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Selecting Centrifugal Pumps KSB SE
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Copyright by All rights reserved No part of 4th completely revised and ex. KSB Aktiengesellschaft this publication may be used panded edition 2005. Published by reproduced stored in or intro Layout drawings and. KSB Aktiengesellschaft duced in any kind of retrieval compo sition. Communications V5 system or transmitted in any KSB Aktiengesellschaft. 67225 Frankenthal Germany form or by any means electro Media Production V51. nic mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without ISBN 3 00 017841 4. the prior written permission of, the publisher, Table of contents 1 Nomenclature 6. 2 Pump Types 8 9, 3 Selection for Pumping Water 10. 3 1 Pump Data 10, 3 1 1 Pump Flow Rate 10, 3 1 2 Developed Head and Developed Pressure of the Pump 10. 3 1 3 Efficiency and Input Power 10, 3 1 4 Speed of Rotation 11.
3 1 5 Specific Speed and Impeller Type 11, 3 1 6 Pump Characteristic Curves 13. 3 2 System Data 16, 3 2 1 System Head 16, 3 2 1 1 Bernoulli s Equation 16. 3 2 1 2 Pressure Loss Due to Flow Resistances 18, 3 2 1 2 1 Head Loss in Straight Pipes 18. 3 2 1 2 2 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings 22, 3 2 2 System Characteristic Curve 26. 3 3 Pump Selection 28, 3 3 1 Hydraulic Aspects 28, 3 3 2 Mechanical Aspects 29.
3 3 3 Motor Selection 29, 3 3 3 1 Determining Motor Power 29. 3 3 3 2 Motors for Seal less Pumps 31, 3 3 3 3 Starting Characteristics 31. 3 4 Pump Performance and Control 34, 3 4 1 Operating Point 34. 3 4 2 Flow Control by Throttling 34, 3 4 3 Variable Speed Flow Contol 35. 3 4 4 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 36, 3 4 5 Series Operation 38.
3 4 6 Turning Down Impellers 38, 3 4 7 Under filing of Impeller Vanes 39. 3 4 8 Pre swirl Control of the Flow 39, 3 4 9 Flow Rate Control or Change by Blade Pitch Adjustment 39. 3 4 10 Flow Control Using a Bypass 40, 3 5 Suction and Inlet Conditions 41. 3 5 1 The NPSH Value of the System NPSHa 41, 3 5 1 1 NPSHa for Suction Lift Operation 43. 3 5 1 2 NPSHa for Suction Head Operation 44, 3 5 2 The NPSH Value of the Pump NPSHr 44.
3 5 3 Corrective Measures 45, 3 6 Effect of Entrained Solids 47. 4 Special Issues when Pumping Viscous Fluids 48, 4 1 The Shear Curve 48. 4 2 Newtonian Fluids 50, 4 2 1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics 50. 4 2 2 Influence on the System Characteristics 54, 4 3 Non Newtonian Fluids 54. 4 3 1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics 54, 4 3 2 Influence on the System Characteristics 55.
5 Special Issues when Pumping Gas laden Fluids 56, 6 Special Issues When Pumping Solids laden Fluids 57. 6 1 Settling Speed 57, 6 2 Influence on the Pump Characteristics 58. 6 3 Influence on the System Characteristics 59, 6 4 Operating Performance 59. 6 5 Stringy Fibrous Solids 59, 7 The Periphery 62, 7 1 Pump Installation Arrangements 61. 7 2 Pump Intake Structures 61, 7 2 1 Pump Sump 61, 7 2 2 Suction Piping 62.
7 2 3 Intake Structures for Tubular Casing Pumps 64. 7 2 4 Priming Devices 65, 7 3 Arrangement of Measurement Points 67. 7 4 Shaft Couplings 68, 7 5 Pump Nozzle Loading 69. 7 6 National and International Standards and Codes 69. 8 Calculation Examples, for all equations numbered in bold typeface 71. 9 Additional Literature 79, 10 Technical Annex Tables Diagrams Charts 80. Tables Tab 1 Centrifigal pump classification 8, Tab 2 Reference speeds of rotation 11.
