Setting Targets In Student Learning Objectives-Books Pdf

SETTING TARGETS IN STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES
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INTRODUCTION, As a goal setting process SLOs incorporate the core. elements of teaching they are based on standards, curriculum their use and results help inform instruction. and they are monitored and measured using assessment. Curriculum, At the intersection of these core elements is strategic data. use and SLOs Through a variety of assessment, techniques teachers constantly use qualitative and SLOs. quantitative data to monitor student learning and guage. the effectiveness of short and long term standards based Instruction Assessment. instruction The process of setting goals and monitoring. progress toward those goals is simply part of strong. instructional practice and participating in goal setting. processes increases the impact an educator has on student. In Rhode Island educators create SLOs based on long term learning goals for students When writing an. SLO teachers ask themselves the following three Essential Questions. 1 What are the most important knowledge skills I want my students to attain by the end of. the interval of instruction, 2 Where are my students now at the beginning of instruction with respect to the objective.
3 Based on what I know about my students where do I expect them to be by the end of the. interval of instruction and how will they demonstrate their knowledge skills. Once educators have answered the first two essential questions by identifying the Priority of Content and. examining baseline data and information they are ready to answer the third essential question and think. about where students should be at the end of the interval of instruction targets and how they will. demonstrate their skills knowledge evidence sources. A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF TARGET SETTING,AS PART OF THE SLO PROCESS. WHAT IS A TARGET AND WHY IS SETTING ONE AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE SLO PROCESS. The third essential question prompts educators to articulate the level of content knowledge or skills that. are critical for students to develop while in the educator s class this is the target s Writing a target. involves defining the level of content knowledge and skills that students will have at the end of the. interval of instruction A target is not simply a test score A. target may be expressed as a score on an assessment but that. score must represent a level of performance that reflects students. A target is not simply a, performance on critical content knowledge and skills Only after. you define the knowledge and skills that students will develop test score. can you find or create the right evidence source to allow students. to demonstrate these knowledge and skills along with defining cut scores if necessary. Furthermore, There must be a target for each student in the class represented by the SLO. The target should be measurable and, The target should be rigorous yet attainable for the interval of instruction in most cases the. target should be tiered to reflect students differing baselines. At its most basic target setting for SLOs occurs when educators describe. where students are in regards to the prioritized content knowledge or. skills at the beginning of the interval of instruction Point A and then. name a goal for where students will be in regards to that knowledge and. skills at the end of the interval of instruction Point B. One Rhode Island school leader described the SLO process and the act of setting targets as follows An. SLO is nothing more than a roadmap We have a destination but there are pits and stops along the way. where you pull over and use the map to reflect and to redirect where necessary so that you can get to that. destination, In order to set rigorous but realistic targets you need at least.
a basic idea of where students are starting that is baseline. It is important to note that data Tool 2 in the Assessment Toolkit along with the. accompanying online module discusses baseline data and. the three elements, information and how it can help with the target setting. included in the three process For a link to the resources please see page 15. essential questions are, It is important to note that the elements included. interconnected knowledge skills baseline data information targets and. assessments in the three essential questions are, interconnected targets are connected to student baseline data information and also to the assessment an. educator is using all of which is related to the content and skills of the objective statement. HOW DO YOU DETERMINE TARGETS THAT ARE RIGOROUS YET ATTAINABLE. While setting targets educators and evaluators are encouraged to consider what is rigorous yet attainable. for students But educators often ask How do you determine what is rigorous and attainable Setting. targets that are too rigorous so that they are unrealistic hurts students and teachers alike Conversely. setting targets that are not adequately rigorous can hurt students by lowering the expectations adults. have for them and decreasing necessary urgency for significant progress Finding a middle ground by. trying to answer this question directly is rarely fruitful. Alternatively educators and evaluators should use the following three questions to guide them as they. write review and approve SLO targets for students in the educator s class or course. 1 What does mastery or proficiency of the relevant course or grade level standards or. curriculum look like, 2 What amount of progress toward that mastery or proficiency represents a year s worth of. 3 What are the implications if students make a year s worth of learning. Answering the three questions above can be challenging but it s a vital task for educators to engage in. Ultimately it will help educators and districts as they simultaneously write SLOs develop their. comprehensive assessment systems and work toward larger educational goals As educators answer. these questions they can utilize data from prior SLOs to better evaluate the breadth and depth of content. rigor of target and student readiness for the next level of instruction. For additional guidance on answering the three core questions that educators and evaluators should use. to help them write review and approve SLO targets see below. 1 WHAT DOES MASTERY OR PROFICIENCY OF THE RELEVANT COURSE OR GRADE LEVEL. STANDARDS AND CURRICULUM LOOK LIKE, Once the content focus of an SLO has been set the teacher should think about or if possible discuss with.
