 5 4 International mobility rates of HES researchers during PhD by sex 2012 124. Annex 5 5 International mobility rates of HES researchers in post PhD careers by sex 2012 125. 12 SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation. Figure 6 1 Proportion of women and men in a typical academic career students. and academic staff EU 28 2007 2013 127, Figure 6 2 Proportions of women and men in a typical academic career in science.
and engineering students and academic staff EU 28 2007 2013 128. Table 6 1 Proportion of women academic staff by grade and total 2013 129. Figure 6 3 Evolution of the proportion of women in grade A positions 2010 and 2013 131. Figure 6 4 Percentage of grade A staff amongst all academic staff by sex 2013 132. Table 6 2 Proportion of women grade A staff by main field of science 2013 133. Figure 6 5 Distribution of grade A staff across fields of science by sex 2013 134. Figure 6 6 Glass Ceiling Index 2010 2013 136, Table 6 3 Proportion of women grade A staff by age group 2013 138. Figure 6 7 Distribution of grade A staff across age groups by sex 2013 139. Figure 6 8 Proportion of women heads of institutions in the higher education sector 2014 141. Table 6 4 Proportion of women heads of universities or assimilated institutions. based on capacity to deliver PhDs 2014 142, Figure 6 9 Proportion of women on boards members and leaders 2014 143. Annex 6 1 Number of academic staff by grade and sex 2013 145. Annex 6 2 Number of senior academic staff grade A by field of science and sex 2013 146. Annex 6 3 Number of academic staff grade A by age group and sex 2013 147. Annex 6 4 Number of heads of institutions in the higher education sector 2014 148. Figure 7 1 Women to men ratio of authorships when acting as corresponding author. in all fields of science 2011 2013 153, Table 7 1 Women to men ratio of scientific authorships when acting as corresponding. author by field of science 2007 2009 and 2011 2013 155. Table 7 2 Compound annual growth rate of the three year proportion of scientific. publications by women corresponding authors by field of science 2007 2013 157. Figure 7 2 Women to men ratio in the proportion of international co publications. i e papers published by authors from at least two countries located within. the EU and or beyond when acting as corresponding author. all fields of science 2011 2013 158, SHE FIGURES 2015 Gender in Research and Innovation 13. Table 7 3 Women to men ratio in the proportion of international i e both within EU. and beyond co publications when acting as corresponding author. by field of science 2007 2009 and 2011 2013 160, Table 7 4 Compound annual growth rate of the three year women to men ratio in the.
proportion of international i e both within EU and beyond co publications. when acting as corresponding author by field of science 2007 2013 161. Figure 7 3 Women to men ratio in terms of the average of relative impact factors ARIF. of their respective publications when acting as corresponding author. all fields of science 2011 2013 163, Table 7 5 Women to men ratio in terms of the average of relative impact factors ARIF. of their respective publications when acting as corresponding author. by field of science 2007 2009 and 2011 2013 165, Table 7 6 Compound annual growth rate of the three year women to men ratio. in the average of relative impact factors ARIF of their respective publications. when acting as corresponding author by field of science 2007 2013 166. Figure 7 4 Women to men ratio of inventorships all International Patent Classification IPC. sections 2010 2013 168, Table 7 7 Women to men ratio of inventorships by IPC section 2002 2005 and 2010 2013 169. Table 7 8 Compound annual growth rate of the four year proportion. of women inventorships by IPC section 2002 2013 171. Figure 7 5 Evolution of the funding success rate differences between. women and men 2010 2013 172, Table 7 9 Research funding success rate differences between women and men by field. of science 2013 174, Table 7 10 Proportion of a country s scientific publications including a gender dimension.
in their research content by field of science 2002 2005 and 2010 2013 175. Table 7 11 Compound annual growth rate of the four year proportion. of a country s scientific publications with a gender dimension. in their research content by field of science 2002 2013 177. Annex 7 1 Number of applicants and beneficiaries of research funding by sex 2010 2013 178. Annex 7 2 Number of applicants and beneficiaries of research funding by sex.

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