Tab 3 Approximate average roughness height k for pipes 20. Tab 4 Inside diameter d and wall thickness s in mm and weight of. typical commercial steel pipes and their water content 20. Tab 5 Loss coefficients for various types of valves and fittings 23. Tab 6 Loss coefficients in elbows and bends 24, Tab 7 Loss coefficients for fittings 24 25. Tab 8 Loss coefficients for adapters 25, Tab 9 Types of enclosure for electric motors to EN 60 529 and. DIN VDE 0530 Part 5 30, Tab 10 Permissible frequency of starts Z per hour for electric motors 30. Tab 11 Starting methods for asynchronous motors 32. Tab 12 Vapour pressure density and kinematic viscosity of water at. saturation conditions as a function of the temperature 42. Tab 13 Influence of the altitude above mean sea level on the annual. average atmospheric pressure and on the corresponding. boiling point 43, Tab 14 Minimum values for undisturbed straight lengths of piping. at measurement points in multiples of the pipe diameter D 67. 1 Nomenclature, 1 A m2 Area, Nomenclature A m Distance between measuring point and pump.
a m mm Width of a rectangular elbow, B m mm Vertical distance from suction pipe to floor. Cv gpm Flow coefficient for valves defined as the flow. of water at 60 F in US gallons minute at a, pressure drop of 1 lb in2 across the valve. cD Resistance coefficient of a sphere in water flow. cT Solids content in the flow, D m mm Outside diameter maximum diameter. DN mm Nominal diameter, d m mm Inside diameter minimum diameter. ds m mm Grain size of solids, d50 m mm Mean grain size of solids.
f Throttling coefficient of an orifice, fH Conversion factor for head KSB system. fQ Conversion factor for flow rate KSB system, f Conversion factor for efficiency KSB system. g m s2 Gravitational constant 9 81 m s2, H m Head discharge head. Hgeo m Geodetic head, Hs m Suction lift, Hs geo m Vertical distance between water level and pump. reference plane for suction lift operation, Hz geo m Vertical distance between pump reference plane.
and water level for positive inlet pressure, HL m Head loss. H0 m Shut off head at Q 0, I A Electric current amperage. K Dimensionless specific speed type number, k mm m Mean absolute roughness. k Conversion factors kQ kH k HI method, kv m h Metric flow factor for valves defined as the. flow of water at 20 C in cubic metres per hour, at a pressure drop of 1 bar.
L m Length of pipe, Ls m Straight length of air filled pipe. M Nm Moment, NPSHr m NPSH required by the pump, NPSHa m NPSH available. Ns Specific speed in US units, n min 1 rpm Speed of rotation. nq min 1 Specific speed in metric units, P kW W Power input power. Nomenclature, pe Pressure in suction or inlet tank Indices Subscripts.
PN bar Nominal pressure a At outlet cross section of. p bar Pa Pressure rise in the pump pressure differen tial the system branching off. Pa N m2 Bl Referring to orifice bore, p bar Pa Pressure Pa N m2 10 5 bar d On discharge side at dis. pb mbar Pa Atmospheric pressure barometric charge nozzle flowing. pL bar Pa Pressure loss through, pv bar Pa Vapour pressure of fluid pumped dyn Denoting dynamic com. Q m3 s m3 h Flow rate capacity also in litre s ponent. qair Air or gas content in the fluid pumped E At the narrowest cross. Qoff m3 h Flow rate at switch off pressure section of valves Table 5. Qon m3 h Flow rate at start up pressure E At suction pipe or bell. R m mm Radius mouth inlet, Re Reynolds number e At inlet cross section of. S m Submergence fluid level above pump system e g in suction. immersion depth or inlet tank, s mm Wall thickness f Referring to carrier fluid. s m Difference of height between centre of pump im H Horizontal. peller inlet and centre of pump suction nozzle in Referring to inlet flow. T Nm Torque K Referring to curvature, t C Temperature L Referring to losses.
U m Length of undisturbed flow m Mean value, U m Wetted perimeter of a flow section max Maximum value. VB m3 Suction tank volume min Minimum value, VN m3 Useful volume of pump sump N Nominal value. v m s Flow velocity opt Optimum value at best, w m s Settling velocity of solids efficiency point BEP. y mm Travel of gate valve distance to wall P Referring to pump. Z 1 h Switching cycle frequency of starts p Referring to pressure. z Number of stages r Reduced for cutdown im, zs d m Height difference between pump discharge and peller or impeller vanes. suction nozzles s On suction side at suc, tion nozzle.