colleagues what it would look like for students to demonstrate that learning. What would students know and be able to do by the end of the interval of instruction. How can students demonstrate what they know and are able to do. Does the evidence source selected for the SLO allow for them to demonstrate that knowledge and. understanding If so the next step is to determine the level of performance on that assessment that would. indicate basic proficiency by asking At what point would the teacher feel adequately confident that the. student has progressed or learned enough to be positioned for success in the next course or grade level. 2 WHAT AMOUNT OF PROGRESS TOWARD MASTERY OR PROFICIENCY REPRESENTS A. YEAR S WORTH OF LEARNING, A rough metric that can be helpful for teachers to keep in mind when setting preliminary targets is the. year s worth of learning Courses and curricula are aligned to standards that represent what is. expected to be learned over the period of instruction Teachers should first look to their standards and. curriculum to determine the skills and content knowledge students should have by the end of the interval. of instruction, While the default target for any SLO should reflect mastery. of the relevant course or grade level standards the reality is. that not all students begin with the same level of While the default target for any. preparedness Educators need to determine what a year s SLO should reflect mastery of the. worth of learning would look like for students who enter relevant course or grade level. significantly below or significantly above grade level standards the reality is that not. expectations and targets may be tiered to reflect,all students begin with the same. differentiated expectations for learning In all cases. educators should use their standards as a guide for level of preparedness. understanding what students should be mastering year to. 3 WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS IF STUDENTS MAKE A YEAR S WORTH OF LEARNING. If educators set targets that reflect a year s worth of learning as defined above they should consider what the. implications would be if students met those targets Ultimately if educators cannot say that targets support. students in being prepared for the next level of instruction narrowing or closing achievement gaps or. deepening their skills and content knowledge to a new and advanced level then they are not rigorous. For simplicity the following guidance is framed for educators whose interval of instruction is a full school. year However the guidance is equally applicable to educators who teach for an interval of instruction. less than a year Educators and evaluators should consider the following while reflecting on their targets for. For students meeting grade level expectations will they make enough progress so that they are. ready for the next level of instruction e g the next course or grade level Students who enter a. course with the necessary prerequisite knowledge or skills should be expected to master the relevant. course or grade level standards If they do not they will fall behind grade level expectations and an. achievement gap will have been created, For those students coming in behind grade level expectations does this amount of progress help. each student narrow or close maintain or widen an achievement gap While students in lower tiers. may have a lower absolute target reaching it may require them to make more progress than students with. higher targets resulting in a closing or narrowing of the achievement gap s At some point these students. who begin the course behind will need to make more than. a year s worth of learning otherwise they will never Since targets can be tiered. catch up Targets can be tiered but they should not calcify. they should not calcify, achievement gaps The need for fairness and appropriateness.
should be balanced by the need to challenge lower achieving achievement gaps. students and intensify their services and interventions to. catch up to their peers Obviously this is a challenge that cannot be addressed solely by an individual teacher. setting a target on an SLO The school and district must identify resources needed to help students who have. fallen behind catch up and close the achievement gap. For students who are coming in ahead of grade level expectations does this amount of progress. ensure that each student deepens their skills and content knowledge and continues to be. challenged to a new and advanced level Students who enter the course with prerequisite knowledge. or skills that exceed what is expected or required should deepen their learning or advance to the next set. of grade level skills If students do not make this amount of progress then they have lost their advanced. development, Targets for students who are English Language Learners or for those who have a disability require. additional consideration In some cases evidence may need to be differentiated for English Language. Learners to account for how they currently demonstrate content skills and knowledge All teachers. should ensure their content targets for English Language Learners are informed by students language. comprehension and communication skills Educators of students with IEPs should collaborate with other. teachers and staff members to review present levels of academic and functional performance and. historical data to set appropriate targets that narrow and ultimately close achievement gaps. THE PROCESS OF DETERMINING TARGETS FOR,STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES. There are seven steps for writing an SLO below and they are explained in greater detail in The Process for. Writing a Student Learning Objective A Guide for Educators in Rhode Island. STEPS FOR WRITING A STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVE,1 Write the Logistical Information. 2 Identify What s Most Important Priority of Content. 3 Gather and Analyze Baseline Data and Information. 4 Determine Target s for Students, a Choose the most appropriate type of target to utilize. The appropriateness of the type is very much dependent on the content. addressed by the SLO and in some cases the instrument available to measure. that learning In addition a single SLO might employ different types of targets. for different groups of students For more information on types of targets see. b Tier target s based on student starting points and supports. Look at baseline data and information and consider what a year s worth of. learning would look like for different students based on their starting points. Consider the variety and level of supports students will receive throughout the year. For more information on tiering targets see page 10. c Ask the reflection questions, For students entering on grade level will they make enough progress so that.
they are ready for the next level of instruction e g the next course or grade. For those students coming in behind grade level expectations does this amount. of progress help each student narrow or close maintain or widen an. ready for the next level of instruction e g the next course or grade level Students who enter a course with the necessary prerequisite knowledge or skills should be expected to master the relevant course or grade level standards If they do not they will fall behind grade level expectations and an achievement gap will have been created

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