Angle of change in flow direction opening angle s Referring to solids. Angle of inclination stat Static component, Loss coefficient sys Referring to system. Efficiency installation, Pa s Dynamic viscosity t Referring to impeller. Pipe friction factor prior to trimming, m2 s Kinematic viscosity V Vertical. kg m3 Density w Referring to water, N m2 Shear stress z Referring to viscous fluid. f N m2 Shear stress at yield point 0 Basic position referred. Temperature factor opening angle of a butter to individual sphere. fly valve cos power factor of asynchronous 1 2 3 Consecutive numbers. motors items, Head coefficient dimensionless head generated I II Number of pumps oper.
by impeller ated, 2 Pump Types Examples, 2 the position of the shaft hori Other pump classification. Pump Types zontal vertical features include, Typical selection criteria for the pump casing radial e g the mode of installation which. centrifugal pumps are their volute casing axial e g is dealt with in section 7 1. design data flow rate or capac tubular casing the nominal diameter for the. ity Q discharge head H speed, the number of impeller entries pump size as a function of. of rotation n and NPSH the, single entry double entry the flow rate. properties of the fluid pumped, the application the place of the type of motor dry mo the rated pressure for the.
installation and the applicable tor dry rotor motor e g wall thickness of casings and. regulations specifications laws submerged motor wet rotor flanges. and codes KSB offers a broad motor e g canned motor the temperature for example. range of pump types to meet the submersible motor for the selection of cooling. most varied requirements These features usually determine equipment for shaft seals. Main design features for classifi what a pump type or series the fluid pumped abrasive. cation are looks like An overview of typi aggressive toxic fluids. cal designs according to classi, the number of stages single the type of impeller radial. fication features is given below, stage multistage flow axial flow depending on. Table 1 and Figs 1a to 1p, the specific speed, Table 1 Centrifugal pump classification the self priming ability. Number of stages Single stage Multistage the casing partition the posi. Shaft position Horizontal Vertical Horiz Vertic tion of the pump nozzles an. Casing design Radial Axial Radial Axial Stage casing outer casing etc. Impeller entries 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1, Motor type Fig 1. Dry standardized, motor a b c d e f g h, Magnetic drive i.
Submerged dry rotor, motor See 3 3 2 j k l m, Wet rotor motor. See 3 3 2 n o p, Pump Types Examples 2, Fig 1 a to p. o p Centrifugal pump classification, acc to Table 1. 3 Flow Rate Head Efficiency Input Power, 3 same head H to various fluids vd Flow velocity in the dis charge. Selection for Pumping Water with the same kinematic viscos nozzle 4 Q pdd2 in m s. This section applies mainly to ity regardless of their density vs Flow velocity in the suction. pumping water the particulari This statement applies to all nozzle 4 Q pds2 in m s. ties of pump selection for other centrifugal pumps. Q Flow rate of the pump at, media are treated in sections 4 The total developed head H the respective nozzle in m3 s.
5 and 6 mani fests itself according to, d Inside diameter of the re. Bernoulli s equation see section, spective pump nozzle in m. 3 1 3 2 1 1 as, Pump Data p Pressure rise in N m2 for. the pressure head Hp propor, conversion to bar 1 bar. 3 1 1 tional to the pressure differ, Pump Flow Rate 100 000 N m2.
ence between discharge and, The pump flow rate or capacity suction nozzles of the pump High density fluids therefore. Q is the useful volume of fluid increase the pressure rise and. the geodetic head zs d Figs 8, delivered to the pump discharge the pump discharge pressure. and 9 i e the difference in, nozzle in a unit time in m3 s The discharge pressure is the. height between discharge and, l s and m3 h are also used in sum of the pressure rise and the. suction nozzles of the pump, prac tice as are GPM in the US inlet pressure and is limited by.
The flow rate changes propor the strength of the pump casing. the difference of the kinetic The effect of temperature on the. tion ally to the pump speed of, energy head vd2 vs2 2g be pump s strength limits must also. rota tion Leakage flow as well, tween the discharge and suc be considered. as the internal clearance flows, tion nozzles of the pump. are not considered part of the, pump flow rate The pressure rise p in the. pump considering the location Efficiency and Input Power. of the pressure measurement, 3 1 2 The input power P of a pump.
taps according to section 7 3, Developed Head and also called brake horsepower. is determined solely by the pres, Developed Pressure of is the mechanical power in. the Pump sure head Hp along with the, kW or W taken by the shaft or. fluid density r according to the, The total developed head H of coupl ing It is proportional to. a pump is the useful mechani the third power of the speed of. cal energy in Nm transferred rotation and is given by one of. p g H zs d vd2 vs2 2g, by the pump to the flow per the following equations.
weight of fluid in N expressed 1, in Nm N m also used to be. called metres of fluid 1 The where, head develops proportionally Density of the fluid being. to the square of the impeller s pumped in kg m3, speed of rotation and is inde g Gravitational constant. 8 Table 1 Centrifugal pump classification Number of stages Single stage Multistage Shaft position Horizontal Vertical Horiz Vertic Casing design Radial Axial Radial Axial Stage casing

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